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Development of Digital Games Based on Historical Material and its Design Components - With History Based Games of 5 Countries (역사소재 기반 디지털게임의 발전과정 및 기획요소 연구 - 동.서양 5개국의 역사소재 게임을 중심으로)

  • Moon, Man-Ki;Kim, Tae-Yong
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.460-479
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    • 2007
  • When culture took large part in industrial area, every country has tried to utilize own cultural contents for educational or commercial purpose and the various cultures and histories are recognized as a main concept or subject so that a number of scholars who study history increase. In video game field, special characteristics of interface that audiences participate in the game to complete story-telling is considered as efficient material for learning process. As observed above, it is important to analyze the games that every country makes and export to the world in which the video games is understood as a play of human in general. This Paper has firstly analyzed the most favorite historical games developed in Korea, the USA, Japan, Taiwan and Germany from 1980 to 2005 and secondly, compared that wars and historical origin appears in game scenario, a world view and background story and finally after point out the preferable era and genre of the countries then propose the promising way of design for historical video games. In the process of analysis of a view and heroes in historical games, we compared the real persons, the real historical events and novel in which 11.8% only employed the real persons in 8 out of 68 games. Also the real history and background story are appeared in 37 games which is 54.4% of them. We discovered that the main material that is popular for each country is the historical backing rather than real persons where the favorite historical background is chosen at which they are proud of; 3-Throne era with strong ancient Gogurye for Korea, the 1st and 2nd World Wars and the Independence War for the USA, the tide of war around Middle age for Japan, ancient history of Europe for Germany. The favorite age for video games is Ancient times with 37 games for 54.4%, Middle Age with 7 games fer 10.3%, the prehistoric age with 5 games for 7.35%, remote age with 1 for 1.47%, while current historical games favor Ancient or Modern Age.

The Floristic Study of Chirisan National Park in Korea (지리산 국립공원의 식물상 연구)

  • Jang, Chang-Gee;Kim, Yoon-Young;Ji, Seong-Jin;Ko, Eun-Mi;Yang, Jong-Cheol;Jang, Chang-Seok;Eom, Jeong-Ae;Yoon, Chang-Young;Chang, Chin-Sung;Lee, Cheul-Ho;Kim, Kyu-Sick;Oh, Byoung-Un
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.155-196
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to elucidate floristic data of Chirisan National Park by performing practical field investigation for 1 year and literatures survey simultaneously in 2004. The data from field study were yielded based on voucher specimens. Total number and components of flora of Chirisan National Park is revealed as 1,825 taxa. Among 1,825 taxa, 708 taxa were identified in this field study, and these were comprised 37 orders, 109 families, 382 genera, 590 species 3 subspecies 95 varities 20 forms. Unconfirmed taxa in field but recorded previous literatures were 1,117 taxa, which consist of 41 orders 130 families 500 genera 901 species 9 subspecies 140 varities 67 forms. In conclusion, there may be provisionally 1,825 (708+1,117) taxa in Chirisan National Park. The 43 taxa were firstly found out in this field study. In the floristic data from field study, the number of Korean endemic plants were 31 taxa, the rare and endangered plants which was designated by Korea Forest Service were 21 taxa, the taxa that is more than the third degree among the floristic regional indicator plants which was designated by Korean Ministry of Environment were 40 taxa, and naturalized alien plants to Korea were 27 taxa respectively. Among 1,117 taxa which were not found in this study but recorded in 22 previous literatures, the number of Korean endemic plants were 45 taxa, the rare and endangered plants which was designated by Korea Forest Service were 45 taxa, the taxa that is more than the third degree among the floristic regional indicator plants which was designated by Ministry of Environment were 121 taxa, and naturalized alien plants to Korea were 31 taxa. It can be inferred that the vegetation of Chirisan National Park was changing by some factors and valuable plant resources were tend to diminishing by such as human interference and developments.

The Beneficial Effects of Pectin on Obesity In vitro and In vivo (In vitro 및 In vivo에서 펙틴의 비만 억제 효과)

  • Kwon, Jin-Young;Ann, In-Sook;Park, Kun-Young;Cheigh, Hong-Sik;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2005
  • The effects of pectin on obesity was studied using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and rats fed 20% high fat diets. The concentration of leptin released from 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of pectin was significantly decreased by 85% compared to that of the control (p<0.05), however, glycerol concentration was not changed. These data indicate that pectin seems to inhibit lipids accumulation in the adipocytes rather than enhance the lipolytic activity. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were fed 20% high fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then divided equally into four groups. Experimental groups were normal diet group (ND), high fat diet group (HFD), HDF with 10% pectin group (HFP10), and HDF with 20% pectin group (HFP20). Diet for the each group was prepared to be iso-caloric following AIN-76 guideline. After obesity was induced, rats were placed on an restricted diet for 9 weeks. The body weight of HFD increased 50% (p<0.05) compared to the ND, while it was decreased by 12% and 16% for HFP10 and HFP20, respectively (p<0.05). The relative amount of visceral fats for HFDl0 and HFD20 were decreased by 45% and 59% compared to that of HDF (130%), respectively (p<0.05). Pectin seems to have a greater effect on reducing visceral fats accumulation than weight reduction. Significantly increased level of triglyceride, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol in the plasma of HFD was returned to the normal or even below the normal by pectin diet, while the level of HDL-cholesterol increased. Lipid lowering effect was also observed in the liver and heart. These effects of pectin were dosedependent. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of pectin on the obesity was observed from cell culture experiment and animal study in terms of inhibiting the accumulation of lipids in the adipocytes.

A Study on the Experience Design and Practical Use of Experience by On- and Off-Line Environment (온 오프라인 환경에 따른 경험의 활용과 경험디자인에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Se-Kyun;Kim, Tae-Kyun;Kim, Min-Su
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2005
  • In the past, consumers sought utilitarian and defensive consumption in an attempt to move to a balanced state. However, today's consumers go beyond this to consume more for hedonic and creative reasons if not for sheer pleasure. There is an obvious shift from the type of consumption that satisfies basic desires through the characteristics, convenience and quality of goods and services to an era of 'experiential consumption,' in which consumers pursue distinctive value systems and way of life along with a total 'experience' provided by such goods and services. Such a sign of the times has given birth to the experience design that aims at maximizing the strategic use of experiences in design. Research on this subject is gradually increasing. The research and application peformed even without the proper understanding about the concepts and purposes of experience design, however, is likely to deviate from the true nature in its process or method. Also, they are likely to cause rather than solve problems. Accordingly, this study examined the meaning of experience from a spatial aspect, focusing on areas that recognize the experience as economically valuable, making the most of it substantively. The main concept of experience practical used on-line is enhancement of the usability of a medium by reflecting the experience of users accustomed to both off-line and on-line environments and materializing the environment doser to and more familiar with the users, thus allowing them to comfortably use the medium. This is to allow the users to feel more comfortable. The experience practical used pertaining to off-line is a tool to fulfill the sensitivity of users, with efforts to create new, future-oriented consumer values. This, based on the understanding of consumer behavior, seeks to maximize the consumption experience of consumers by providing a combination of sensual and sensitive experiences as well as to enhance the existing experiences by permitting users to create new, extended experiences from the fixed characteristics of products. Furthermore, it aims to provide consumers with the hedonic experience of play through the joy, fun and uniqueness of alternate experiences.

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A Study on Place Identity in Seo-Rae Village - Focusing on Comparison of Sense of Place between Inhabitants and Visitors - (서래마을의 장소 정체성에 대한 연구 - 프랑스인 주민과 방문자의 인식 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Han, Sung-Mi;Im, Seung-Bin;Eom, Boong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.32-41
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    • 2009
  • Places such as famous urban sights and foreign settlements have recently been created in Korea, which reflects the increase in social and cultural exchanges and the number of place-making and landscape-planning projects. Understanding place identity is required in environmental design and planning. This paper examined the components of the identity of place through comparison of perceptions of "placeness" between residents and visitors of Seo-Rae Village, Seoul, Korea. More than 40% of French nationals in Korea reside in the village, which many Koreans visit as an urban sightseeing place. Twenty-five French inhabitants and forty-one Korean visitors were surveyed. Insideness of Seo-Rae Village was formed by limited activities and needs of the residents, primarily children's education and food purchases. Residents mentioned that the physical environment, especially buildings, lacked theauthenticity of French style. The symbolic meaning of the French village influenced the visitors' activities. The authenticity of French style, however, did not affect the perception of visitors and outsideness of the place. Visitors' activities and cognitive meanings of the place were formed mainly by the commercial environment established by Korean investments. Commercialization of the place and related activities played an important role in establishing insideness of the place. The village shows the phenomenon of the reversal of insideness and outsideness. The "placeness" of Seo-Rae village has been shaped by visitors' tastes rather than the true experience of insideness. Mass identity formed by mass media using French characteristics influenced this phenomenon. Insideness formed by inhabitants appeared to be a pseudo-place, which was created by the French tastes of visitors and lacked French authenticity. Seo-Rae Villagerepresents a superficial cloak.

Behavior and Decomposition Velocity of Pollutants on Various Forms from Domestic Sewage in Small-scale Sewage Treatment Plant by Natural Purification Method (자연정화공법에 의한 농촌 전원독립가구 하수처리장에서 하수 중 오염물질의 존재형태별 거동과 분해속도)

  • Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Park, Woo-Young;Lim, Jong-Sir;Hwang, Seung-Ha;Park, Chan-Hoon;Choi, Jeong-Hwan;Lee, Hong-Jae;Lee, Do-Jin;Cho, Ju-Sik;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.18-26
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    • 2008
  • Behavior and decomposition velocity of pollutants on various forms from domestic sewage in sewage treatment plant were investigated in order to obtain the basic data for improving the removal efficiency of pollutants and to reduce the area in constructed wetland by natural purification method. The removal amounts of BODs and CODs in aerobic bed were significantly higher than those of the other beds. In aerobic bed, the removal amounts of IBOD and ICOD were more than those for SBOD and SCOD, respectively, whereas the removal amounts of BODs and CODs in anoxic and anaerobic beds were little different. The removal amounts of SSs in aerobic bed were also higher than those for the other beds, and the removal amounts of VSS in all beds were more than those for FSS. The removal amounts of DTN and DTP in all beds were more than those for STN and STP, respectively. In addition, the decomposition velocities of TBOD, TCOD and TSS in aerobic bed were 30.79, 17.15 and 29.96 $day^{-1}$. Moreover, the decomposition velocities of BODs, CODs and SSs in aerobic bed were very rapid than those in the other beds. On the other hand, the decomposition velocities of BODs, CODs and SSs in anoxic and anaerobic beds were a little different regardless of the forms of pollutant. The decomposition velocities constants of T-N in aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic beds were 4.78, 0.12 and 0.10 $day^{-1}$, respectively. Moreover, the decomposition velocities constants of T-P in aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic beds were 13.09, 0.12 and 0.13 $day^{-1}$ respectively. The decomposition velocity of T-Ns and T-Ps in aerobic bed were slightly rapid than those in the other beds, whereas the decomposition velocities of T-Ns and T-Ps in anoxic and anaerobic beds were slightly different regardless of the forms of pollutant.

Safety Evaluation of Microbiological and Aflatoxin of Traditional Dried Persimmon (곶감의 미생물 및 aflatoxin에 대한 안전성 평가)

  • Seo, Min-Kyoung;Choi, Song-Yi;Lee, Kyoung Ah;Kim, Jung-Sook;Chung, Duck-Hwa;Lee, Soo-Hyung;Park, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Won-Il;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Kim, Hwang-Yong;Kim, Se-Ri
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.260-267
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    • 2014
  • To evaluate microbiological and aflatoxin safety on traditional dried persimmon, a total of 315 samples were collected from 105 farms. The collected samples were assessed on aflatoxin and microorganisms (Aerobic plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus). The the APC of sliced dried persimmon, dried persimmon, and semi dried persimmon were $3.93{\pm}0.96$, $2.12{\pm}0.93$, and $1.50{\pm}1.08{\log}\;CFU/g$, respectively. S. aureus was detected in 40.0% of sliced dried persimmon, 29.5% of dried persimmon, and 23.5% of semi dried persimmon. E. coli recovered from dried persimmon and semi dried persimmon was 6.6%, and 2.9%, respectively. However, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and L. monocytogenes were not detected. According to the result of aflatoxin by ELISA and UPLC, aflatoxin was not detected in any sample. These data suggested that safety management system should be introduce to the farms producing traditional dried persimmon to enhance the safety of traditional dried persimmon.

Comparative Study on Perception of Native Local Foods in Elementary School Students in Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do (I) -Focus on Recognition and Preference- (경상도 지역과 전라도 지역 초등학생의 향토음식에 대한 인식 비교(I) -인지도와 선호도를 중심으로-)

  • Hwang, Hye-In;Kim, Hyun-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.9
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    • pp.1439-1446
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    • 2014
  • The purposes of this study were to analyze recognition and preference of native local foods in elementary school students in Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do, as well as compare regional differences in recognition and preference of native local foods between students in Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do. A survey was conducted on 300 elementary school students located in Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do. The results of this study were as follows. First, there was no significant difference in terms of recognition score of overall native local food between students in Gyeongsang (9.43 out of 20 dishes for 254 students) and students in Jeolla (9.13 out of 20 dishes for 261 students). The recognition levels (4.88 out of 10 dishes) of native local foods in students in Gyeongsang-do were significantly higher than those (4.40 out of 10 dishes) in Jeolla-do (P<0.001). Second, the preference level (2.91 points) for native local food in students in Gyeongsang-do was significantly higher than that (2.72 points) in students Jeolla-do (P<0.001) based on a 5-point Likert scale. The preference level (3.03 points) of students in Gyeongsang-do for native local food was significantly higher than that (2.80 points) of students in Jeolla-do (P<0.001) based on a 5-point Likert scale. In conclusion, students in Jeolla-do perceived native local foods in Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do impartially, whereas students in Gyeongsang-do perceived native local foods better. The overall sample of elementary school students preferred native local food in Gyeongsang-do to native local food in Jeolla-do. Thus, there were regional differences in terms of recognition and preference of native local foods in elementary school students. To enhance the recognition and preference of native local foods in Jeolla-do, food culture and dietary education should be carried out.

A Survey on the Consumer's Recognition of Food Labeling in Seoul Area (서울지역 소비자들의 식품표시에 대한 인식도 조사)

  • Choi, Mi-Hee;Youn, Su-Jin;Ahn, Yeong-Sun;Seo, Kab-Jong;Park, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.10
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    • pp.1555-1564
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated consumer's recognition of food labeling in order to contribute to the development of food labels which are more informative to consumers. The questionnaires had been collected from 120 male and female customers living in Seoul with the age between 10's and 60's from November 2nd to November 7th 2009. For checking the food label at the time of purchase, 58.3% of the consumers checked the food label and the main reason for checking the food label was to confirm sell-by date (60.1%). Sixty percent of the consumers were satisfied with the current food labeling. Among those who are not satisfied, 30.6% complained about difficult terms to understand and 25.8% were dissatisfied with insufficient information. In every age group, most people were not satisfied with labeling on food ingredient and additives, followed by date of manufacture and sell-by date. 53.1% of consumers demanded to label date of manufacture and sell-by date together. For more clear information, consumers wanted use-by date (47.5%) rather than sell-by date (23.3%). 56.7% of consumers was dissatisfied with warning information such as allergic warning and the reasons for dissatisfaction were poor visibility (37.5%) and insufficient information (33.4%). Moreover most consumers (90.0%) showed little knowledge on irradiation. To improve of the food labeling standards into consumer-oriented standards, both amendment of the food labeling standards and consumer education will be necessary.

Error Analysis of Three Types of Satellite-observed Surface Skin Temperatures in the Sea Ice Region of the Northern Hemisphere (북반구 해빙 지역에서 세 종류 위성관측 표면온도에 대한 오차분석)

  • Kang, Hee-Jung;Yoo, Jung-Moon
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.139-157
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    • 2015
  • We investigated the relative errors of satellite-observed Surface Skin Temperature (SST) data caused by sea ice in the northern hemispheric ocean ($30-90^{\circ}N$) during April 16-24, 2003-2014 by intercomparing MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ice Surface Temperature (IST) data with two types of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) SST data including one with the AIRS/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU) and the other with 'AIRS only'. The MODIS temperatures, compared to the AIRS/AMSU, were systematically up to ~1.6 K high near the sea ice boundaries but up to ~2 K low in the sea ice regions. The main reason of the difference of skin temperatures is that the MODIS algorithm used infrared channels for the sea ice detection (i.e., surface classification), while microwave channels were additionally utilized in the AIRS/AMSU. The 'AIRS only' algorithm has been developed from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) to prepare for the degradation of AMSU-A by revising part of the AIRS/AMSU algorithm. The SST of 'AIRS only' compared to AIRS/AMSU showed a bias of 0.13 K with RMSE of 0.55 K over the $30-90^{\circ}N$ region. The difference between AIRS/AMSU and 'AIRS only' was larger over the sea ice boundary than in other regions because the 'AIRS only' algorithm utilized the GCM temperature product (NOAA Global Forecast System) over seasonally-varying frozen oceans instead of the AMSU microwave data. Three kinds of the skin temperatures consistently showed significant warming trends ($0.23-0.28Kyr^{-1}$) in the latitude band of $70-80^{\circ}N$. The systematic disagreement among the skin temperatures could affect the discrepancies of their trends in the same direction of either warming or cooling.