• Title, Summary, Keyword: 가상 경쟁가격

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Estimation Method of the Competitive Bid-price in Bid-rigging of Public Construction (기댓값 분석에 따른 공공공사 입찰담합의 가상경쟁가격 산정방법)

  • Jeong, Kichang;Kim, Wooram;Kim, Namjoon;Lee, Jaeseob
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2018
  • Korea's public construction projects are under construction through bidding, however, due to the nature of the bidding, collusion between participants can occur. The collusion of bids accordingly damages the client. So, it is necessary to calculate the appropriate fictitious competition price to compensate for this. In this regard, econometrics methods are generally used, but there are limitations and issues arising from the nature of construction, especially design-build bid. Therefore, this study proposes a method to estimate reasonable competitive bid-price in design-build bid. It derives the lowest bid-price from the design submitted by the proponent and estimates the competitive bid-price by examining the factors according to the penetration rate according to the technical level of the tester, the skill level of the competitor, and the type of tester. Based on the method proposed in this study, a reasonable price can be derived that reflects the characteristics of the design and construction bidding bidder selection method and also it can be used as a reference material in the actual bidding process as well as calculating the damage due to the answer.

Relationship Between Social Benefit and Price Elasticity in Competitive Power Market (경쟁적 전력시장에서의 사회적 이득과 가격탄력성의 관계)

  • 이태호;김진오;최준영
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2001
  • 전력산업에 경쟁제도가 도입되면 전력 생산자와 소비자는 전력 시장을 통하여 그들의 편익을 최대화 하고자 한다. 발전사업자와 수요자사이에 거래되는 시장에서의 전력 가격은 시장에 공급되는 전력량과 전력수요량에 따라 균형을 이루는 점으로 결정되고 이 점에서 사회편익이 최대가 된다. 소비자의 전력사용지불의사에 따라 달라지는 전력 수요랑을 표현하는 가격탄력성에 따라 시장에서 결정되는 가격은 변하게되고, 전력 생사자는 변화하는 전력생산비용을 요금에 반영함으로써 전력수요에 적절한 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 탄력성이 변함에 따라 달라지는 사회적 편익과 전력시장 참여자인 생산자와 소비자 편익변화를 가상적 시나리오에 따른 모의 실험을 통하여 경쟁적 전력시장의 경우 가격탄력성이 클수록 사회적 편익이 증가함을 보였다.

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Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Conducting an Economic Analysis of Damage in Price-Fixing Litigation: Application to a Transportation Fuel Market (담합관련 손해배상 소송의 경제분석에서 고려해야 할 이론 및 실증적 쟁점: 수송용 연료시장에의 적용)

  • Moon, Choon-Geol
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.187-224
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    • 2014
  • We present key issues to consider in estimating damages from price-fixing cases and then apply the procedure addressing those issues to a transportation fuel market. Among the five methods of overcharge calculation, the regression analysis incorporating the yardstick method is the best. If the price equation relates the domestic price to the foreign price and the exchange rate as in the transportation fuel market, the functional form satisfying both logical consistency and modeling flexibility is the log-log functional form. If the data under analysis is of time series in nature, then the ARDL model should be the base model for each market and the regression analysis incorporating the yardstick method combines these ARDL equations to account for inter-market correlation and arrange constant terms and collusion-period dummies across component equations appropriately so as to identify the overcharge parameter. We propose a two-step test for the benchmarked market: (a) conduct market-by-market Spearman or Kendall test for randomness of the individual market price series first and (b) then conduct across-market Friedman test for homogeneity of the market price series. Statistical significance is the minimal requirement to establish the alleged proposition in the world of uncertainty. Between the sensitivity analysis and the model selection process for the best fitting model, the latter is far more important in the economic analysis of damage in price-fixing litigation. We applied our framework to a transportation fuel market and could not reject the null hypothesis of no overcharge.

A Study on Method for Damage Calculation Caused by Bid Rigging in Alternative Tenders for Construction Projects -Utilizing the Difference of the Design Score & Bidding Rate as Factor - (건설공사 대안입찰 담합으로 인한 손해액 산정모델 연구 - 설계점수 및 투찰률 차이 인자 활용 -)

  • Min, Byeong-Uk;Park, Hyung-Keun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.741-749
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to propose a rational and scientific damage calculation model in relation to damages caused by bid rigging in construction projects. Previous studies and precedents in relation to calculating damages from bid rigging suggest that the main issue was the lack of consideration in standards for deciding successful bids, selection of inadequate standard comparative markets, insufficiency in analyzing the appropriateness of competitive bid price influence factors, and absence of calculation model verification. In order to improve on these issues, a damage calculation method on alternative tenders for construction projects was proposed. For this calculation model, first, a standard market adequate to the successful bid selection standards was determined, second, an appropriate factor was selected by analyzing the correlation between competitive bid price influence factors, and third, a regression analysis was conducted on the selected factor. Lastly, this was demonstrated through verification of appropriateness, significance & normality of the proposed model and application of actual bid rigging cases. Through the proposed calculation model, this study seeks to serve as a base to prevent opportunity damages for parties involved in related court cases by early resolution of disputes and relief from issues of unfair damage burdens on a particular party.

A Comparative Study on the Consumer Behavior between Online and Offline Channels (온라인과 오프라인 유통경로에서 소비자 구매행동에 대한 비교연구 -제품유형과 구매속성 중요도를 중심으로-)

  • Park, Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean DIstribution Association Conference
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    • pp.145-163
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    • 2001
  • 최근 인터넷 상거래가 급속히 확산되면서 기업의 경쟁이 실물세계와 가상세계에서 발생하는 현상이 전개되고 있다. 즉, 유통경로의 측면에서 볼 때 기존의 물리적 세계에 존재하는 전통적인(오프라인) 유통경로와 사이버공간에 존재하는 가상(온라인) 유통경로가 서로 경쟁하는 형국이 벌어지고 있는 것이다. 유통경로간 경쟁의 중심부에는 고객이 자리잡고 있다. 어떤 경로든 소비자의 욕구를 정확히 파악하고, 이들에게 최상의 유통서비스를 제공하는 경로는 생존·번영할 수 있을 것이다. 사실 현재 진행되고 있는 논의들과 현상들을 볼 때, 어느 한 유통경로가 다른 유통경로를 완전히 대체하는 제로섬 게임의 양상은 나타나고 있지 않다. 즉, 상당기간 두 유통경로는 상호 병존할 것으로 보인다. 본 연구는 이러한 점에 초점을 맞추어 이들 두 경로가 자신들만의 차별화된 경쟁우위를 가지고 생존할 수 있는 마케팅전략을 구상하기 위해 시도되었다. 이러한 전략을 제시하기 위해서는 우선 이들 두 경로상에서 소비자의 구매(쇼핑)행동은 어떻게 다른가에 대한 비교연구가 선행되어야 할 것이다. 본 연구는 온라인 유통경로와 오프라인 유통경로에서 소비자 구매행동의 차이를 비교분석 하는데 그 목적을 두고 있다. 특히 제품유형별로 온라인과 오프라인에서 구매속성중요도가 어떻게 달라지는가를 확인. 검증해 보기 위해 시도되었다. 캐주얼의류, 여행상품, 음악CD를 가지고 인터넷 사용자 500명을 대상으로 온라인조사를 실시한 결과, 온라인과 오프라인에서 구매속성 중요도에는 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 이 결과를 토대로 오프라인 매장과 온라인 매장이 어떻게 차별화해야 하는가에 대한 시사점을 제시하였다.통계적인 차이가 있었다(P<0.05). 계육내 CLAisomer는 1, 2, 3% 급여구에서 각각 12.23, 18.74, 25.67 mg/g으로 처리구간에 현저한 차이를 보였다(P<0.05). 본 연구의 결과 CLA의 급여는 SBO와 CT에 비하여 증체량을 개선하고 혈중HDL을 높여주는 경향을 보였지만 ND항체가는 개선되지 못하였다.으며, 그 효과는 농도에 의존적이었다, 고콜레스테롤 투여군(HC)의 분변 중 총 지질과 중성지방 농도는 정상대조군(C)에 비해 다소 높았고, 총 콜레스테롤의 경우는 유의적으로 높게 나타났다. 그러나 뽕잎첨가군(HC5M과 HC10M)의 총 지질, 중성지방 및 콜레스테롤 농도는 콜레스테롤 투여군(HC)에 비해 분변으로 배설량이 증가하는 현상을 보였다. 이상의 결과를 살펴보면 뽕잎 분말은 고콜레스테롤식이를 섭취하는 경우 혈청과 간장의 지질수준은 떨어뜨리고, 분변중 지질배설량을 상승시키는 효과가 현저한 것으로 보인다.둘째. 1990년대 한국과 미국 패션시장의 가격과 품질간의 상관계수의 범위는 제품군별. 산업범주별 로 상이한 분포를 보이고 있었다. 패션제품군별로 보 면, 한국의 경우는 가장 높은 '여행용가방(r = 0.707)' 에서 가장 낮은 '자외선 차단화장품(r = -0.58)'까지, 그리고 미국 패션제품군의 상관계수의 범위는 '팬티 스타킹'의 0.820에서 '남성용 런닝슈즈'의 -0.472까지의 분포를 나타냈다. 마지막으로, 제품의 가격과 품질에 대한 정보를 소비자가 알 경우 얻을 수 있는 소비자의 구매이득 을 추산한 결과 패션제품시장에서 완전한 품질정보를 가지고 있다고 가정한 '현명한 사람'은, 최고가격의 제품만을

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농식품 분야 ICT융합 최신 사례

  • Mun, Jeong-Hun;Hwang, Yun-Min
    • Information and Communications Magazine
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2014
  • 최근 건강기능식품의 성장으로 농식품 산업이 1차 산업을 넘어 고부가가치 신성장산업으로 재정의되며 각국은 농식품 산업 경쟁력 강화를 위해 ICT 융합을 빠르게 진행하고 있다. 국내 농식품 산업 역시 FTA 체결 등으로 글로벌 경쟁력을 강화하기 위해 국내 발전된 ICT역량을 농식품 산업에 융합하는 노력을 진행하고 있다. 하지만 아직 초기 단계로써 농식품 가치사슬상 생산분야의 시설원예나 축산 생산성 증가를 위한 ICT 융합 단계에 머무르고 있다. 이에 본 논문은 농식품 생산분야 ICT 최신사례로써 노지작물 재배 ICT 융합사례, 수산양식 ICT 융합사례를 소개하고, 농식품 유통 및 판매 분야 ICT 융합사례로써 스마트 가상 스토어, 아마존 대시, 전자가격태그 모델을 소개하고 그 산업적 시사점을 논의하고자 한다.

Estimating the Switching Cost in the Korean Residential Electricity Market Using Discrete Choice Model (이산선택모형을 이용한 주거용수용가의 전력서비스 전환비용 추정)

  • Lee, Jongsu;Lee, Dongheon;Lee, Jeong-Dong;Park, Yuri
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.219-243
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    • 2004
  • Generally, electricity market has monopoly market structure because of need of enormous investment for infrastructure. However, the introduction of competition in network industry as electricity is a tendency of the world with decreasing the effects of economy of scale due to the advancement of technology. Now, electricity industry restructuring is in progress but the competition in electricity retail market is not in force yet in Korea. Whether a effective competition exist or not is very important to policy decision maker who drive restructuring, but there are small numbers of quantitative researches on that. In this study, we estimated the effectiveness of competition in the electricity retail market through switching costs. If switching costs are high, consumers actually can be locked in incumbent firm in spite of introduction of competition. Therefore switching is a critical factor to determine effectiveness of competition and to estimate the size of switching costs quantitatively can proffer the information about whether the competition in the electricity retail market is effective or not in the future. We estimated switching costs using consumer' stated-preference data by conjoint analysis. In according to estimation results, the cost of switching process is not so high, but the relative brand loyalty of an incumbent company is significantly high. And the price is considered as the most important factor choosing an electric service commodity. Based on the empirical results, it is possible to analyze the relationship between suppliers' competitiveness resulted from management efficiency and customers' switching possibilities. The paper therefore provides guidance for suppliers in deciding to enter into retail competition and for policy makers in introducing retail competition. And it has a significance of estimating the switching costs directly.

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A Study on the Improvement Method on Calculating the Damages Caused by the Bid Rigging in the Construction Work (건설공사 입찰담합으로 인한 손해액 산정 개선방안 연구)

  • Min, Byeong-Uk;Park, Hyung-Keun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.1053-1061
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    • 2017
  • The study is concerned with providing the improvement method on making a reasonable and scientific decision on the damages accrued from the bid rigging in the construction work. According to the review on the precedent studies and decision cases on the damages caused by bid rigging, the representative problems include the insufficiency of the classification system on the damage calculation method and the omission of the necessary stage in the damage determination process. First, the improved classification system on calculating the damages caused by bid rigging is presented with the application to the bid rigging in the construction work by adding the ratio factor in addition to the damage calculation parameters such as price and cost. Second, the standard procedures organized with six stages is presented as the process required for determining the damages if the indemnification for bid rigging is claimed. The study becomes the foundation for resolving the problem with the undue burden on a party and for preventing the opportunity loss by resolving a dispute early through the improvement classification system and standard procedures presented in the study.

A Study on the Architecture of Cloud Hospital Information System for Small and Medium Sized Hospitals (중소형 병원의 클라우드 병원정보시스템 서비스 체계에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Nan Kyung;Lee, Jong Ok
    • The Journal of Society for e-Business Studies
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.89-112
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    • 2015
  • Recently, the business environment of healthcare has changed rapidly due to the entering the mobile era, the intensifying global competition, and the explosion of healthcare needs. Despite of necessity in expanding new IT-based medical services and investing IT resources to respond environmental changes, the small and medium sized hospitals could not realize these requirements due to the limited management resources. CHISSMH is designed and presented in this research to provide high valued clouding medical services with reasonable price. CHISMH is designed and presented in this research to provide high valued medical services with reasonable price through cloud computing. CHISME is designed to maximize resource pooling and sharing through the visualization. By doing so, Cloud Service provider could minimize maintenance cost of cloud data center, provide high level services with reasonable pay-per-use price. By doing so, Cloud Service provider could minimize maintenance cost of cloud data center, and could provide high level services with reasonable pay-per-use price. CHISME is expected to be base framework of cloud HIS services and be diffusion factor of cloud HIS services Operational experience in CHISSMH with 15 hospitals is analyzed and presented as well.

Arrangement system implementation for furniture and home appliances based on Augmented Reality (증강현실 기반 가구 및 가전제품 배치 시스템 구현)

  • Lim, Tae-hun;Kim, Young-tae;Yang, Jae-hyuk;Yoo, Jin-woo;Shin, Dong-suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.811-814
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    • 2009
  • The cost competitive products buyers through the e-commerce are growing steadily every year due to the development of the Internet. Furniture and home appliances buyers through the e-commerce, on the other hand, aren't growing cause it's impossible to check the size and harmony with interior. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce arrangement system for furniture and home appliances based on augmented reality and motion recognition to provide service which checks the size and harmony with interior by arranging them virtually before purchasing.

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