• Title, Summary, Keyword: 가교화

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Developing National Science Assessment System:Scientific Knowledge Domain (국가 수준의 과학 지식 평가 체제 개발)

  • Kwon, Jae-Sool;Choi, Byung-Soon;Kim, Chan-Jong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.601-615
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    • 1998
  • Establishing and evaluating science education policies and revising and monitoring the effectiveness of science curriculum should be based upon the results of systematic and scientific research studies. Advanced nations have already been administering and developing national level science assessments for these purposes. The science assessments administered in Korea have been reported having many limitations and problems, and not succeeded in providing data for science education policy making and curriculum reform. The major purpose of the study is developing national level science knowledge assessment system in order to identify longitudinal trends of elementary and secondary school students science knowledge achievements. The research team consisted of science education experts and teachers from various school levels, decided the directions and major elements of national level science knowledge assessment with the consultation of educational evaluation experts. Item developing ability of the researchers was improved by seminars? and workshops on national assessment in advanced nations and developing skills of writing science items. Nearly 500 items were developed and revised. Pilot test was administered with 958 students at various school levels. 380 items were selected and tested with 8766 students, and the characteristics were analyzed in terms of item response theory. The target populations for national level science knowledge assessment are 5th-grade of elementary school, 2nd-grade of middle school, 1st and 2nd-grade of high school students. The proper period for the assessment is February every year. Multi-stage clustered sampling method is desirable and rotated forms are recommendable for the test format. Bridge items should be introduced to compare the results of multiple tests, and various grades. Anchor items should also be used for longitudinal interpretations of the results. The items for elementary school require low to medium abilities, for middle school and first grade of high school require medium to high abilities and for 2nd-grade of high school high abilities. The discrimination ability of the items developed is high.

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A Study on Factors Affecting Youth Employee's Labor Mobility and Employment Status Transition (청년취업자의 노동이동 및 고용형태 전환에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Ban, Jung-Ho;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Huy
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.73-103
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    • 2005
  • This study takes of youth panel data(2002-2003), there is the purpose to know to youth employed's labor mobility conditions of employment status conversion and examine on factors affecting conversion of employment status. Main analysis result and policy imply, is as following. First, although youth employed's non-standard employment shows some decrease, employment youth hierarchy was construed that youth of our country is consisting very changefully because appear great turnover that is converted by unemployment or Not economically activity population same period. Specially, non-standard employment phenomenon of woman or low in scholarship person appeared notedly, and because phenomenon that is converted by unemployment or Not economically activity population is expose that is deepened, discriminating policy of government dimension is required for employment stabilization of these class. Second, show result that danger to escape to non-standard job risk trap which seeking employment activity of youth class is arranged case or company which is formed by official path is suitable becomes low, must formulate path of employment about youth class and improve qualitative level of employment through suitable job placement education of youth class or function (technology) level. Third, when was construed, but take into account that the although large enterprise have low risk in non-standard job, recently employment of youth class consists very limited, rather small scale business or smaller enterprise's competitive power preferably need to be plan. Finally, danger to non-standard job youth employed's company form is government connection wonder was expose that high, Such result can do that it is difficult by limited research period, but reflect actuality that youth unemployment policy of our country is enforced laying stress on public labor or unregular job employment such as internship system. Therefore, current youth unemployment policy may have to change by employment policy that can secure stable work record by youth class or act as bridge-building that promote conversion by full-time job.

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Development and Application of Okara-based Adhesives for Plywood Panels (두부비지를 이용한 합판용 접착제의 개발 및 적용)

  • Oh, Sei-Chang;Ahn, Sye-Hee;Choi, In-Gyu;Jeong, Han-Seob;Yoon, Young-Ho;Yang, In
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.30-38
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    • 2008
  • Petroleum-based resin adhesives have extensively been used for the production of wood panels. However, with the increase of manufacturing cost and the environmental issue, such as the emission of volatile organic compounds, of the adhesive resins, it is necessary to be developed new adhesive systems. In this study, the potential of okara, which is a residue wasted from the production of tofu, for the development of bio-based adhesives was investigated. At first, the physical and chemical properties of okara were examined. After okara was hydrolyzed in acidic and/or alkaline solutions, okara-based adhesive resins were formulated with the mixtures of the okara hydrolyzates and phenol formaldehyde (PF) prepolymer. The adhesive resins were used for the fabrication of plywood panels, and then the adhesive strength and formaldehyde emission of the plywood panels were measured to examine the applicability of the resin adhesives for the production of plywood panels. The solids content and pH of the okara used in this study were around 20% and weak acidic state, respectively. In the analysis of its chemical composition, the content of carbohydrate was the highest, and followed by protein. The shear strengths of plywood fabricated with okara-based resin adhesives exceeded a minimum requirement of KS standard for ordinary plywood, but its wood failure did not reach the minimum requirement. In addition, the formaldehyde emissions of all plywood panels were higher than that of E1 specified in the KS standard. Based on these results, okara has the potential to be used as a raw material of environmentally friendly adhesive resin systems for the production of wood panels, but further researches - biological hydrolysis of okara and various formulations of PF prepolymer - are required to improve the adhesive strength and formaldehyde emission of okara-based resin adhesives.

Protective Effects of Enzymatic Oyster Hydrolysate on Acetaminophen-induced HepG-2 Cell Damage (아세트아미노펜 유도 HepG-2 세포주 손상에 대한 굴 효소 가수분해물의 보호 효과)

  • Park, Si-Hyang;Moon, Sung-Sil;Xie, Cheng-Liang;Choung, Se-Young;Choi, Yeung-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.8
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    • pp.1166-1173
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the detoxification effects of enzymatic hydrolysate from oyster on acetaminophen-induced toxicity using HepG-2 cells. Oyster hydrolysate was made with 1% Protamex and 1% Neutrase after treatment with transglutaminase (TGPN) or without (PN). Two types of oyster hydrolysate were added to human-derived HepG-2 hepatocytes damaged by acetaminophen, after which the survival rate of HepG-2 cell was measured. In addition, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in the culture media were evaluated. The survival rates of HepG-2 cells were $136.2{\pm}1.4%$ at $100{\mu}g/mL$ of TGPN and $179.6{\pm}3.8%$ at $200{\mu}g/mL$ of TGPN. These cell survival rates were higher compared to that of the negative control group ($60.7{\pm}3.2%$) treated only with acetaminophen. GOT activity was $38.3{\pm}0.2$ Karmen/mL in the negative control group, whereas it was $19.9{\pm}0.5$ for TGPN ($200{\mu}g/mL$) and $22.0{\pm}2.4$ Karmen/mL for PN ($200{\mu}g/mL$). GOT and GTP activities were shown to be dependent on TGPN concentration, and significant reduction in activities could be conformed. The detoxification efficacy of TGPN was higher compared to that of PN. These results suggest that oyster hydrolysate has potential as a healthy food or pro-drug for liver protection.