• Title, Summary, Keyword: 가공계수

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A review on processing factors of pesticide residues during fruits processing (과일류 가공 중 잔류농약 가공계수에 관한 고찰)

  • Im, Moo-Hyeog;Ji, Yu-Jeong
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.189-201
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    • 2016
  • A processing factor (PF) has been used to define the maximum residue limits of pesticide in a variety of processed fruit products. This study summarizes PF by the stage of fruit processing based on JMPR reports from 2010 to 2014. When we compared PF of 19 pesticides in apple products during the processing of washing, drying, canning, juice, sauce, puree and pomace, PF was higher than 1 only in pomace. In the comparison of 21 pesticides during the process of grape (washing, juice, wine and raisin), PF was higher than 1 in raisin. In the comparison of 19 pesticides during the process of orange (juice, oil and marmalade), PF was higher than 1 in oil. When 27 pesticides were compared during the process of tomato (juice, puree and paste), paste showed the highest PF value except pomace. During the process of plum (washing, drying and puree) with 12 pesticides, PF was higher than 1 in drying. The correlation coefficients between physical characteristics of pesticide (fat-solubility and volatility) and PF were statistically significant in the processes of apple juice, orange juice, tomato puree and paste and strawberry jam.

Studies on the Processing Factors of Pesticide in Dried Carrot from Field Trial and Dipping Test (포장 및 침지실험 당근의 건조에 의한 농약 가공계수 산출 연구)

  • Park, Kun-Sang;Suh, Jung-Hyuck;Choi, Jeong-Heui;Kim, Sun-Gu;Lee, Hyo-Ku;Shim, Jae-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to produce the processing factors of pesticides in dried carrot. It is essential data for establishing the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of pesticides in dried carrot. The target pesticides were azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, captan, endosulfan and triclorfon. These pesticides are included Korea's MRL list in carrot and USA's MRL list in dried foods. To infiltrate these pesticides up to each MRL level in carrot, the dipping test was performed in laboratory. Also, the supervised residue trial of the pesticide for carrot was conducted in the green house to recognize the field trial's tendency. In the dipping test in laboratory (including drying examination), the processing factors of the carrot at various concentrations and temperatures could be evaluated. In field test, the processing factors were 5.9 for azinphos-methyl, 1.7 for captan, 7.6 for chlorpyrifos, 6 for endosulfan, 0 for trichlorfon, respectively. The dipping test in laboratory on various kinds of conditions showed more precise processing factors than field trial. The processing factors obtained from the dipping test of carrot were 0~4.7 at the various concentration of the pesticides, and 0~6.7 at various drying temperature. The lower level processing factors were 0~0.6 for trichlorfon and the higher level were 3.0~5.8 for chlorpyrifos. The highest processing factor was 9.1 for captan.

Residual characteristics and processing factors of azoxystrobin during eggplant and lettuce processing (가지와 상추의 가공 중 azoxystrobin의 잔류량 변화 및 가공계수)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ah;Seo, Jeong-A;Lee, Hye-Su;Im, Moo-Hyeog
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to investigate changes in pesticide residues in eggplant and lettuce during washing and cooking processes after application with azoxystrobin. Eggplant was processed with running washing, steaming, and stir-frying, and lettuce was processed with soaking washing, running washing, soaking and running washing, ultrasonic cleaning, and blanching. The limit of quantitation of GC analysis of azoxystrobin was 0.01 mg/kg and the recovery rate was 84.7-109.5%. The azoxystrobin processing factors (PFs) and reduction rates in eggplant and lettuce were calculated and the results were as follows. In the case of eggplant, the azoxystrobin PF and reduction rate of running washing were 0.29 and 71.1%, respectively, those of steaming were 0.32 and 68.0%, respectively, and those of stir-frying were 0.24 and 75.7%, respectively. In the case of lettuce, the azoxystrobin PF and reduction rate of soaking washing were 0.25, 75.3%, those of running washing were 0.61 and 38.9%, respectively, those of soaking and running washing were 0.32, 68.0%, those of ultrasonic cleaning were 0.47 and 53.1%, respectively, and those of blanching were 0.26 and 73.6%, respectively. It could be identified that pesticide residues in eggplant and lettuce can be effectively reduced through washing and cooking processes and that most of pesticide residues were removed when cooking processes were undergone after washing. Therefore, azoxystrobin PFs after washing and processing can be provided as basic data for risk assessment.

Processing and Reduction Factors of Pesticide Residues in Chinese Matrimony Vine and Jujube by Drying (구기자와 대추 중 잔류농약의 건조에 따른 가공계수 및 감소계수)

  • Lee, Eun-Young;Noh, Hyun-Ho;Park, Young-Soon;Kang, Kyung-Won;Lee, Kwang-Hyen;Park, Hyo-Kyung;Kwon, Chan-Hyeok;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kyung, Kee-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to elucidate changes in concentration of pesticide residues in Chinese matrimony vine and jujube during drying. Test pesticides, triadimefon and triforine for chinese matrimony vine and methoxyfenozide and thiacloprid for jujube, which are commonly used for the crops in Korea, were treated to the crops by spraying and dipping. The pesticide residues in both fresh and dried Chinese matrimony vine and jujube were analyzed by using a GLC-ECD and an HPLC-DAD. Processing factors of the pesticides in Chinese matrimony vine and jujube by drying ranged from 1.41 to 2.28 and from 1.50 to 4.20, respectively. And reduction factors of the pesticides in the crops ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 and from 0.68 to 0.98, respectively. These results indicate that concentrations of the pesticides in the test crops increased after drying, while amounts of pesticides in them were diminished by drying.

A review on pesticide processing factors during processing of rice and barley based on CODEX (CODEX의 쌀과 보리에 대한 농약 가공계수 고찰)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ah;Im, Moo-Hyeog
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.3
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2019
  • This study summarized processing factor (PF) by the stage of rice and barley processing based on JMPR reports from 2006 to 2016. We compared PF of 17 pesticides in rice products during the processing of rice grain, husked rice, polished rice, hulls, bran and cooked rice. Among the 17 pesticides, 12 pesticides except for 5 pesticides such as acephate, methamidophos, glufosinate, quinclorac and sulfoxaflor mostly decreased in pesticides when rice grain processed into brown rice. Pesticides tended to be partially reduced when processed from husked rice to polished rice. However, hulls and bran produced during the milling process were concentrated. Acephate and others, 5 pesticides are systemic pesticides, and pesticides are penetrated into foods, and a large amount of pesticides was not removed during the milling process. The remaining pesticide residues in polished rice were mostly removed after processing into cooked rice, and trace amounts of pesticide residues remained. In the comparison of 23 pesticides PF during the processing of barley products (pearl barley, flour, short, malt, beer, hulls and bran). Most of the pesticide except for 4 pesticide (ethephon, pyraclostrobin, penthiopyrad, sulfoxaflor), which are systemic pesticides, decreased during the process of pearl barley production out of the barley grain. The pesticide in the malt, which was made by steeping pearl barley was concentrated but when processed into beer, pesticide was remained only in trace amounts.

A Study on Overhead Distribution Conductors for Modulus of Elasticity and Coefficient of Linear Expansion (가공배전선 탄성계수 및 선팽창계수 성능측정 연구)

  • Wong, Yoon-Chan;Cho, Si-Hyung;Park, Jung-Shin;Kim, Byung-Geol;Kim, Sang-Soo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.7-8
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    • 2006
  • 가공배전선로의 이도는 탄성계수와 선팽계수에 따라 온도 및 장력의 변화에 대하여 다른 변화를 나타낸다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 정확한 이도설계와 선로의 장기신뢰성 확보를 위해 배전선 주요 규격에 대하여 탄성계수와 선팽창계수를 실측하여 계산값과 측정값에 어떠한 차이가 있는지를 비교하였다. 시험결과 전선의 탄성계수와 선팽창계수는 제작공정상의 여러 요인들에 의하여 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났으며, 이도설계시 탄성계수와 선팽창계수는 배전선의 측정값을 적용하는 것이 바람직 한 것으로 나타났다.

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Studies for the Processing Factors of Pesticides during the Milling of Wheat Grain (밀의 제분에 따른 밀가루 중 농약 가공계수 산출 연구)

  • Park, So-Young;Park, Kun-Sang;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Choi, Hoon;Chang, Moon-Ik;Kwon, Chan-Hyeok;Kim, Sun-Gu;Lee, Hyo-Ku;Hong, Moo-Ki;Shim, Jae-Han;Kim, Jeong-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 2009
  • Processing factors of pesticides in milling process of wheat grain, which are consumed and imported at large quantity were examined to establish reasonable MRL of the processed food. Azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, and trichlorfon were selected for the study according to annual usage and the previous detection record in wheat grain. Dipping process for pesticide application was performed in laboratory, while milling process was conducted under pilot plant system. Processing factors were calculated by analyzing residual pesticides on wheat grain and processing products as wheat flour, bran and red dog. Processing factors were 0.05 for azinphos-methyl, 0.06 for chlorpyrifos, 0.05 for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 0.07 for fenitrothion, 0.07 for malathion, 0.06 for trichlorfon, respectively. Recovery test was also performed to establish extraction efficiency of analytical procedure. The recovery value ranged from 93.2% to 98.6% with standard deviation of 0.1-0.9%.

Fabric Weave Structural Design of the Woven Fabrics (직물의 설계 디자인)

  • Kim, Seung-Jin
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2010
  • This paper surveys basic research for data base system of the fabric structural design. For this purpose, the weave density coefficients of the worsted and cotton fabrics are analysed and discussed with cover factors suggested by Prof. Walz and Picanol company. And the relationship between weave density coefficients and cover factors of the worsted and cotton woven fabrics was analysed and discussed with weave pattern and yarn count. Finally, the process shrinkages of dyeing and finishing processes according to the weave density coefficients of the worsted and cotton fabrics were analysed and discussed as a preliminary study for the data base system of the fabric structural design. As a result, the density coefficients, K values of the worsted and cotton fabrics were ranged from 600 to 1000, and the weave density coefficients of those fabrics are ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 and from 0.2 to 1.0, respectively. The finishing shrinkages for the worsted fabrics are ranged from 2% to 10%, and for cotton fabrics, it was from 2% to 20%. The weave density coefficients of the worsted and cotton fabrics could be distributed according to the looms, weave pattern and weaving and finishing shrinkages as a concept of the data base for the fabric structural design.

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On the Processing and Reduction Factors of Several Pesticides with Welsh Onion (건조 대파의 잔류농약 가공 및 감소계수 연구)

  • Park, So-Yeon;Kang, Hye-Rim;Ko, Kang-Young;Gil, Keun-Hwan;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2009
  • In order to calculate the processing and reduction factor between fresh and dry Welsh onion which was widely used as a dried agricultural ingredient of food in Korea. 7 pesticides such as pyridalyl, kresoxim-methyl, spinosad, flufenoxuron, difenoconazole, metconazole, and tebufenozide were tested. After 2 sites field trial conducted and measured water contents by drying at $60^{\circ}C$ and analyzed the pesticide residue. Water contents of fresh and dried Welsh onion are 89.2 and 10.2% respectively. Averages of processing factor showed 7.24 of pyridalyl, 2.85 of kresoxim-methyl, 7.43 of spinosad, 3.17 of flufenoxuron, 4.38 of difenoconazole, 2.40 of metconazole and 8.13 of tebufenozide into 2 field samples. Averages of Reduction factor showed 0.87 of pyridalyl, 0.35 of kresoxim-methyl, 0.88 of spinosad, 0.38 of flufenoxuron, 0.52 of difenoconazole, 0.29 of metconazole and 0.98 of tebufenozide. Residual amounts of pesticides in/on fresh Welsh onion reduced during drying process.

Residual Characteristics and Processing Factors of Environment Friendly Agricultural Material Rotenone in Chilli Pepper (친환경 농자재 rotenone의 홍고추 중 잔류특성 및 가공계수)

  • Noh, Hyun Ho;Lee, Jae Yun;Park, So Hyun;Jeong, Oh Seok;Choi, Ji Hee;Om, Ae Son;Kyung, Kee Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.302-307
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to elucidate residual characteristics of environment friendly agricultural material rotenone in chilli pepper and calculate processing factors by drying. The test material was sprayed twice onto chilli peppers at an interval of seven days and then the chilli peppers were harvested at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after final spray. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of rotenone in fresh and dried chilli peppers were 0.03 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. Recoveries of the test material in fresh and dried chilli peppers ranged from 89.52 to 97.86% and from 85.76 to 91.61%, respectively. As a results of residual material analysis, amounts of rotenone in fresh and dried chilli peppers ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 mg/kg and from 0.07 to 0.75 mg/kg, respectively, representing that the residual amounts of rotenone decreased time-coursely. Processing factors of rotenone in fresh chilli pepper by drying were found to be from 2.03 to 3.13, indicating that the residual concentration of rotenone in dried chilli pepper increased from two to three times by drying. However, the reduction factor of rotenone in fresh chilli pepper by drying ranged from 0.38 to 0.59, representing that some of rotenone in fresh chilli pepper disappeared during the drying process.