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The relationships between lead exposure indicies and urinary δ-ALA by HPLC and colorimetric method in lead exposure workers (연노출근로자에 있어서 흡광광도법과 HPLC법에 의한 요중 δ-ALA 배설량과 연노출지표들 간의 관련성)

  • Ahn, Kyu-Dong;Lee, Sung-Soo;Hwangbo, Young;Lee, Gab-Soo;Yeon, You-Yong;Kim, Yong-Bae;Lee, Byung-Kook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 1996
  • In order to compare the difference of the measurement of delta aminolevulinic acid(${\delta}$-ALA) in urine between HPLC method(HALA) and colorimetric method(CALA), and also to provide useful information for the new diagnostic criteria of ${\delta}$-ALA in urine in lead poisoning, if at all possible in the future, authors studied 234 male lead workers who were selected from 7 storage battery factories, 3 secondary smelting industries, and 2 litharge making industries. Study subjects were selected on the basis of blood Zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP) level from low to high concentration to cover wide range of lead exposure. Study variables for this study were ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two different methods, blood lead(PbB), and blood ZPP. The results were as follows: 1. There was very high correlation between ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two method(r = 0.989 : HALA = -0.8194 + 0.8110 ${\times}$ CALA), but the value of CALA was measured about 2mg/L greater than HALA. 2. While the correlations of ${\delta}$-ALA by two method with blood lead and blood ZPP were 0.46 and 0.37 respectively, they were increased to 0.63 and 0.57 if ${\delta}$-ALA values were log-transformed. 3. Simple linear regression of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two method on ZPP were as follows: CALA = 2.0421 + 0.0341 ${\times}$ ZPP ($R^2=0.1385$ p = 0.0001) HALA = 0.8006 + 0.0280 ${\times}$ ZPP ($R^2=0.1389$ p = 0.0001) 4. Simple linear regression of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two method on PbB were as follows: CALA = - 0.4134 + 0.1545 ${\times}$ PbB ($R^2=0.2085$ p = 0.0001) HALA = -1.2893 + 0.1287 PbB ($R^2=0.2154$ p = 0.0001), 5. Simple linear regression of log-transformed ${\delta}$-ALA by two method on ZPP and PbB were as follows: logHALA = 0.3078 + 0.0060 ZPP ($R^2=0.3329$ p = 0.0001) logCALA = 1.0189 + 0.0044 ZPP ($R^2=0.3290$ p = 0.0001) logHALA = -0.0221 + 0.0246 PbB ($R^2=0.4046$ p = 0.0001) logCALA = 0.7662 + 0.0184 PbB ($R^2=0.4108$ p = 0.0001) 6. The cumulative percent of colorimetric method to detect lead workers whose value of PbS and ZPP were over screening level such as $40{\mu}/dl$ and $100{\mu}/dl$ respectively was higher than HPLC method if cut-off level of ${\delta}$-ALA for screening of lead poisoning was 5 mg/L. But if cut-off level of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by HPLC was reduced to 3 mg/L which is compatible to 5 mg/L of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by colorimetric method, there were good agreement between two methods and showed dose-response relationship with other lead exposure indices such as PbB and ZPP.

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체질별(體質別) 식품표(食品表)에 근거한 태음인(太陰人), 소음인(少陰人), 소양인(少陽人) 당뇨식단(1800kcal)의 초보(初步)적 제시

  • Kim, Ji-Yeong;Go, Byeong-Hui
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.395-411
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    • 1996
  • 1. 연구배경 사상체질의학(四象體質醫學)을 창시하여 개인(個人)의 차별성(差別性)을 강조한 동무(東武) 이제마(李濟馬)는 양생(養生)의 방법(方法)에서도 체질별(體質別) 요법(療法)을 말하고 있는데 체질별(體質別)로 과소지장(過小之臟)의 기능(機能)이 정상적(正常的)으로 이루어지는 상황을 완실무병(完實無病)의 조건으로 제시(提示)하였고 이를 위한 수단(手段)으로 성정(性情)과 함께 약물(藥物), 식품(食品) 등을 이용하였다. 특히 식이요법(食餌療法)에 있어서도 체질(體質)에 따른 구별(區別)의 필요성(必要性)을 말하고 있는데 식품(食品)이라 하더라도 그 음식(飮食)을 섭취하여 과대(過大)한 장기(臟器)의 기능(機能)은 유제(柳制)하고 과소(過小)한 기능(機能)은 보완(補完)받음으로써 불균형(不均衡)을 조정(調整)한 것이다. 당뇨병의 식단 작성은 평생동안 열량(熱量)과 영양소(營養素) 필요치(必要置)을 맞출 것을 권장하고 당뇨병학회에서 편집한 식품교환표(食品交換表)를 사용(使用)하는 것이 일반적(一般的)인데 식품교환표(食品交換表)는 많은 식품(食品)들중에 같은 영양소를 가진 식품(食品)들을 한 그룹으로 묶어 환자(患者)의 기호(嗜好)에 따라 교환(交煥)해 가면서 먹을 수 있도록 고안(考案)한 것이니 이에 지시한 수량(數量)만 섭취해도 저(低)cal식(食)으로 관양(管養)의 균형(均衡)이 잘 이루어진다. 본 연구는 체질별로 이로운 식품표에 근거하여 식이요법(食餌療法)이 특히 강조되고 하루 섭취열량이 제한되는 성인병중의 하나인 당뇨병(糖尿病)의 식단(1800kcal)을 식단작성법에 따라 구성(構成)하여 몇가지 예를 제시해 보았다. 구체적으로 태음인(太陰人), 소음인(少陰人), 소양인(少陽人)의 당뇨 환자 1800kcal에 대한 식단을 구성하여 제시했는데 즉, 태음인(太陰人)의 식단은 태음인(太陰人)에 유리(有利)한 식품(食品)들로 구성하고 해(害)로운 식품(食品)들은 제외시키는 방법(方法)을 이용하였다. 이 식단은 다분히 이론적(理論的)인 식단으로 임상(臨床)에 이용(利用)하여 본 바는 없으나 동량(同量)의 열량(熱量)을 섭취(攝取)하더라도 체질(體質)에 적합(適合)한 식품(食品)으로 구성된 식사(食事)가 각 체질의 섭생(攝生)에 더 유리(有利)하지 않올까 하는 단순(單純)한 사고(思考)에 바탕을 둔 것이다. 2. 연구방법 1) 후세가(後世家)가 주장(主張)한 체질별(體質別) 식품(食品) 분류(分類)를 종합, 정리한 체질별(體質別) 식품표(食品表)를 제시한다. 박석언의 동의사상대전, 박인상의 동의사상요결, 송일병의 알기 쉬운 사상의학, 홍순용의 사상진료보원, 홍순용, 이을호의 사상의학원론에서 체질별로 유익한 식풍을 조사하여 곡류, 과일류, 채소류, 어패류, 육류로 분류하여 살펴본다. 2) 당뇨병(糖尿病) 식이요법의 식단 작성법의 개요(槪要)를 제시한다. 3) 1)의 체질별(體質別) 식품표(食品表)로 태음인(太陰人), 소음인(少陰人), 소양인(少陽人)의 당뇨 식단 1800kcal을 작성해 제시(提示)한다. 체질별(體質別)로 유익(有益)한 식품(食品)은 1)의 식품표에 근거(根據)하고 체질별(體質別)로 해(害)로운 식품(食品)은 노정우(盧正祐), 한동석(韓東錫)의 주장에 근거(根據)한다. 3. 결과 체질별(體質別) 식품표(食品表)는 후세가의 연구를 종합하여 제시(提示)하였고, 식품(食品)을 분류(分類)한 후(後) 약명(藥名)과 성미(性味), 귀경(歸經)을 찾아 도표화 하였다. 체질별 식품들은 대부분 소음인(少陰人)의 경우 신감(辛甘) 온열(溫熱)하며 비위(脾胃)로 귀경(歸經)하고 태음인(太陰人)의 경우 감신(甘辛) 온열(溫熱)하며 폐간(肺肝)으로 귀경(歸經)하고 소양인(少陽人)의 산고(酸苦) 양한(凉寒)하고 신(腎)으로 귀경(歸經)함이 우세(優勢)함을 알 수 있다. 즉, 체질적으로 양성(陽性)인 소양인(少陽人)은 식품의 성질이 음성(陰性)인 것이 유리(有利)하고 체질적으로 음성(陰性)인 태음인(太陰人), 소음인(少陰人)은 식품의 성질이 양성(陽性)인 것이 유리(有利)하다. 다양한 식품(食品)을 섭취하고자 하는 환자의 욕구(慾求)에 맞추면서도 식품교환의 범위를 체질별로 유익한 식품들로 제한하여 동일(同一)한 열량(熱量)의 식단이라도 체질에 맞는 식품으로 차별성(差別性)을 두었는데 식단의 작성은 전문 영양사의 의견을 거쳤다. 제시된 식단은 다소 이론적(理論的)으로 작성(作成)된 단계이고 임상적(臨床的) 검증을 거친 바 없으나 활용하기에 따라 실용성을 얻을 수 있으리라 본다. <식단예> 태음인의 식단: 곡류 : 콩, 율무, 밀가루, 밀, 수수, 들깨, 고구마, 땅콩, 기장, 옥수수, 두부, 설탕등 태음인에 유리한 식품으로 교환한다 어때류 : 우렁이, 대구, 조기, 민어, 청어, 오정어, 낙지, 미역, 김, 다시마등으로 교환한다 육류 : 소고기, 우유등으로 교환한다 과일류 : 밤, 배, 호도, 은행, 잣, 살구, 매실, 자두등으로 교환한다 채소류 : 무우, 도라지, 연근, 토란, 마, 고사리, 더덕, 목이버섯, 송이버섯, 석이버섯등으로 교환한다 해로운 음식 : 닭, 돼지, 모밀, 배추, 사과, 염소고기, 조개, 계란, 곳감, 커피등은 피한다 * 아침 ; 콩나물죽, 대구포묶음, 우령이무침, 갓김치, 우유, 자두 점심 ; 기장밥, 콩나물두부찌게, 장어양념구이, 도라지나물, 열무김치, 배 저녁 ; 수수밥, 두부명란, 더덕양념구이, 깍두기 * 아침 ; 비빔국수, 토란국, 알타리김치, 두유, 살구주스 점심 ; 율무밥, 낙지전골, 김무생채, 느타리나물무침, 동치미, 귤 저녁 ; 콩밥, 감자북어국, 두부묶음, 열무김치 소음인의 식단: 곡류 : 찹쌀, 좁쌀, 차조, 감자등 소음인에 유익한 식품으로 교환한다 어패류 : 명태, 미꾸라지, 뱀장어, 뱀, 메기등 육류 : 닭, 개, 꿩, 염소, 양, 참새고기등 과일류 : 사과, 귤, 복숭아, 대추등 채소류 : 미나리, 파, 마늘, 후추, 시금치, 양배추, 생강, 고추, 당근, 양파, 감자, 쑥갓등 해로운 음식 : 메밀, 호도, 계란, 고구마, 녹두, 돼지고기, 밤, 배, 배추, 보리, 쇠고기, 수박, 오이, 참외, 팥등은 피한다. * 아침 ; 찰밥, 닭찜, 감자전, 쑥갓나물, 부추김치, 사과 점심 ; 감자밥, 메기매운탕, 명태조림, 미나리, 고들빼기김치, 사과주스 저녁 ; 좁쌀밥, 양배추감자국, 병어양념구이, 연근양념조림, 귤, 인삼차.

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The Validation Study of the Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Classification (the 2nd edition revised in 1995) - In the field of profile analysis (사상체질분류검사지(四象體質分類檢査紙)(QSCC)II에 대(對)한 타당화(妥當化) 연구(硏究) -각(各) 체질집단(體質集團)의 군집별(群集別) Profile 분석(分析)을 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Lee, Jung-Chan;Go, Byeong-Hui;Song, Il-Byeong
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.247-294
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    • 1996
  • By means of the statistical data which has been collected with newly revised QSCC made use of the outpatient group examined at Kyung-Hee Medical Center and an open ordinary person group, the author proceeded statistical analysis for the validation study of the revised questionnaire itself. First, check the accurate discrimination rate by performing discriminant analysis on the statistical data of the patient group. And next, sought T-score by applying the norms gained in process of standadization of the open ordinary person group to the Sasang scale score of the outpatient group and investigated the distinctive feature between the subpopulations which was devided in the process of multivarite cluster analysis. The result was summarized as follows ; 1. The validity of the questionnaire was established through the fact that the accurate discrimination rate the ratio between predicted group and actual group was figured out 70.08%. 2. At the profile analysis the response to the relevant scale showed notable upward tendency in each constitutional group and therefore it seems to be pertinent in the field of constitutional discrimination. 3. In the observation of the power of expression through the profile analysis of each constitutional group the Soyang group demonstrated the most remarkable outcome, the Soeum group was the most inferior and the Taieum group revealed a sort of dual property. 4. What is called the group of seceder out of three subpopulation of each constitutional group distinguished definitely from the contrasted groups at the point of the distinctive profile feature and the content is like following description. (1) The seceder group of Soyang-in showed considerably passive disposition differently from general character of ordinary Soyang group and an appearance attracting the attention is that they demonstrated comparatively higher response at Soeum scale (2) The seceder group of Taieum-in gained low scores in general that informed the passive disposition of the group and the other way of the general property of Taieum group which showed accompanied ascension in Taiyang-Taieum scales they demonstrated sharply declined score at Taiyang scale (3) The seceder group of Soeum-in demonstrated distinctive property similar to the profile feature of Soyang group and it notifies that the passive property of Soeum group was diluted for the most part. According to the above result, the validity of newly revised questionnaire has been proven successfully and the property of seceder groups could be noticed to some degree through the profile analysis on the course of this study. The result of this study is expected to use as a research materials to produce next edition of the questionnaire and it is regarded that further inquisition about the difference between the seceder group and the contrasted group is required for the promotion of the questionnaire as it refered several times in the contents of the main discourse.

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The detection of collapsible airways contributing to airflow limitation (기류 제한에 영향을 미치는 허탈성 기도의 분석)

  • Kim, Yun Seong;Park, Byung Gyu;Lee, Kyong In;Son, Seok Man;Lee, Hyo Jin;Lee, Min Ki;Son, Choon Hee;Park, Soon Kew
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.558-570
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    • 1996
  • Background : The detection of Collapsible airways has important therapeutic implications in chronic airway disease and bronchial asthma. The distinction of a purely collapsible airways disease from that of asthma is important because the treatment of the dormer may include the use of pursed lip breathing or nasal positive pressure ventilation whereas in the latter, pharmacologic approaches are used. One form of irreversible airflow limitation is collapsible airways, which has been shown to be a Component of asthma or to emphysema, it can be assessed by the volume difference between what exits the lung as determined by a spirometer and the volume compressed as measured by the plethysmography. Method : To investigate whether volume difference between slow and forced vital Capacity(SVC-FVC) by spirometry may be used as a surrogate index of airway collapse, we examined pulmonary function parameters before and after bronchodilator agent inhalation by spirometry and body plethysmography in 20 cases of patients with evidence of airflow limitation(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 12 cases, stable bronchial asthma 7 cases, combined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with asthma 1 case) and 20 cases of normal subjects without evidence of airflow limitation referred to the Pusan National University Hospital pulmonary function laboratory from January 1995 to July 1995 prospectively. Results : 1) Average and standard deviation of age, height, weight of patients with airflow limitation was $58.3{\pm}7.24$(yr), $166{\pm}8.0$(cm), $59.0{\pm}9.9$(kg) and those of normal subjects was $56.3{\pm}12.47$(yr), $165.9{\pm}6.9$(cm), $64.4{\pm}10.4$(kg), respectively. The differences of physical characteristics of both group were not significant statistically and male to female ratio was 14:6 in both groups. 2) The difference between slow vital capacity and forced vital capacity was $395{\pm}317ml$ in patients group and $154{\pm}176ml$ in normal group and there was statistically significance between two groups(p<0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were most higher when the cut-off value was 208ml. 3) After bronchodilator inhalation, reversible airway obstructions were shown in 16 cases of patients group, 7 cases of control group(p<0.05) by spirometry or body plethysmography d the differences of slow vital capacity and forced vital capacity in bronchodilator response group and nonresponse group were $300.4{\pm}306ml$, $144.7{\pm}180ml$ and this difference was statistically significant. 4) The difference between slow vital capacity and forced vital capacity before bronchodilator inhalation was correlated with airway resistance before bronchodilator(r=0.307 p=0.05), and the difference between slow vital capacity and forced vital capacity after bronchodilator was correlated with difference between slow vital capacity and forced vital capacity(r=0.559 p=0.0002), thoracic gas volume(r=0.488 p=0.002) before bronchodilator and airway resistance(r=0.583 p=0.0001), thoracic gas volume(r=0.375 p=0.0170) after bronchodilator, respectively. 5) The difference between slow vital capacity and forced vital capacity in smokers and nonsmokers was $257.5{\pm}303ml$, $277.5{\pm}276ml$, respectively and this difference did not reach statistical significance(p>0.05). Conclusion : The difference between slow vital capacity and forced vital capacity by spirometry may be useful for the detection of collapsible airway and may help decision making of therapeutic plans.

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Balloon dilatation for bronchial stenosis in Endobronchial Tuberculosis (협착성 기관지 결핵의 풍선카테타요법(II))

  • Ohn, Joon-Sang;Lee, Young-Sil;Yoon, Sang-Won;Son, Hyung-Dae;Kim, Chang-Seon;Seo, Jee-Young;Park, Mi-Ran;Rheu, Nam-Soo;Cho, Dong-Ill;Kwak, Byung-Kook
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.701-708
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    • 1996
  • Background : To evaluate the effect of the balloon dilatation in tuberculous bronchial stenosis, we performed balloon dilatation in 13 cases which had airway obstruction in main bronchus with the impairment of pulmonary function. Material and Methods: Thirteen women with tuberculous bronchial stenosis(9cases : left main bronchus, 4 cases: right main bronchus) underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation under the local anesthesia. Among the these patient, 9 cases were active endobronchial tuberculosis, and 4 cases were inactive. Immediate and long term follow-up(average 15.6months) assessments were done focused on change on PIT. The increase of FVC or FEV1 more than 15% after the procedure was considered effective. Complications after dilatation were evaluated in all patients. Result : 1) There were an decrease of self-audible wheezing in 75%(6/8), improvement of dyspnea in 62.5%(5/8), improvement of cough and expectoration in 50%(3/6), and improvement of chest discomfort in 50%(1/2). 2) Significant improvement of PFT was noted in 42.9%(3/7) of which respiratory symptoms duration was below 6 months. 8m, significant improvement of PFT was noted in only 25%(1/4) of which respiratory symptoms duration was above 12 months. 3) Active stage was 69.2%(9/13) and inactive was 30.8%(4/13). There was an significant improvement of PFT in 44.4%(4/9) of active stage, but, only 25%(1/4) of inactive stage was improved. 4) In 61.5%(8/13), FVC and FEV1 were increased to 35.5%, and 22.2% at post-dilatation 7 days. After 1 month later, FVC and FEV1 were increased to 54.7%, and 31.8% in 5 cases(38.5%). 4 cases in which long-term follow-up(average 19.8months) was possible the improvement of FVC, and FEV1 were 30.5%, and 10.1%. 5) Just after balloon dilatation therapy, transient leukocytosis or fever was noted in 30.8%(4/13), and blood-tinged sputum was noted in 30.8%(4/13). However, serious complication, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum or mediastinitis, was not noted. Conclusion : We conclude that tuberculous bronchial stenosis, which is on active stage, and short dulation of respiratory symptoms was more effective on balloon dilatation than inactive stage or long duration of respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, balloon dilatation is easier, much less invasive and expensive than open surgery. and cryotherapy or photoresection. Because of these advantage, we think that balloon dilatation could be the first choice for treating bronchial stenosis and could be done at first in early stage if unresponsiveness with steroid therapy is observed.

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The Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease (만성 폐질환 환자에서의 호흡재활치료의 효과)

  • Choe, Kang Hyeon;Park, Young Joo;Cho, Won Kyung;Lim, Chae Man;Lee, Sang Do;Koh, Youn Suck;Kim, Woo Sung;Kim, Dong Soon;Kim, Won Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.736-745
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    • 1996
  • Background : It is known that pulmonary rehabilitation improves dyspnea and exercise tolerance in patient with chronic lung disease, although it does not improve pulmonary function. But there is a controversy whether this improvement after pulmonary rehabilitation is due to increased aerobic exercise capacity. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation for 6 weeks on the pulmonary function, gas exchange, exercise tolerance and aerobic exercise capacity in patients with chronic lung disease. Methods : Pulmonary rehabilitations including education, muscle strengthening exercise and symptom-Umited aerobic exercise for six weeks, were performed in fourteen patients with chronic lung disease (COPD 11, bronchiectasis 1, IPF 1, sarcoidosis 1 ; mean age $57{\pm}4$ years; male 12, female 2). Pre- and post-rehabilitaion pulmonary function and exercise capacity were compared. Results: 1) Before the rehabilitation, FVC, $FEV_1$ and $FEF_{25-75%}$ of the patients were $71.5{\pm}6.4%$. $40.6{\pm}3.4%$ and $19.3{\pm}3.8%$ of predicted value respectively. TLC, FRC and RV were $130.3{\pm}9.3%$, $157.3{\pm}13.2%$ and $211.1{\pm}23.9%$ predicted respectively. Diffusing capacity and MVV were $59.1{\pm}1.1%$ and $48.6{\pm}6.2%$. These pulmonary functions did not change after pulmonary rehabilitation. 2) In the incremental exercise test using bicycle ergometer, maximum work rale ($57.7{\pm}4.9$) watts vs. $64.8{\pm}6.0$ watts, P=0.036), maximum oxygen consumption ($0.81{\pm}0.07$ L/min vs. $0.96{\mu}0.08$ L/min, P=0.009) and anaerobic threshold ($0.60{\pm}0.06$ L/min vs. $0.76{\mu}0.06$ L/min, P=0.009) were significantly increased after pulmonary rehabilitation. There was no improvement in gas exchange after rehabilitation. 3) Exercise endurances of upper ($4.5{\pm}0.7$ joule vs. $14.8{\pm}2.4$ joule, P<0.001) and lower extremity ($25.4{\pm}5.7$ joule vs. $42.6{\pm}7.7$ joule, P<0.001), and 6 minute walking distance ($392{\pm}35$ meter vs. $459{\pm}33$ meter, P<0.001) were significantly increased after rehabilitation. Maximum inspiratory pressure was also increased after rehabilitation ($68.5{\pm}5.4$ $CmH_2O$ VS. $80.4{\pm}6.4$ $CmH_2O$, P<0.001). Conclusion: The pulmonary rehabilitation for 6 weeks can improve exercise performance in patients with chronic lung disease.

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The Evaluation of IL-8 in the Serum of Pneumoconiotic patients (진폐증 환자에서의 혈청내 IL-8 농도)

  • Ahn, Hyeong Sook;Kim, Ji Hong;Chang, Hwang Sin;Kim, Kyung Ah;Lim, Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.945-953
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    • 1996
  • Background : Many acute and chronic lung diseases including pneumoconiosis are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of activated macrophages. These macrophages generate several inflammatory cell chemoattractants, by which neutrophil migrate from vascular compartment to the alveolar space. Recruited neutrophils secrete toxic oxygen radicals or proteolytic enzymes and induce inflammatory response. Continuing inflammatory response results in alteration of the pulmonary structure and irreversible fibrosis. Recently, a polypeptide with specific neutrophil chemotactic activity, interleukin-8(IL-8), has been cloned and isolated from a number of cells including : monocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts. IL-1 and/or TNF-${\alpha}$ preceded for the synthesis of IL-8, and we already observed high level of IL-1 and TNF-${\alpha}$ in the pneumoconioses. So we hypothesized that IL-8 may be a central role in the pathogenesis of pneumoconiosis. In order to evaluate the clinical utility of IL-8 as a biomarker in the early diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, we investigated the increase of IL-8 in the pneumoconiotic patient and the correlation between IL-8 level and progression of pneumoconiosis. Method : We measured IL-8 in the serum of 48 patients with pneumoconiosis and 16 persons without dust exposure history as a control group. Pneumoconiotic cases were divided into 3 groups according to ILO Classification : suspicious group(n=16), small opacity group(n=16) and large opacity group(n=16). IL-8 was measured by a sandwich enzytne immunoassay technique. All data were expressed as the $mean{\pm}standard$ deviation. Results: 1) The mean value of age was higher in the small opacity and large opacity group than comparison group, but smoking history was even. Duration of dust exposure was not different among 3 pneumoconiosis groups. 2) IL-8 level was $70.50{\pm}53.63pg/m{\ell}$ in the suspicious group, $107.50{\pm}45.88pg/m{\ell}$ in the small opacity group, $132.50{\pm}73.47pg/m{\ell}$ in the large opacity group and $17.85{\pm}33.85pg/m{\ell}$ in the comparison group. IL-8 concentration in all pneumoconiosis group was significant higher than that in the comparison group(p<0.001). 3) IL-8 level tended to increase with the progression of pneumoconiosis. Multiple comparison test using Anova/Scheffe analysis showed a significant difference between suspicious group and large opacity group(p<0.05). 4) The level of IL-8 was correlated with the progression of pneumoconiosis(r=0.4199, p<0.05). Conclusion : IL-8 is thought to be a good biomarker for the early diagnosis of pneumoconiosis.

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A Clinical Study on Transpulmonary Leukostasis and Prophylactic Effects of Steroid in Cardiac Surgery (심장수술시 백혈구의 폐내정체와 스테로이드의 예방적 효과에 관한 연구)

  • 최석철
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.133-151
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    • 1996
  • After cardiac surgery, it has been recognized that various complications were associated with injured humoral and cellular immunity by cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB). Especially, in postoperative pulmonary dysfunction, transpulmonary leukostasis followed complement activation and inflammatory responses are major pathogen. Some studies have showed that pretreated-corticosteroids before CPB protected postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. Corticosteroids may inhibit complement and leukocyte activation. On based previous studies, present investigator determined changes of leukocyte counts and transpulmonary leukostasis during cardiac surgery and postoperative periods. For the evaluation of postoperative pulmonary function and edema, $PaO_2$ and chest X-ray were compared between pre-CPB and post-CPB. Fever and other parameters were also observed postoperatively. The aim of this study was to define for the prophylactic effects of corticosteroid(Solu-Medrol: 30mg/kg) on all the researched parameters. This study was prospectively designed with randomized-blind fashion for 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. According to the purpose of study, all patients were divided into placebo and steroid group. : Placebo group was 25 patients received normal saline(not corticosteroid), and steroid group was 25patients received corticosteroid(Solu-Medrol: 30mg/kg) before initiation of CPB. The results of study were summarized as follows. 1. Total peripheral leukocyte counts decreased significantly at 5 minutes of CPB in all patients(P<0.01), and began to increase progressively at later periods of CPB with neutrophilia. The significant rise remained at postoperative 7th day(P<0.05). 2. During partial CPB, transpulmonary leukostasis occurred in placebo group(P<0.001), whereas it was prevented in steroid group. 3. In both groups, peripheral lymphocyte counts were stable during CPB, but began to reduce at time of intensive care unit(ICU) and the lymphocytopenia remained until postoperative 3rd day. The lymphocyte counts recovered on postoperative 7th day. 4. In both groups, peripheral counts of monocyte were relatively stable in the early peroid of CPB, and increased gradually in the later periods of CPB. This significant monocytosis remained throughout postoperlative periods(P<0.05). 5. The mean value of postoperative $paO)_2$ was lower than that of pre-CPB in placebo group(P=0.01) but didn't significant in steroid group(P=0.90). In the incidence of pulmonary edema signs and fever, placebo group was higher than steroid group(P=0.001, p=0.01, respectively). However mechanical respiratory supporting and care periods at intensive care unit were not significant difference between two groups(P>.0.05).With the above results, the investigator concluded that leukocyte activation and pulmonary sequestration were caused by cardiac surgery with CPB and demonstrated that high dose corticosteroid will provide prophylactic effect for pulmonary leukostasis and higher neutrophilia. These effects may ameliorate postoperative pulmonary dysfunction and contribute to postoperative less morbidity. However, further study should be performed because postoperative lymphocytopenia continued for 3 days in both groups, which may suspected damage or suppression of cell-mediated immunity with used corticosteroid.

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Changes in Immunogenicity of Preserved Aortic Allograft (보존된 동종동맥편 조직의 면역성 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 전예지;박영훈;강영선;최희숙;임창영
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1173-1181
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    • 1996
  • The causes of degenerative changes in allograft cardiac valves are not well known to this day. Today's preserved allografts possess highly viable endothelial cells and degeneration of allografts can be facilitated by immune reaction which may be mediated by these viable cells. To test the antigenicity of endothelial cells, pieces from aortic wall were obtained from fresh and cryo-preserved rat allograft. Timings of sampling were prior to sterilization, after sterilization, after 1, 2, 7, 14 days of fresh preservation and cryopreservation. Endothelial cells were tested by immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal antibodies to MHC class I(MRC OX-18), class II(MRC OX-6) and ICAM-1 antigens. After transplantation of each group of aortic allograft at the subcutaneous layers of rats, population of CD4$^{+}$ T cell and CD8$^{+}$ T cell were analyzed with monoclonal antibodies after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. MHC class I expression was 23.95% before preservation and increased to 35.53~48.08% after preservation(p=0.0183). MHC Class II expression was 9.72% before preservation and 10.13~13.39% after preservation(P=0.1599). ICAM-1 expression was 15.02% before preservation and increased to 19.85~35.33% after preservation(P=0.001). The proportion of CD4$^{+}$ T-cell was 42.13% before transplantation. And this was 49.23~36.8% after transplantation in No treat group (p=0.955), decreased to 29.56~32.80% in other group(p=0.0001~0.008). In all the groups, the proportion of CD8$^{+}$ T-cell increased from 25.57% before transplantation to 42.32~58.92% after transplantation(p=0.000l~0.0002). The CD4$^{+}$/CD8$^{+}$ ratio decreased from 1.22~2.28 at first week to 0.47~0.95 at eighth week(p=0.0001). The results revealed that the expression of MHC class I and ICAM-1 in aortic allograft endothelium were increased but that of MHC class II were not changed, despite the different method of preservation. During 8 weeks after transplantation of aortic allograft, the subpopulations of CD4$^{+}$ T cell were not changed or only slightly decreased but those of CD8$^{+}$ T cell were progressively increased.ely increased.

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Clinical Significance of Reverse Redistribution on Tc-99m MIBI and T1-201 Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Images (Tc-99m MIBI와 T1-201 심근 SPECT에서 역재분포의 임상적 의의)

  • Song, Ho-Cheon;Bom, Hee-Seung;Kim, Ji-Yeul;Jeong, Myung-Ho;Gill, Kwang-Chae;Park, Joo-Hyung;Cho, Jeong-Gwan;Park, Jong-Choon;Kang, Jung-Chaee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 1996
  • Reverse redistribution(RRD) refers to a perfusion defect that develops or becomes more evident on rest imaging compared with the stress imaging. This phenomenon was not uncommonly noted on myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, the clinical significance and pathophysiological mechanism of RRD were unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical significance of RRD on either dipyridamole T1-201 or Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT. RRD was defined as ${\geq}10%$ decrease in relative T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI uptakes on rest images compared to the stress images or as an appearance of new perfusion defects on rest images. It was observed in both T1-201 (44/463, 9.5%) and Tc-99m MIBI (124/999, 12.4%) myocardial SPECTs similarly, with an overall incidence of 11.5%(168/1462). Many apparent)y unrelated disease groups showed the finding: post-revascularization(53.9%), coronary artery disease(24.6%), myocardial infarction(12.3%), and those with normal coro-nary arteries (9.2%). Clinical and angiographic characteristics of 65 consecutive patients who underwent coronary arteriography in 168 patients who had RRD on myocardial perfusion SPECT were reviewed. Tc-99m MIBI was used in 44 patients, and T1-201 was used in 21 patients. Of the 81 myocardial segments analyzed which showed RRD, 32 segments(39.5%) were in septum, 24(29.5%) in inferior wallL, 12(14.8%) in anterior wall, 7(8.7%) in apex and 6(7.4%) in lateral wall. There was no clear association between RRD and coronary arterial stenosis or Presence of collateral circulations. Ventriculographical wall motion was evaluated in 27 regions with RRD; it was normal in 12 regions, hypokinetic in 12 regions and dyskinetic in 3 regions. In 14 of 21 patients who showed RRD on T1-201 myocardial SPECT, T1-201 reinjection was performed immediately after the 3-4 hour redistribution studies. Ten of 14 (71.4%) showed enhanced T1-201 activity(${\geq}10%$ increased) after reinjection. We conclude that RRD is not related to mode of stress or radiopharmaceuticals. RRD might represent many inhomogeneous pathophysiological processes.

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