• Title, Summary, Keyword: β-hydroxybutyric acid

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Formatotrophic Production of Poly-β-hydroxybutyric Acid (PHB) from Methylobacterium sp. using Formate as the Sole Carbon and Energy Source

  • Cho, Dae Haeng;Jang, Min Gee;Kim, Yong Hwan
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.719-721
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    • 2016
  • Formate has been considered as an environmentally sustainable feedstock that can be used to accelerate the production of valuable chemicals. This study presents brief results of the formatotrophic production of Poly-${\beta}$-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Methylobacterium sp. To evaluate the production of PHB, five species of Methylobacteria were tested using formate as the sole carbon and energy source. Methylobacterium chloromethanicum CM4 exhibited the highest productivity of PHB, which showed 1.72 g/L PHB production, 32.4% PHB content, and 0.027 g-PHB/g-formate PHB yield. These results could be used for the formatotrophic production of PHB with the concurrent reduction of $CO_2$ to formate.

Determination of plasma ketone body following oximation-trimethylsily| derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (혈장 중 케톤체의 옥심-TMS 유도체화 후 GC-MS/SIM을 이용한 분석)

  • Yoon, Hye-Ran
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2016
  • A ketone body (acetoacetic acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) increases from blood or urine when bio-energy dependence pays more fatty acid than glucose. However, in case oxidation of fat is greater than the capacity of the citric acid cycle the fatty acid oxidation is made from acetoacetyl CoA to acetoacetate then, again form β-hydroxyburytic acid to acetone, the diffusion take place into the blood. Enzymes that oxidize ketone body in the brain and nerve tissue blood ketone dody is increased during prolonged fasting, brain used it as energy. In this study, we developed the rapid two step derivatization method for sensitive detection of the ketone body by GC-MS/SIM. The plasma was deproteinized and then the hydroxy and carboxyl groups of ketone body are subjected to extraction and drying then, keto-group were derivatized with hydoxylamine at 60℃ for 30 min for oximation. Then it was trimetyl-silylated with BSTFA at 80℃ for 30 min and analyzed using a GC-MS. The linear ranges were in between 0.001 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL for β-hydroxy butyrate, and acetoacetate. The method detection limits were below 0.1 pg over each target compound determined. The mean recoveries (%) of target compounds were ranged from 88.2 % to 92.3 % at 1 µg/mL, from 89.5 % to 94.8 % at 10 μg/mL, with RSD of 6.3-9.4 %. This method could be applied to quantification of ketone bodies which are seen in the keto-acidosis in children and adults from a variety of diseases that cause ketones in the blood and urine.

Impact of environmental factors on milk β-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone levels in Holstein cattle associated with production traits

  • Ranaraja, Umanthi;Cho, Kwang Hyun;Park, Mi Na;Choi, Tae Jung;Kim, Si Dong;Lee, Jisu;Kim, Hyun Seong;Do, Chang Hee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.394-400
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the environmental factors affecting milk ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and acetone (Ac) concentrations in Holstein cattle. A total of 264,221 test-day records collected from the Korea Animal Improvement Association (KAIA) during the period of 2012 to 2014 were used in this study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the factors significantly affecting ketone body concentrations. Parameters considered in the model were season of test, season of calving, parity, lactation stage, and milk collecting time (AM and PM). According to the ANOVA, the $R^2$ for milk BHBA and Ac were 0.5226 and 0.4961, respectively. 'Season of test' showed a considerable influence on ketone body concentration. Least square (LS) means for milk BHBA concentrations was the lowest ($39.04{\mu}M$) in winter while it increased up to $62.91{\mu}M$ in summer. But Ac concentration did not significantly change along with 'season of test'. The means of milk BHBA and Ac concentrations were high at first lactation stage, low around second lactation stage, and then gradually increased. Cows milked in the morning had lower mean BHBA and Ac concentrations ($48.49{\mu}M$ and $121.69{\mu}M$, respectively) in comparison to those milked in the evening ($53.46{\mu}M$ and $130.42{\mu}M$, respectively). The LS means of BHBA and Ac slightly increased over parities. These results suggest that proper maintenance of milk collection, herd management programs, and evaluation of ketone body levels in milk should be considered for the efficient management of resistance to ketosis.

Effects of Lonicera japonica extract on performance, blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress during perinatal period in dairy cows

  • Zhao, Yiguang;Tang, Zhiwen;Nan, Xuemei;Sun, Fuyu;Jiang, Linshu;Xiong, Benhai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1096-1102
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    • 2020
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Lonicera japonica extract (LJE) on milk production, rumen fermentation and blood biomarkers of energy metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress during the perinatal period of Holstein dairy cows. Methods: Eighteen Holstein dairy cows were used in a complete randomized design experiment with 3 dietary treatments and 6 cows per treatment. All cows received the same basal total mixed ration (TMR) including a prepartal diet (1.35 Mcal of net energy for lactation [NEL]/kg of dry matter [DM], 13.23% crude protein [CP]) from -60 d to calving and a postpartal diet (1.61 Mcal of NEL/kg of DM, 17.39% CP) from calving to 30 days in milk (DIM). The 3 dietary treatments were TMR supplemented with LJE at 0 (control), 1 and 2 g/kg DM, respectively. LJE was offered from 21 d before calving to 30 DIM. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were measured daily after calving. Milk and rumen fluid samples were collected on 29 and 30 d after calving. On -10, 4, 14, and 30 d relative to calving, blood samples were collected to analyze the biomarkers of energy metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. Results: Compared with control diet, LJE supplementation at 1 and 2 g/kg DM increased DMI, milk yield and reduced milk somatic cell count. LJE supplementation also decreased the concentrations of blood biomarkers of pro-inflammation (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and haptoglobin), energy metabolism (nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyric acid) and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen metabolites), meanwhile increased the total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase concentrations in blood. No differences were observed in rumen pH, volatile fatty acid, and ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentrations between LJE supplemented diets and the control diet. Conclusion: Supplementation with 1 and 2 g LJE/kg DM could increase DMI, improve lactation performance, and enhance anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities of dairy cows during perinatal period.

Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle

  • Lee, SeokHyun;Cho, KwangHyun;Park, MiNa;Choi, TaeJung;Kim, SiDong;Do, ChangHee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1530-1540
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.