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A SURVEY OF DENTAL TREATMENT UNDER OUTPATIENT GENERAL ANESTHESIA IN DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY AND CLINIC FOR DISABLED AT YONSEI UNIVERSITY DENTAL HOSPITAL (연세대학교 치과대학병원 소아치과 및 장애인 클리닉에서 시행된 외래 전신마취하의 치료에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Dong-Woo;Song, Je-Seon;Choi, Hyung-Jun;Kang, Jeong-Wan;Lee, Jae-Ho
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2010
  • General anesthesia has been researched and developed in dentistry as on type of management technique to sedate patients who may be uncontrollable or require medical consideration. There has been continuous research into this area, but analysis of large set of patients over a sustained period of time is lacking. Thus, this study analyzes the records of patients who received general anesthesia at the Yonsei University Dental Hospital Department of Pediatric and Clinic for the Disabled. 1. Patient's age ranged from 1 to 66, with under 5 being the largest group with 410 members(38.5%). The study included more men than women, with 695 male members(65.3%). 2. Type of dental procedure performed were as follows(per person) : 5.6 Dental restoration; 2.3 Endodontic treatment of deciduous and primary teeth; 2.5 preformed crowning; and 1.6 extractions. Procedures took an average of 100 minutes. 3. 1022 patients(95.9%) received dental care under general anesthesia once and 43 patients(4.1%) received dental care under general anesthesia two or more times. Dentistry under general anesthesia has the many benefit. However, without appropriate post-treatment care, it is difficult to maintain good oral health. Therefore, it is important to improve the efficiency and safety of general anesthesia through future research.

Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children (12주간의 학교 비만 관리 프로그램이 초등학교 비만 아동에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Han Gyu;Lim, Goh-woon;Kim, Hae Soon;Hong, Young Mi
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods : A total of 995 children (6-2 years old) in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI) ${\geq}95$ percentile) were enrolled for a study group. The schoo-lbased, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed before and after the program.Results : Height and weight increased significantly (P <0.05). The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P <0.01). Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P <0.01). BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR) increased significantly on the BIA (P <0.01). Fat decreased significantly (P <0.05). The total body water (TBW) and percent body fat (PBF) decreased significantly (P <0.01). The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P <0.05). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P <0.01). Conclusion : The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

The Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Pediatric Population (한국 소아 청소년에서 비만 및 대사 이상의 유병률)

  • Nho, Han-Nae;Kim, Cu-Rie;Uhm, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Jeong-Tae;Jin, Sun-Mi;Seo, Ji-Young;Hahn, Hye-Won;Park, Hwa-Young;Yoon, Hye-Sun;Ahn, Young-Min;Shon, Keun-Chan
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Childhood obesity can be complicated by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and metabolic complications of children and adolescents based on the degree of obesity. Methods: We analyzed the records of 8,880 students who received student health examinations between May 2006 and October 2008 at the Eulji General Hospital. The prevalence of obesity was evaluated by the body mass index and obesity index. A total of 1,076 obese students had blood tests. We analyzed aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure according to the degree of obesity. Results: According to the body mass index, the overall prevalence of obesity was 7.2% (7.8% of male and 6.5% of female students). Based on the obesity index, 12.3% of students (mild: 6.3%, moderate: 5.0%, and severe: 1.0%) were obese. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, ALT elevation, and hypertension were increased as a function of the degree of obesity (p<0.05), but hyperglycemia showed no significant differences (p=0.298). The overall prevalence of ALT elevation was 17.7% (mild obese group, 10.4%; moderate obese group, 20.5%; and severe obese group, 46.8%). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were significantly higher in the elevated ALT group (24.7%, 42.6%, and 5.2%, respectively) compared to the normal ALT group (11.1%, 29.8%, and 2.0%, respectively; p<0.05). Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia, liver function test abnormalities, and hypertension were associated with the degree of obesity. We should focus our attention on managing obese children and adolescents to prevent metabolic complications.

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Socioeconomic Factors Relating to Obesity and Inadequate Nutrient Intake in Women in Low Income Families Residing in Seoul (서울지역 저소득층 여성의 비만 및 영양소 섭취 부족과 관련된 사회경제적 요인)

  • Hwang, Ji-Yun;Ru, Sung-Yeap;Ryu, Han-Kyoung;Park, Hee-Jung;Kim, Wha-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.171-182
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate socioeconomic factors relating to obesity and inadequate nutrient intake in women in low income families residing in Seoul. The subjects were 125 women (aged 41-87 y) recruited from the local health center for free health examination for low income families. The socioeconomic status such as educational level, income level, and housing condition were poor. For subjects aged less than 65 years, the prevalence of obesity was 44% based on BMI (${\geq}\;25\;kg/m^2$), 48% based on WHR (${\geq}\;0.85$), and 50% based on waist circumference (${\geq}\;80\;cm$) and for those more than 65 years, these were greater and 57%, 81%, and 79%, respectively. The main food sources of daily diet were vegetables, grains, and fruits. Energy and other nutrient intake was not adequate for all subjects and the inadequacy was more profound in the elderly, showing percentages of subjects whose intake was less than EAR were greater than 50% for all nutrients except for iron and below RI were also greater than 50% for all nutrients. The prevalence of obesity and nutrient inadequacy were not associated with socioeconomic status in subjects aged less than 65 years, however, obesity was associated with household income and nutrient inadequacy was related to education (vitamin A) and housing status (protein, phosphate, and iron) in the elderly. After adjustment for ages, in the elderly, OR for obesity (BMI ${\geq}$ 25, OR = 12.601; 95% CI = 2.338-67.911) and central obesity (WC ${\geq}$ 80 cm, OR = 4.778; 95% CI = 1.103-20.696) were greater in subjects who earned less than 500 thousand Won per month than who earned more. For inadequate nutrient intake, the OR for inadequate intake of Vitamin A (OR = 4.555; 95% CI = 1.491-13.914) was greater in subjects with no education than those educated. Subjects without her own house had greater risk for inadequate intake for protein (OR = 3.660; 95% CI = 1.118-11.981), phosphate (OR = 3.428; 95% CI = 1.157-10.158), and iron (OR = 3.765; 95% CI = 1.205-11.766) than subjects possessing her house. In elderly females in low income families, the socioeconomic status was associated with the risk for obesity (income level) and inadequate nutrient intake (education level and housing status). More attention on these groups should be given for prevention of obesity and inadequate nutrient intake.

The Clinical Usefulness Measurement of the Whole Body Percent Fat Calculated by the Part Bone Mineral Density Measurement (부분골밀도 측정을 통해 산출되는 체지방률의 임상적 유용성에 대한 평가)

  • Kang, Young-Eun;Kim, Eun-Hye;Kim, Ho-Sung;Choi, Jong-Sook;Choi, Woo-Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Generally dual energy X-ray absorptiometry has been used for the purpose of evaluation of osteoporosis and treatment. Recently the interest of obesity came to be high and body percent fat test is increasing. Existing measure of body fat have to scan the whole body can be evaluated, but only lumbar spine and hip measurements was assumed to be whole body fat as well as improving the software. It tries to check whether the part measured value not being whole body measurement has the validity or not compared with the value calculated with the method that it is different, it forgives through a correlation with a (BIA) and (BMI). Materials and Methods: In 2010, the body percent fat was measured among the examinee coming to the Asan Medical Center public health care center from March till August against 90 females more than 40 years old through (DXA) and BIA. BMI utilized the value which wrote an hight and weight measured through the body measuring instrument in the examinee information and is automatically calculated. In addition, it classified as the low weight ($13-18.5kg/m^2$), normal ($18.5-25kg/m^2$), and corpulence ($25-30kg/m^2$) based on BMI and so that it could check whether there was the difference according to the weight or not BMI and BIA and correlation between DXA were analyzed in each group. The statistical program for the analysis used SPSS 12.0. Results: The comparison of DXA at 3 which it divides into the low weight and normal and corpulence groups and BIA did not show the difference noted statistically in all groups and the between group comparison was exposed to do not have a meaning. The body percent fat measured by the correlation analysis result DXA at the state that it doesn't divide into the group showed the high correlation (r=0.908, p0.01) noted statistically compared with BMI and showed the high correlation noted statistically in a comparison with BIA (r=0.927, p0.01). Conclusion: It confirmed that the whole body percent fat presumed from the part bone density measurement showed the excel correlation compared with BIA and BMI and information is high. There is still no clear standard about the presumed whole body percent fat and it is difficult to evaluate the fat evaluation by the bone mineral density measurement. However, it is determined that the information offering which is more objective through the comparative study with the body percent fat which is very efficient and in that it can obtain till the information about a fat as well as diagnosis of the osteoporosis through the bone density checkup is measured by the afterward telegraph bone density checkup and is clinically useful is possible.

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Mediastinal Tumors and Cysts - Forty-two years report in a University Hospital - (원발성 종격동 종양 및 낭종의 진단과 치료 -단일 대학병원에서의 42년 보고-)

  • Park, Moo Suk;Chung, Kyung Young;Kim, Kil Dong;Lee, Hong Lyeol;Chung, Jae Ho;Hahn, Chang Hoon;Moon, Jin Wook;Kim, Young Sam;Shin, Dong Hwan;Kim, Se Kyu;Kim, Hyung Joong;Chang, Joon;Ahn, Chul Min;Kim, Sung Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 2004
  • Background : The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to mediastinal tumors and cysts have changed over the past three decades. This report summarizes our forty-two years of experience with these tumors. Methods : This study retrospectively reviewed 479 patients with primary mediastinal tumors and cysts that were diagnosed and managed over the past 17-year period (1985~2002) and compared them to the report of the previous 25-year result (1960~1985) in Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital in Seoul, Korea. Results : During the 17 years, there were 479 cases of pathologically proven mediastinal tumors and cysts. Thymoma (38.2%) was the most common mediastinal tumor and has increased noticeably during recent years. The gender ratio showed a male predominance (1.3:1) and the age distributions were even over all the age groups. The most common sites of the tumor and the proportion(28.6%) of malignant tumors were the same as that previously reported. A diagnosis of a tumor in asymptomatic patients was possible in 174 cases (36.3%), which was higher that reported previously. The diagnostic yield of a fine needle aspiration biopsy was 68.6% in the total tumors and 80.9% in the malignant tumors. A surgical resection was the most frequently chosen treatment modality and was performed in 405 cases (84.6%). The complete resection rate was 91.1%, which is higher than the previous result of 78.8%. Conclusion : These results showed that the prevalence of mediastinal tumors and cysts, particularly thymoma, increased. A fine needle aspiration biopsy was a valuable preoperative differential diagnostic method for malignant tumors. The surgical and complete resection rate increased remarkably possibly due to the better applicable chest CT scans, the more frequent health check-up provided by the regular health promotion program for all people as a health insurance policy, and the improved diagnostic techniques in the pathologic, radiological, and clinical fields.

A Studs on Exposure to Organic Dust and Ammonia in Poultry Confinement Buildings (일부 육용 양계 농업인의 유기먼지와 암모니아 노출에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Cheol-Lim;Lee, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Kyung-Ran;Kang, Tae-Sun;Paik, Nam-Won
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.303-314
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to assess exposure levels of organic dusts and ammonia in poultry farms in Korea. Methods: A total of six poultry farms were investigated. The farms were located in Namwon, Chonlabuk-do and in Kae-San, Chungchongbuk-do. This study consisted of a questionnaire and measuring organic dusts and ammonia. The questionnaire included the characteristics of the farms, work patterns and the tasks of the poultry farms. Results and Conclusions: The farmers raised the chickens 45 times a year and the average number of years in the poultry farm were eight years ranging from 2 to 12 years. They worked for seven days per week and the average hours spent caring the chickens are 6.3 hours per day. The duration of staying in the confinement buildings was 3.3 hours per day. The work time in summer was longest. The feed and the water supply systems were automatic and the control of ventilation windows used "winch curtain" was semiautomatic. They used mechanical ventilation system in winter and used dilution ventilation system in the other seasons. The geometric mean concentration of total and respirable dust sampled in the poultry confinement buildings was 4.0 mg/$m^3$and 0.9 mg/$m^3$ respectively. The ratio of respirable to total dusts range from 9 to 49 percent. There was no sample exceeding the criteria 10 mg/$m^3$ for total dust and 3 mg/$m^3$ for respirable dust in farms. The criteria have been recommended by Korean Ministry of Labor and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist. The personal respirable dusts measured during a circle work averaged geometric mean concentration 1.4 mg/$m^3$ Two personal samples were exceeded the threshold 3 mg/$m^3$. There was a positive relation between an index and the personal samples of respirable dusts($R^2$=0.98). The index is calculated by multipling the total number of chickens in the farm by the age of the chickens and then dividing by the volume of the confinement building. The geometric mean concentration of area and personal ammonia samples was 23.3 ppm and 22.2 ppm, respectively. Some of the ammonia samples, both area and personal samples, exceeded the short term exposure limit value 35 ppm.

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Evaluation of Social Nicotine Dependence Using the Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND-K) Questionnaire in Korea (Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence(KTSND-K) 설문지를 통한 한국인의 사회적 니코틴의존성의 평가)

  • Jeong, Jae Hee;Choi, Sang Bong;Jung, Wou Young;Byun, Min Gwang;Park, Moo Suk;Kim, Young Sam;Kim, Se Kyu;Chang, Joon;Yoshii, Chiharu;Kim, Sung Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.5
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 2007
  • Background: Smoking is one of the most important leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Smoking habit is recognized as nicotine dependence, which consists of physical and psychosocial dependence. To evaluate social nicotine dependence, the Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND) working group developed a new questionnaire, which consists of 10 questions with a total score of 30 in Japan. We examined the social nicotine dependence among healthy adults using the new KTSND questionnaire and evaluated validity of the KTSND questionnaire in Korea. Method: We applied Korean KTSND questionnaire version 2 to employees of hospital, university students and people for medical examination and promotion test. Complete data obtained from the 741 responders were analyzed. Result: The mean age of responders was 31.8 years. Among them, males were 57.8%. Current smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers were 13.8%, 12.8%, and 73.4% respectively. According to smoking status, the total KTSND scores of current smokers were significantly higher than those of ex-smokers, and of non-smokers ($17.1{\pm}5.4$ versus $14.3{\pm}5.5$, and $12.3{\pm}5.5$, $p{\leq}0.001$). The total KTSND scores of males were higher than those of females, suggesting that males have a propensity for depending nicotine socially much more than females ($14.3{\pm}5.7$ and $11.7{\pm}5.4$ respectively, p<0.001). Eight of ten questions produced significantly different scores among three different smoking groups. When current smokers were sub-classified by heavy smoking index (HSI) that represented physical nicotine dependence, we did not find a significant difference of KTSND score between low HSI group (<4) and high HSI group (${\geq}4$), This finding suggested that the psychosocial dependence might play a different role from physical nicotine dependence in smoking. Most of the non-smokers (62.5%) had an experience of harmful passive smoking especially in public place. Conclusion: Our study suggested that the KTSND questionnaire could be a useful method to evaluate psychosocial aspects of smoking.

Age Related Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis A Virus, Performed in Korea in 2005 (국내에서 2005년에 실시한 연령별 A형 간염 바이러스 항체 보유율)

  • Choi, Hea Jin;Lee, Soo Young;Ma, Sang Hyuk;Kim, Jong Hyun;Hur, Jae Kyun;Kang, Jin-Han
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.186-194
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Hepatitis A viral infections have been continued after re-emerging since mid 1990s in Korea. The incidence of this disease has been increased in young adults younger than 30 years of age since 2000. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A in Korea(two regions; Incheon and Changwon) in 2005, and was compared with the results of similar studies in mid 1990s. Methods : The study was conducted from January 2005 to June 2005, and consisted of 1,301 enrolled subjects, neonates to 50 years old, living in Incheon and Changwon in Korea. All sera were frozen and stored at $-70^{\circ}C$ until assayed. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were measured by microparticle enzyme immunoassay(HAVAB, Abbott Lab., IL, USA). Results : The prevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 61.1% in infants younger than 1 year old, 30.5% in 1~5 years, 14.6% in 6~10 years, 1.7% in 11~15 years, 6.5% in 16~20 years, 36.6%in 21~30 years, 77.5% in 31~40 years, and 99.8% in 41~50 years. Statistical differences were not found between male and female, but there was statistical difference in 6~10 years old age group between the two areas. Conclusion : Our study indicate that the prevalence of antihepatitis A virus antibody has shifted from children to old adolescents and young adults. This result suggests that the risk of sudden outbreaks or increasing incidence of hepatitis A viral infections in young adults may be expected in our society. The preventive strategies of hepatitis A including vaccination should be prepared.

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Ultrasonography findings on thyroid nodule with no clinical symptom (임상적 증상이 없는 갑상선 결절에 대한 초음파영상 소견)

  • Kim, Wha-Sun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2005
  • This study obtained the following conclusions by analyzing whether or not thyroid nodule, the number of nodules depending on age and gender, and the developed site of nodule, targeting 838 persons in their 30s-70s who were conducted the thyroid ultrasonography, without clinical symptoms, at the Health Promotion Center. 1. As for the general characteristics of 838 research subjects, men were 368 persons(44%), and women were 470 persons (56%), and the mean age was 51. 2. Among 838 whole subjects, a case, which was diagnosed to be normal, was 590 persons(70%), and persons with nodules findings were 248 persons (30%), thus it was indicated 30% on an average in having the thyroid nodules findings. 3. As for the frequency by age level in thyroid nodule, it was represented men with 10%-14% and women with $20{\sim}29%$ in their $30{\sim}40s$, and men with $27{\sim}33%$ and women with 37-52% in their 50-60s, and men with 46% and women with 50% in their 70s. 4. As a result of obtaining 248 persons, who have thyroid nodules findings, with the solitary nodule and the multiple nodule, it was indicated the solitary nodule of 50.5% with 125 persons and the multiple nodule of 49.5%, thereby representing the almost same ratio. 5. As for the size of thyroid nodule, the majority in all the age levels had the nodule in small size, and the size of $1{\sim}10\;mm$ was largest with 187 persons (75%) among 248 persons with abnormal findings, and it was 45 persons (18%) in $11{\sim}20\;mm$, 14 persons (5.6%) in $21{\sim}30\;mm$, and 2 persons in more than 31 mm. 6. As for the anatomically developed site in nodule, it was indicated the right lobe with 93 persons (38%), the left lobe with 67 persons (27%), both lobes with 75 persons (30%), and isthmus with 13 persons (5.3%), thereby representing the largest frequency in the right lobe, and it was discovered less in isthmus.

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