• Title/Summary/Keyword: 고려 홍삼

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Vasorelaxing Mechanism of Crude Saponin of Korea Red Ginseng in the Resistance-sized Mesenteric Artery of Rat

  • Kim, Shin-Hye;Park, Hyung-Seo;Lee, Mee-Young;Oh, Young-Sun;Kim, Se-Hoon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2002
  • It has been well known that Korea red ginseng has an antihypertensive effect. The antihypertensive effect may be due to its ability to change the peripheral resistance. Change of vascular tone in the resistance-sized artery contribute to the peripheral resistance, thereby regulate the blood pressure. Therefore, we investigated to clarify the vasorelaxing mechanism induced by crude saponin of Korea red ginseng in the resistance-sized mesenteric artery of rats. The resistance-sized mesenteric artery was isolated and cut into a ring. The ring segment was immersed in HEPES-buffered solution and its isometric tension was measured using myograph force-displacement transducer. Crude saponin of ginseng relaxed the mesenmetric arterial rings precontracted with norepinephrine (3$\mu$M) in dose-dependent manner (0.01 mg/㎖ -1 mg/㎖. The relaxation by crude saponin was smaller in endothelium-intact preparation than that in endothelium-denuded preparation. The contraction induced by A23187 or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate was not affected by crude saponin of ginseng. The vasorelaxing effect of crude saponin of ginseng was significantly attenuated by the increase of the extracellular K$\^$+/ concentration. Crude saponin-induced vasorelaxation was not affected by tetraethylammonium (1 mM), glybenclamide (10$\mu$M), and 4-aminopyridine (0.1 mM) in these preparations. Ba$\^$2+/(10$\mu$M ∼100$\mu$M) markedly reduced the crude saponin-induced vasorelakation dose-dependently. From the above results, we suggest that crude saponin of ginseng may stimulate K$\^$+/ efflux and hyperpolarize the membrane, thereby cause the vasorelaxation in the resistance-sized mesenteric artery of rats.

Effect of Saponin and Non-saponin of Panax Ginseng on the Blood Pressure in the Renovascular Hypertensive Rats (신성고혈압백서에서 혈압에 미치는 고려홍삼사포닌과 비사포닌의 효과)

  • Jeon Byeong Hwa;Kim Hoe Suk;Chang Seok Jong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.23 no.2 s.54
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1999
  • The effect of saponin and non-saponin of Panax Red Ginseng on the blood pressure and nitric oxide production were investigated in the conscious free moving one-kidney, one-clip Goldbaltt hypertensive (lK, 1C-GBH) rats. Mean blood pressure in the control and lK, 1C-GBH rats was decreased by the administration of ginseng saponin (100 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive effect induced by ginseng saponin was reached maximum at 2-4 minutes and was slowly recovered to the initial level of blood pressure. Also ginseng saponin induced reflex tachycardia in the conscious both rats. Contrast to the response induced by ginseng saponin, hypotensive effect induced by non-saponin of panax ginseng is minimal. Plasma nitric oxide concentration was increased by the treatment of ginseng saponin (100 mg/kg, i.p for 5 days) in both rats. It has been shown by western blotting that the expression level of the protein for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the aorta of rats was not increased by the treatment of ginseng saponin (100 mg/kg, i.p). However, eNOS activity in aortic homogenates of both rats were increased by the treatment of ginseng saponins. From the above results, the hypotensive effect of saponin was greater than that of non-saponin of Panax Red Ginseng. The lowering effect of blood pressure by ginseng saponin may be due to the increase of plasma nitric oxide concentration via the increase of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the renovascular hypertensive and control rats.

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Effects of Crude Saponin and Saponin-free Fraction of Korea Red Ginseng on the Skin and Cerebral Blood Flow in the Rats (백서의 피부 및 뇌혈류에 미치는 고려홍삼 사포닌 및 비사포닌의 영향)

  • Kim, Shin-Hee;Kim, Cuk-Seong;Park, Jin-Bong;Han, Chan-Soo;Kim, Kwang-Jin;Kim, Shin-Hye;Kim, Se-Hoon;Nam, Ki-Yeul;Jeon, Byeong-Hwa
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2002
  • To study the effect of Korea red ginseng (KCG) on the skin and cerebral blood flow, we evaluated the change of skin perfusion rate and cerebral perfusion rate after the intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral administration of crude saponin (CS) and saponin-free fraction (SFF) of KRG in the rats. The change of skin perfusion rate and cerebral perfusion rate was measured laser doppler flowmetry. The intravenous injections of CS or SFF of KRG and intraperitoneal injection of SFF of KRG did not change the relative skin and cerebral blood flow in the rats. When the rats were treated by the intraperitoneal injection of CS of KRG, relative cerebral blood flow was significantly increased with a time-dependent manner, however, relative skin blood flow was not influenced by the them. Oral administration of CS of KRG slightly increased skin blood flow in the rats. Also, the change of cerebral blood flow by transient bilateral carotid arterial clamp in the CS-treated rats was significantly decreased, compared with control groups. From the above results, it was suggested that Korea red ginseng have a increasing property of cerebral blood flow in the rats.

The changes and meanings in the volume of Korea red ginseng trade in late chosun dynasty (조선후기 고려홍삼 무역량의 변동과 의미)

  • Lee, Chulsung
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.1
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2019
  • This study tried to evaluate the official Korea Red Ginseng(Hongsam) trade in 19th century. The Hongsam trade activities of the 19th century also show that the collected amount of Posam taxes (Hongsam taxes) alone outweigh the amount of cost spent during the same time period to launch tributary actions. It is quite obvious that the Chosun dynasty, supported by the developed techniques of ginseng cultivation and preservation methods, managed to stop the silver leaks while also stimulating the domestic commerce, handicraft business and mining operations, by exporting Hongsam to China and importing raw material and other finished products in return. The Chosun government also managed to secure considerable amount of marginal profit which at times mounted to almost 2 hundred thousand Nyangs of silver during the latter half of the 19th century thanks to this Hongsam trade activities, and accumulated the hoof-shaped pieces of silver ingot at the office of Ministry of Taxation. Even under the mostly undesirable political environment featuring unjustified deeds of the powerful houses, the commercial activities were being strongly maintained, and the transactions conducted by merchants of the Gaeseong, Euiju areas and the capital city were prospering.

Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sleep : A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial (고려 홍삼이 수면의 질에 미치는 영향 : 무작위 위약-대조군 연구)

  • Lee, Sun-Ah;Kang, Seung-Gul;Lee, Heon-Jeong;Jung, Ki-Young;Kim, Leen
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: Ginseng has a long history of being used in insomnia treatment and there is some evidence from animal studies of its sleep-enhancing property. From this, it can be assumed that ginseng has sleep-promoting effect in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Korean red ginseng on change of sleep architecture in humans. Methods: A total of 20 healthy young males with regular sleep and wake habits and without any psychiatric nor cognitive problems were selected based on review of sleep questionnaires and sleep diaries they completed followed by an interview with a board-certified psychiatrist. The subjects were randomly assigned to red ginseng or placebo for 2 weeks of trial. The total daily dose of ginseng was 4,500 mg. The polysomnographic recordings were made at baseline and at 2 weeks after. The effects of red ginseng and placebo on sleep were assessed by comparing the changes in polysomnographic variables between the two groups. Results: A total of 15 subjects, 8 from red ginseng group and 7 from placebo group, were included to undergo polysomnographic procedures. The red ginseng group showed tendencies to increase stage 3 sleep (p=0.087) and to decrease stage 2 sleep (p=0.071) from the baseline compared with the placebo group. Conclusion: Korean red ginseng tends to increase deep sleep and decrease shallow sleep. Our result is in line, at least in part, with previous findings that Korean red ginseng increased total and NREM sleep in rats. Further studies with higher ginseng dosage, larger sample size and longer trial duration should be conducted to confirm the sleep stabilizing and balancing effects of Korean red ginseng.

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