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Treatment Result of Ovarian Dysgerminoma (난소 미분화배세포종에 대한 방사선치료 결과)

  • Shin Seong Soo;Park Suk Won;Shin Kyung Hwan;Ha Sung Whan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : Ovarian dysgerminoma is a highly radiosensitive malignant tumor occurring in young age group. The conventional treatment was total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment results of Patients who had received radiotherapy in the era before chemotherapy was widely used. Material and Method : Twenty two patients with ovarian dysgerminoma were treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between August, 1980 and May, 1991. Four patients were excluded from this study, because three patients received incomplete treatment and one received combined chemotherapy. Sixteen patients received postoperative radiotherapy and two patients had radical radiotherapy as tumor was unresectable. Median follow-up period was 99 months (range, 51-178) Median age was 22 years (range, 11-42). Among the postoperatively treated patients, three Patients were in stage IA, eight in stage IC, two in stage II, and three in stage III. One patient had Turner's syndrome. Radiotherapy was performed with high energy photon (telecobalt unit or linear accelerator, either 6MV or 10MV), The radiation dose to the whole abdomen was 1950-2100cGy (median, 2000) and 1050-2520cGy was added to the whole pelvis, the total dose to the whole pelvis was 3000-4500cGy (median, 3500). Prophylactic Paraaortic area irradiation was done in six Patients (dose range, 900-1500cGy). One patient who had positive Paraaortic node, received radiation dose of 1620cGy, followed by additional 900cGy to the gross mass with shrinking field. Total dose to the paraaortic node was 4470cGy. Six patients, including one who had paraaortic node metastasis, received Prophylactic irradiation to mediastinum and supraclavicular area (2520cGy). Of the two patients with unresectable tumors who received radical radiotherapy, one was in stage III and the other was in stage IV with left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. The stage III patient received radiation to the whole abdomen (2000cGy), followed by boost to whole pelvis (2070cGy) and paraaortic area (2450cGy). Stage IV patient received radiation to the whole abdomen (2000cGy), followed by radiation to the whole pelvis and paraaortic area (2400cGy), mediastinum (2520cGy) , and left supraclavicular area (3550cGy) .Results : The 5 year local control rate was $100\%$ in patients who received postoperative adiuvant radiotherapy after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Only one patient in stage III who did not receive prophylactic irradiation to mediastinum developed mediastinal metastasis. but was salvaged by chemotherapy. So. the 5 year overall survival rate uras also $100\%$. Two patients who received radiation only, are alive without disease at 112 and 155 months. Conclusion : Postoperntive adjuvant radiotherapy as well as radical radiotherapy in unresectable ovarian dysgerminoma was very effective. aut chemotherapy is also an effective treatment modality We now recomrneifd chemotherapy for Patients who need to save their ovarian functien and reserve radiotherapv fov chemo-resistant tumor or recurrence alter che motherapy.

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An Analysis on Factors Affecting Local Control and Survival in Nasopharvngeal Carcinoma (비인두암의 국소 종양 치유와 생존율에 관한 예후 인자 분석)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Cho Jae-Shik;Park Seung Jin;Lee Jae-Hong;Ahn Sung Ja;Nam Taek Keun;Choi Chan;Noh Young Hee;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 1999
  • Propose : This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70$\%$) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6$\%$) keratinizing, 30 (64$\%$) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28$\%$) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histoiogicai type was not known in 1 patient (2$\%$). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer Forty seven patients were recorded as follows: 71: 11 (23$\%$), T2a; 6 (13$\%$), T2b; 9 (19$\%$), 73; 7 (15$\%$), 74: 14 (30$\%$), and NO; 7 (15$\%$), Nl: 14 (30$\%$), N2; 21 (45%), N3: 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4$\%$), IIA: 2 (4$\%$), IIB; 10 (21$\%$), III; 14 (30$\%$), IVA; 14 (30$\%$) and IVB; 5 (11$\%$). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X- ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the Iymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin +5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free suwival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Results: Local control rate was 81$\%$ in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60$\%$ (median survival; 100 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deflicit, histologic type, stage group, chemotherapy, elapsed days between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, total radiation dose, period of radiotherapy as potential prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. As a result, cranial none deficit (P=0.004) had statistical significance in local control rate. Stage group and total radiation dose were significant prognostic factors in survival (P=0.000, P=0.012), and in disease free survival rates (P=0.003, P=0.008), respectively. Common complications were xerostomia, tooth and ear problems. Hypothyroidism was developed in 2 patients. Conclusion : In our study, cranial none deficit was a significant prognostic factor in local control rate, and stage group and total radiation dose were significant factors in both survival and disease free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have concluded that chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in our patients were effective without any serious complication.

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Induction Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (국소 진행된 비소세포성 폐암에서 유도 화학요법 및 방사선치료)

  • Yun, Sang-Mo;Kim, Jae-Cheol;Park, In-Kyu
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : We peformed this study to evaluate the prognostic factors and the effect of induction chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods : A retrospective analysis was done for 130 patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with curative radiotherapy alone or induction chemo-radiotherapy from January 1986 to October 1996. Eighty-five patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, forty-five with induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Age, sex, performance status, histopathologic type, and stage were evenly distributed in both groups. The patients were treated with 6 MV or 10 MV X-ray. Conventional fractionation with daily fraction size 1$.8\~2.0$ Gy was done. Of the patients, 129 patients received total dose above 59.6 Gy ($56\~66$ Gy, median 60 Gy). Induction chemotherapy regimen were CAP (Cyclo-phosphamide, Adriamycin, Cisplatin) in 6 patients, MVP (Mitomycin, Vinblastine, Cisplatin) in 9 patients, MIC (Mitomycin, Ifosfamide Cisplatin) in 13 patients, and EP (Etoposide, Cisplatin) in 17 patients. Chemotherapy was done in $2\~5$ cycles (median 2). Results : Overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate (YSR) for all patients were $41.5\%,{\;}13.7\%,{\;}and{\;}7\%$, respectively (median survival time 11 months). According to treatment modality, median survival time, overall 1-, 2-, and 3-YSR were 9 months, $32.9\%,{\;}10.\5%,{\;}6\%$ for radiotherapy alone group, and 14 months, $57.8\%,{\;}20\%,{\;}7.6\%$ for induction chemotherapy group, respectively (f=0.0005). Complete response (CR) to overall treatments was $25\%$ (21/84) in radiotherapy alone and $40.5\%$ (17/42) in induction chemotherapy group (p=0.09). The Prognostic factors affecting overall survival were hemoglobin level (p=0.04), NSE (neuron-specific enolase) level (p=0.004), and respense to overall treatment(p=0.004). According to treatment modalities, NSE (neuron-specific enolase) (p=0.006) and response to overall treatment (p=0.003) were associated with overall survival in radiotherapy alone group, and response to overall treatment (p=0.007) in induction chemotherapy group. The failure Pattern analysis revealed no significant difference between treatment modalities. But, in patients with CR to overall treatment, distant metastasis were found in 11/19 patients with radiotherapy alone, and 3/13 patients with induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy (p=0.07). Locoregional failure patterns were not different between two groups (10/19 vs 6/13). Conclusion : Induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy achieved increased 2YSR compared to radiotherapy alone, At least in CR patients, there was decreased tendency in distant metastasis with induction chemotherapy. But, locoregional failures and long-term survival were not improved. Thus, there is need of more effort to increasing local control and further decreasing distant metastasis.

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The Palliative Radiation Therapy in Malignant Extra-Hepatic Biliary Obstruction (간외 폐쇄성 황달 환자에서 고식적 방사선치료의 결과)

  • Kay Chul-Seoung;Jang Hong-Suk;Kim Sung-hwan;Ryu Mi-Ryeong;Kim Yeon-Shil;Chung Su-Mi;Yoon Sei-Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effectiveness of external radiation therapy and the prognostic factors, we retrospectively analyzed therapeutic results of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO). Methods and Materials : We analyzed the results of the external radiation therapy in 59 patients of inoperable malignant EHBO who had been treated with more than 10 Gy of external radiation therapy from April 1984 to December 1990. There were 21 stomach cancer ($35.6\%$), 12 pancreas cancer ($20.3\%$), 15 extrahepatic biliary cancer ($18.0\%$) and 11 another cancer ($18.0\%$). Their pathologies were confirmed in 31 patients ($52.5\%$). They divided into 27 adenocarcinoma and 4 nonadenocarcinoma. Their chief complaints were jaundice in 47 patients ($79.7\%$) and abdominal pain in 15 patients ($49.2\%$). Twelve patients had slightly increased bilirubin level in liver function test without jaundice. We treated twenty four patients ($40.6\%$) with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and 32 patients ($54\%$) with systemic chemotherapy (CT). We performed external radiation therapy (ERT) upto $10.8\~55.8$ Gy (median 37.8 Gy) with palliative aim. Results : Overall median survival duration was $7.80\pm1.15$ months. The response rates of jaundice were $81.8\%$ in PTBO group and $66.7\%$ in non-PTBD group without statistical significance. The improving rate of jaundice was not significantly different in decreased ratio of total bilirubin level. But abdominal pain was more decreased in CT group than non-CT group (p<0.05). The significant prognostic factors were high performance status (Karnofski Performance Status >70), total radiation dose more than 35 Gy and good response of pain after therapy. There were increased in bacterial cholagitis in PTBD group and gastrointestinal complications in CT group. Conclusion : External radiotheapy could improve jaundice and abdominal pain in malignant EHBO patients, Overall survival duration was prolonged in patients with higher performance status and patients who had been treated with more than 35 Gy of total radiation dose. In the future, we expect not only better palliative role but also the prolongation of survival of using the ERT combined with other treatment method. But to achieve certain conclusion, we need luther study consisted with many kinds of treatment methods including new technologies in RT.

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The Study of Establishing the Multi-pass Eurasian Railroads (유라시아 철도의 다중경로 구축에 관한 연구)

  • Hahm, Beom-Hee;Huh, Nam-Kyun;Hurr, Hee-Young
    • Korean Business Review
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.137-170
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    • 2008
  • This study is presenting the logistics strategy in the international logistics markets which makes competition and corporation among north-east Asian countries to establishing the multi-pass Eurasian railroads. The countries located in north-east area of Eurasia like China, Japan, Russia and Korea are paying higher costs and disutility to the transportations and communications due to repeated conflicts and confrontations causes from the politic problems. They are being used surface transportation for most of all logistics between Europe and Asia except special merchandises because of characteristic of cargo to be air, the Silk Road remains vestige only which was main logistic passage to this area since BC. So far the Trans-Siberian Railway is being used by Russia mostly as north of Eurasian transport because of difficulties of service. The Trans-China Railway built in 1992 is not accomplishing as a international logistic passages. It is expected to take a long lead time because of characteristic of resource development and poor logistic infrastructure to the countries like Uzbekistan, double landlocked country, Mongolia and Azerbaijan, the countries do not be adjacent to the sea, even they have great economic jump-up plans through the development of their own resources. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization(SCO) start to sail officially in 2001 is constructed with China, Russia, Tadzhikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan as regular members of 6 countries and Mongolia, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran as observers 5 countries. It is started as a military alliance to protect terror, but now, it is expended to cooperate with the traffic, transportation, trade and share of energies. The Russia is doing their best to activate TSR as a government target to developnorth area equivalently, and economic develop of far-east Siberia. And also it is agreed provisionally to improve and repair of rail road between Nahjin and Hassan to connect TSR and TKR( Trans-Korea Railroad) by Russia, North Korea and South Korea with Russian's aggressive efforts. The development plan of this area is over lapped with GTI(Greater Tumen Initiative) promoted by UNDP, and is a cooperated project by 5 countries of South Korea, Mongolia, China, Russia and North Korea, subject to review the appropriation of energy, tour, environment, rail road connection between Mongolia and China and establishing a ferry route to north-east Asia. It is Japanese situation to pay attention to Russia and China even they have been supplying large-scope of infrastructure in Mongol area without any charges, target to get East Asia Main Rail Road to connect Mongolia and Zalubino of Russia. In case of the program for the Denuclearization of North Korea is not creeping, it will be accelerated to connect the TKR and TSR, TKR and TCR by somehow attending United States, including developing program promoted by UN ESCAP. As the result, Korean peninsular will continue the central role of competition and cooperation as in the past, now and future of north-east Asia, as of geographical-economics and geographical-politics whether it is requested or not wanted by neighbor countries.

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Comparison of Virtual Wedge versus Physical Wedge Affecting on Dose Distribution of Treated Breast and Adjacent Normal Tissue for Tangential Breast Irradiation (유방암의 방사선치료에서 Virtual Wedge와 Physical Wedge사용에 따른 유방선량 및 주변조직선량의 차이)

  • Kim Yeon-Sil;Kim Sung-Whan;Yoon Sel-Chul;Lee Jung-Seok;Son Seok-Hyun;Choi Ihl-Bong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The Ideal breast irradiation method should provide an optimal dose distribution In the treated breast volume and a minimum scatter dose to the nearby normal tissue. Physical wedges have been used to Improve the dose distribution In the treated breast, but unfortunately Introduce an Increased scatter dose outside the treatment yield, pavllculariy to the contralateral breast. The typical physical wedge (FW) was compared with 4he virtual wedge (VW) to do)ermine the difference In the dose distribution affecting on the treated breast and the contralateral breast, lung, heart and surrounding perlpheral soft tissue. Methods and Materials: The data collected consisted of a measurement taken with solid water, a Humanoid Alderson Rando phantom and patients. The radiation doses at the ipsllateral breast and skin, contralateral breast and skin, surrounding peripheral soft tissue, and Ipsllateral lung and heart were compared using the physical wedge and virtual wedge and the radiation dose distribution and DVH of the treated breast were compared. The beam-on time of each treatment technique was also compared Furthermore, the doses at treated breast skin, contralateral breast skin and skin 1.5 cm away from 4he field margin were also measured using TLD in 7 patients of tangential breast Irradiation and compared the results with phantom measurements. Results: The virtual wedge showed a decreased peripheral dose than those of a typical physical wedge at 15$^{\circ}$, 30$^{\circ}$, 45$^{\circ}$, and 60$^{\circ}$. According to the TLD measurements with 15$^{\circ}$ and 30$^{\circ}$ virtual wedge, the Irradiation dose decreased by 1.35$\%$ and 2.55$\%$ In the contralateral breast and by 0.87$\%$ and 1.9$\%$ In the skin of the contralateral breast respectively. Furthermore, the Irradiation dose decreased by 2.7$\%$ and 6.0$\%$ in the Ipsllateral lung and by 0.96$\%$ and 2.5$\%$ in the heart. The VW fields had lower peripheral doses than those of the PW fields by 1.8$\%$ and 2.33$\%$. However the skin dose Increased by 2.4$\%$ and 4.58$\%$ In the Ipsliateral breast. VW fields, In general, use less monitor units than PW fields and shoriened beam-on time about half of PW. The DVH analysis showed that each delivery technique results In comparable dose distribution in treated breast. Conclusion: A modest dose reduction to the surrounding normal tissue and uniform target homogeneity were observed using the VW technique compare to the PW beam in tangential breast Irradiation The VW field is dosmetrically superlor to the PW beam and can be an efficient method for minimizing acute, late radiation morbidity and reduce 4he linear accelerator loading bV decreasing the radiation delivery time.

Analysis of Respiratory Motional Effect on the Cone-beam CT Image (Cone-beam CT 영상 획득 시 호흡에 의한 영향 분석)

  • Song, Ju-Young;Nah, Byung-Sik;Chung, Woong-Ki;Ahn, Sung-Ja;Nam, Taek-Keun;Yoon, Mi-Sun
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2007
  • The cone-beam CT (CBCT) which is acquired using on-board imager (OBI) attached to a linear accelerator is widely used for the image guided radiation therapy. In this study, the effect of respiratory motion on the quality of CBCT image was evaluated. A phantom system was constructed in order to simulate respiratory motion. One part of the system is composed of a moving plate and a motor driving component which can control the motional cycle and motional range. The other part is solid water phantom containing a small cubic phantom ($2{\times}2{\times}2cm^3$) surrounded by air which simulate a small tumor volume in the lung air cavity CBCT images of the phantom were acquired in 20 different cases and compared with the image in the static status. The 20 different cases are constituted with 4 different motional ranges (0.7 cm, 1.6 cm, 2.4 cm, 3.1 cm) and 5 different motional cycles (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 sec). The difference of CT number in the coronal image was evaluated as a deformation degree of image quality. The relative average pixel intensity values as a compared CT number of static CBCT image were 71.07% at 0.7 cm motional range, 48.88% at 1.6 cm motional range, 30.60% at 2.4 cm motional range, 17.38% at 3.1 cm motional range The tumor phantom sizes which were defined as the length with different CT number compared with air were increased as the increase of motional range (2.1 cm: no motion, 2.66 cm: 0.7 cm motion, 3.06 cm: 1.6 cm motion, 3.62 cm: 2.4 cm motion, 4.04 cm: 3.1 cm motion). This study shows that respiratory motion in the region of inhomogeneous structures can degrade the image quality of CBCT and it must be considered in the process of setup error correction using CBCT images.

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Lymph Node Failure Pattern and Treatment Results of Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy (근치목적 방사선치료를 받은 식도암 환자의 림프절 재발양상과 치료성적)

  • Lee, Sun-Young;Kwon, Hyoung-Cheol;Lee, Heui-Hwan;Kim, Jung-Soo;Kim, Soo-Geon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: We evaluated the failure pattern of the celiac axis, gastric lymph node, and treatment outcome in the upper and mid-esophageal region of cancer patients treated by definitive radiotherapy, except when treating the celiac axis and gastric lymph node for treatment volume, retrospectively. Materials and Methods: The study constituted the evaluation 108 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer receiving radiotherapy or a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 1986 to December 2006. In total, 82 patients treated by planned radiotherapy, except when treating the celiac axis and gastric lymph node for treatment volume, were analysed retrospectively. The study population consisted of 78 men and 2 women(mean age of 63.2 years). In addition, 51 patients received radiotherapy alone, whereas 31 patients received a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The primary cancer sites were located in the upper portion(17 patients), and mid portion(65 patients), respectively. Further, the patients were in various clinical stages including T1N0-1M0(7 patients), T2N0-1M0(18 patients), T3N0-1M0(44 patients) and T4N0-1M0(13 patients). The mean follow up period was 15 months. Results: The various treatment outcomes included complete response(48 patients), partial response(31 patients) and no response(3 patients). The failure patterns of the lymph node were comprised of the regional lymph node(23 patients) and the distance lymph node which included celiac axis and gastric lymph node(13 patients). However, metastasis was not observed in the regional and distant lymph node in 10 patients, whereas 36 patients were not evaluated. Furthermore, of the 13 patients who developed celiac axis and gastric lymph node metastases, 3 were in stage T1N0-1M0 and 10 were in stage T2-4N0-1M0. A complete response appeared in 12 patients, whereas a partial response appeared in 1 patient. The mean survival time of the patients who appeared for regional and distant lymph node metastasis was 14.4 and 7.0 months, respectively. Conclusion: In locally advanced esophageal cancer patients, who were treated by definitive radiotherapy without celiac axis and gastric lymph node irradiation, the distant lymph node metastasis rate was high and the overall survival rate was lower compared to the regional lymph node metastasis. The incidence of regional and distant lymph node metastasis was high in patients who appeared beyond clinical stage T2 and received radiotherapy alone.

Compare to Evaluate the Imaging dose of MVCT and CBCT (Tomotherapy MVCT와 Linac CBCT의 Imaging dose 비교평가)

  • Yoon, Bo Reum;Hong, Mi Lan;Ahn, Jong Ho;Song, Ki Won
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : In case of the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using Tomotherapy and linear accelerator (Linac), it was to compare and to evaluate the imaging dose of MVCT and CBCT that were performed daily for the correct set up of the patient. Materials and Methods : The human body model Phantom (Anderson rando Phantom, USA) was divided into the three parts as Head, Thorax, pelvis, and after GafChromic EBT3 film cut to the size of $0.5{\times}0.5cm2$.in the center of the recording area were situated on the ant, post, left, and right surface of the phantom and 2cm in depth from the ant, post, left, right, and center surface of the phantom, the surface dose and inner dose were measured repeatedly three times, respectively, using the tomotherapy (Hi Art) and the OBI of NovalisTx. The measured film calculated the output value by RIP version6.0 and then the average value of the dose was calculated by the one-way analysis of variance. Results : Using the human body model phantom, the results of MVCT and CBCT performance were that measurements of MVCT inner dose were showed $15.43cGy{\pm}6.05$ in the head, $16.62cGy{\pm}3.08$ in the thorax, $16.81cGy{\pm}5.24$ in the pelvis, and measurements of CBCT inner dose were showed $13.28{\pm}3.68$ in the head, from $13.66{\pm}4.04$ in the thorax, $15.52{\pm}3.52$ in the pelvis. The measurements of surface dose were showed in case of MVCT performance, $11.64{\pm}4.05$ in the head, $12.16{\pm}4.38$ in the thorax, $12.05{\pm}2.71$ in the pelvis, and in case of CBCT performance, $14.59{\pm}3.51$ in the head, $15.82{\pm}2.89$ in the thorax, $17.48{\pm}2.80$ in the pelvis, respectively. Conclusion : In case of Inner dose, the MVCT using MV energy showed higher than the CBCT using kV energy at 1.16 times in the head, at 1.22 times in the thorax, at 1.08 times in the pelvis, and in case of surface dose, the CBCT was higher than MVCT, at 1.25 times in the head, at 1.30 times in the thorax, at 1.45 times in the pelvis. Imaging dose was a small amount compared to the therapeutic dose but it was thought to affect partially to normal tissue because it was done in daily schedule. However, IMRT treatment was necessarily parallel with the IGRT treatment through the image-guide to minimize errors between planned and actual treatment. Thus, to minimize imaging dose that the patients receive, when planning the treatment, it should be set up a treatment plan considering imaging dose, or it must be performed by minimizing the scan range when shooting MVCT.

Development of Adjustable Head holder Couch in H&N Cancer Radiation Therapy (두경부암 방사선 치료 시 Set-Up 조정 Head Holder 장치의 개발)

  • Shim, JaeGoo;Song, KiWon;Kim, JinMan;Park, MyoungHwan
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2014
  • In case of all patients who receive radiation therapy, a treatment plan is established and all steps of treatment are planned in the same geometrical condition. In case of head and neck cancer patients who undergo simulated treatment through computed tomography (CT), patients are fixed onto a table for planning, but laid on the top of the treatment table in the radiation therapy room. This study excogitated and fabricated an adjustable holder for head and neck cancer patients to fix patient's position and geometrical discrepancies when performing radiation therapy on head and neck cancer patients, and compared the error before and after adjusting the position of patients due to difference in weight to evaluate the correlation between patients' weight and range of error. Computed tomography system(High Advantage, GE, USA) is used for phantom to maintain the supine position to acquire the images of the therapy site for IMRT. IMRT 4MV X-rays was used by applying the LINAC(21EX, Varian, U.S.A). Treatment planning system (Pinnacle, ver. 9.1h, Philips, Madison, USA) was used. The setup accuracy was compared with each measurement was repeated five times for each weight (0, 15, and 30Kg) and CBCT was performed 30 times to find the mean and standard deviation of errors before and after the adjustment of each weight. SPSS ver.19.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL,USA) statistics program was used to perform the Wilcoxon Rank test for significance evaluation and the Spearman analysis was used as the tool to analyze the significance evaluation of the correlation of weight. As a result of measuring the error values from CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was $0.4{\pm}0.8mm$, $0.8{\pm}0.4mm$, 0 for 0Kg before the adjustment. In 15Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was $0.2{\pm}0.8mm$, $1.2{\pm}0.4mm$, $2.0{\pm}0.4mm$. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was $0.2{\pm}0.4mm$, $0.4{\pm}0.5mm$, $0.4{\pm}0.5mm$. In 30Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was $0.8{\pm}0.4mm$, $2.4{\pm}0.5mm$, $4.4{\pm}0.8mm$. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was $0.6{\pm}0.5mm$, $1.0{\pm}0mm$, $0.6{\pm}0.5mm$. When the holder for the head and neck cancer was used to adjust the ab.0ove error value, the error values from CBCT were $0.2{\pm}0.8mm$ for the X axis, $0.40{\pm}0.54mm$ for Y axis, and 0 for Z axis. As a result of statistically analyzing each value before and after the adjustment the value was significant with p<0.034 at the Z axis with 15Kg of weight and with p<0.038 and p<0.041 at the Y and Z axes respectively with 30Kg of weight. There was a significant difference with p<0.008 when the analysis was performed through Kruscal-Wallis in terms of the difference in the adjusted values of the three weight groups. As it could reduce the errors, patients' reproduction could be improved for more precise and accurate radiation therapy. Development of an adjustable device for head and neck cancer patients is significant because it improves the reproduction of existing equipment by reducing the errors in patients' position.