• Title, Summary, Keyword: 과립형 입자

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Electron Microscopic Study on the Mast Cells of the Vertebrates(Mammals) Stomach (척추동물(脊椎動物)(포유류(哺乳類))위(胃)의 비만세포(肥滿細胞)에 관한 전자현미경적 연구)

  • Kang Ho-Suck;Kim Chang-Whan
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 1981
  • An electron microscopical observation was carried out to compare the general shape of the mast cells and structures of granules inside the cells in the stomach of 5 species in 3 orders of Mammals. In convenience, the granules in the cytoplasm were abbreviated as follows: 1) Homogeneous granule, GR1 2) Particulate granule, GR2 a. Dark dense particulate granule, GR2-1 b. Less dense particulate granule, GR2-2 3) Reticular granule, GR5 a. Dark dense reticular granule, GR5-1 b. Light dense reticular granule, GR5-2 In Mammalia including goat, dog, cat, and hamster, most of cytoplasmic organelle were Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, and most of the cytoplasmic granules were highly densed GR1and GR2. However GR5-1 and GR5-2 appeared in guinea pig while one side sunken or crescent-like types occured in both dog and guinea pig. All mast cells were oval or spindle with cytoplasmic processes around the cell. There was also found vacuoles and vesicles in these cells. These results demonstrated that there was a morphological difference between species of vertebrate in the mast cells and their cytoplasmic granules. It was also suggested that a variety of structures of granules were closely related with the composition (histamine, heparin, serotonin, hyaluronic acid etc.) and mature of the granules.

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A Study of Dispersion Characteristics of Sunsik Using Fluidized-Bed Granulator (유동층 과립기를 이용한 선식의 분산 특성)

  • Kim, Gorae;Hwang, Yunhee;Lee, Seokhoon
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.267-272
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    • 2017
  • To improve dispersibility of cereal powder without additives, granulation of cereal powder was conducted using fluidized-bed granulator. Operation condition was sample 300 g, internal temperature $40^{\circ}C$, ventilation speed $30-90m^3/h$, inlet temperature $90^{\circ}C$ and spray pressure 2.5 bar. The amount of distilled water (20-45%) as binder, granulation time (10-15 min) and drying time (3-10 min) were controlled. Mean diameter over volume (Brouckere mean, $D_{4,3}$) was increased from $123{\mu}m$ to $263{\mu}m$ and dispersibility was improved from 73% to 92.25% at experiment conditions. Wettability (wetting time) was drastically decreased from 5,000 second to 7 second. Granulation of cereal powder did not affect sinkability and mean diameter over volume as wet analysis was about the same between raw and granulated cereals. Such phenomenon means that granulation with only water as binder enables cereal powder to disperse in water or milk without rapid sedimentation.

Morphological Study on the Mast Cell of Proventriculus in Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (꿩 전위의 비만세포에 관한 형태학적 연구)

  • Lee Y. H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.97-100
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    • 2005
  • Mast cells have been studied extensively in various animals including rats and mice, whereas little is known the morphological data about pheasant mast cells. Here, morphological features of Korean pheasant mast cells are described in this study using light and electron microscopes. For light microscopy, mast cells had many metachromatic granules stained with toluidine blue in the cytoplasm. The fixation with $10\%$ neutral buffered formalin blocked staining of most mast cells but a modified Karnovsky solution proved to be a good fixative. In Korean pheasants, toluidine blue stained more mast cells than did alcian blue. For electron microscopy, the mast cells of the Korean pheasant were round, oval, spindle-like and irregular form and occasionally had a few short cytoplasmic processes. These cells had membrane-bounded granules and poorly developed organells. Some granules in the cytoplasm of the mast cells had bilayer membrane. Most granules were round shape and the membrane of several granules was concave or convex. The granules were composed of three parts, homogenous, particulate and reticular pattern.

Development of Fe/$Al_2O_3$ Composite Granules and Activation Conditions for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (구형 철-알루미나 입자 제조 및 피셔-트롭시 반응을 위안 전처리 조건 확립)

  • Yoo, Kye-Sang;Lee, Dong-Joon;Jung, Kwang-Deog
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.545-551
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    • 2008
  • Fe/$Al_2O_3$ composite granules were prepared by combining sol-gel/oil drop method. The shape of granules were mainly determined by composition and concentration of aluminum precursor. The composite granule with the lowest aluminum concentration was synthesized with 0.75M boehmite solution. The prepared granules were tested as a catalyst in the plug-flow reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Before the reaction, catalysts were activated by hydrogen reduction and synthesis gas treatment. The activation conditions and aluminum concentration have affected catalytic performance significantly.

Manufacture of ZPP Granule Using the LabRAM Mixer (LabRAM Mixer를 이용한 ZPP 입자 제조)

  • Jeong, Hyeheun;Kim, Junhyung;Ko, Seungwon;Ryu, Byungtae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2017
  • ZPP (Zirconium-Potassium Perchlorate) is type of primary charge initiators for PMD (Pyrotechnic Mechanical Device) system. The binder component dissolved in the solvent is precipitated to suspended particles in the granules. The LabRAM Mixer uses resonance phenomenon to transfer energy, unlike blade equipment that utilizes mechanical contact. In this study, the properties of the particles prepared by the LabRAM Mixer were evaluated with the changes of the conditions.

$SO_3$ decomposition over Cu/Fe/$Al_2O_3$ granules with controlled size for hydrogen production in SI thermochemical cycle (황-요오도 열화학 수소제조 공정에서 다양한 크기의 Cu/Fe/$Al_2O_3$ 구형 촉매를 이용한 삼산화항 분해)

  • Yoo, Kye-Sang;Jung, Kwang-Deog
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.226-231
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    • 2008
  • Cu/Fe/$Al_2O_3$ granules with various sizes have been prepared by a combination of sol-gel and oil drop method for the use in sulfur trioxide decomposition, a subcycle in thermochemical sulfur-iodine cycle to split water in the hydrogen and oxygen. The size of composite granules have been mainly changed by the flow-rate of the gel mixture before dropping in the synthesis. The structural properties of the samples were comparable with granule size. In the reaction, the catalytic activity was enhanced by decreasing size in the entire reaction temperature ranges.

한국 동해산 큰가리비, Patinopecten yessoenis (Jay)의 배우자형성과정 중 생식세포 분화의 미세구조적 연구

  • 정의영;박영제;최기호
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.36-37
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    • 2001
  • 큰가리비는 자웅이체이다. 난환형성과정은 난모세포의 발달정도에 다라 다르게 나타나고 있다. 난자형성과정은 난원세포기, 전난황형성난모세포기, 초기난황형성난모세포기, 후기난황형성난모세포기, 성숙난모세포기의 연속적인 5단계의 과정으로 나눌 수 있었다. 전난황형성기 난모세포질 내에서는 핵주변 구역에 골지장치와 수많은 공포들 및 미토콘드리아들이 출현하고 있는데 이들은 차후, 지방적 형성에 관여한다. 난황형성전기난모세포(previtellogenic oocyte)에서는 지방적 및 지질과립들이 핵막 근처에서 출현하여 피질층쪽으로 분산되는 반면, 같은 발달 단계의 난모세포질의 피질구역에서는 피질과립들(단백질성 난황과립)이 처음으로 생성되어 난황막 근처의 피질층에서 핵주변 구역쪽으로 분산.분포된다. 난황형성후기 난모세포에서는 세포질 내의 골지장치, 공포, 미토콘드리아, 그리고 조면소포체들이 자율합성에 의해 난황과립 형성에 관여하고 있다. 반면 외인성 물질들인 지질형태의 과립들, 다량의 글리코겐 입자들이 생식상피 내에서 출현하고 있는데. 이들 물질이 생식상피에서 난황막 구조물인 미세융모를 통해 난황형성 후기 난모세포의 날질 내로 통과해 들어가는 현상이 관찰되었다. 이와같은 현상은 난황형성이 일어날 때에 heterosynthesis가 일어나고 있음을 시사한다. 완숙난모세포의 난경은 약 50~60$\mu\textrm{m}$이다. 정자형성과정은 정원세포기, 제1차정모세포기, 제2차정모세포기, 정세포기, 정자기의 연속적인 5단계로 나눌수 있었다. 정셍포기에서 정자로 변태되는 과정 중에 침체의 분화과정이 있는데 이에는 1. Golgi phase, 2. Cap phase 3. acrosome phase, 4. maturation phase의 단계를 거쳐 첨체가 완성된다. 정자는 원시적 형태를 이루고 있으며 4개의 미토콘드리아가 부핵을 형성하고 있다. 완숙정자 두부의 길이는 대략 $3 \mu$m 이며, 미부의 길이는 약 $30 \mu$m정도이다. 정자 미부편모의 axoneme은 중앙의 2개의 미세소관(microtubule)과 주변에 위치한 9개의 2중 미세소구관(microtublue)으로 이루어져 있다.

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Ultrastructural Study of Germ Cell Development and Reproductive Cycle of the Hen Clam, Mactra chinensis on the West Coast of Korea (한국 서해산 개량조개, Mactra chinensis의 생식세포발달의 미세구조적 연구 및 생식주기)

  • Chung, Ee-Yung
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.141-156
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    • 1997
  • 1992년 1월부터 12월까지 1년간에 걸쳐 전북 군산, 선연리 조하애에서 채집된 개량조개, Mactra chinensis Philippi를 대상으로 생식세포 발달과 생식소 발달양상을 조사하기 위해 토과형 전자현미경으로 미세구조 변활르 관찰하였고, 정확한 산란기를 규명하기 위해 조직학적으로 생식주기를 조사하였다. 개량조개는 장웅이체이다. 난황형성과정은 난모세포의 발달정도에 따라 다르게 나타나고 있다. 전난황형성기 난모세포질 내에서는 핵주변 구여게 골지장치와 수많은 공포들 및 미토콘드리아들이 출현하고 있는데 이들은 차후, 지방적 형성에 관여한다. 난황형성전기 난모세포에서는 지방적 및 지질과립들이 핵막 근처에서 출현하여 피질층쪽으로 분산되는 반면, 같은 발달단계의 난모세포질의 피질구역에서는 피질과립들 (단백질성 난황과립)이 처음으로 생성되어 난황막 근처의 피질층에서 핵주변 구역쪽으로 분산 분포된다. 난황형성후기 난모세포에서는 세포질 내의 골지장치, 공포, 미토콘드리아, 그리고 조면소포체들이 자율합성에 의해 난황과립 형성에 관영하고 있다. 반면, 외인성 물질들인 지질형태의 과립들, 단백질성 물질 및 다량의 글리코겐 입자들이 생식상피 낸에서 출현하고 있는데, 이들 물질이 생식상피에서 난황막 구조물인 미세융모를 통해 난황형성 후기 난모세포의 난질 내로 통과해 들어가는 현상이 관찰되었다. 이와 같은 현상은 난황성성이 일어날 때에 hterosynthesis가 일어나고 있음을 시사한다. 완숙난모세포의 난경은 약 50-60 \mu m이고, 완숙정자 두부의 길이는 대략 3 \mu m이며, 미부의 길이는 약 30 \mu m정도이다. 정자 미부편모의 axoneme은 중앙의 2개의 미세소관(microtubule)과 주변에 위치한 9개의 2중 미세소관 (microtubule)으로 구성되어 있다. 본 종의 산란기는 5월에서 9월 중순에 걸쳐 일어나는데, 주산란시기는 해수수온이 22 \circ C 이상으로 상승하는 6, 7월이다. 따라서 1년에 산란 (번식)시기가 한번 일어나고 있음을 알 수 있다. 생식 주기는 초기활성기 (1-2월), 후기활성기 (2-4월), 완숙기 (4-9월), 산란기 (5-9월) 그리고 퇴화 및 비솰성기 (6-12월)의 연속적인 5단계로 구분할 수 있었다. 재생산에 가담할 수 있는 암, 수개체들의 군성숙도(%)를 조직학적으로 조사한 결과, 각장 3.5-3.9cm 범위의 개체는 55.5%이었고, 5cm 이사인 개체들은 재생산에 100% 참여하였다. 본 종의 암, 수개체들은 만 1년부터 재생산에 가담하는 것으로 추정된다.

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Epidermal Changes of the Adhesive Disks During Wall Attachment in Parthenocissus tricuspidata (착생에 따른 담쟁이덩굴 흡착근 표피조직의 변화)

  • Kim, Jung-Ha;Kim, In-Sun
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.83-91
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    • 2007
  • The present study examined the epidermal changes of adhesive disks which occur during attachment in Parthenocissus tricuspidata using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Several adhesive disks, each covered with a bract, develop from the shoot apical meristem during early development. In the initial stage, the adhesive disks are club-shaped and their upper and lower epidermis are indistinguishable. However, in the actively growing stage, they become spherical and both epidermis are clearly differentiated into the adventitious roots. Prior to wall attachment, the adhesive disks exhibit adaxial convex and abaxial concave shapes, and electron-dense substances are abundant in the vacuoles of epidermal cells. The peripheral area of the adhesive disk is adhered first to the wall surface, while the central area is drawn inward in a vacuum-like state during attachment. As the attachment progresses and the electron-dense substances continue to discharge, the upper and lower epidermis rapidly undergo deterioration and the disks shrink considerably. At this stage, structural changes of the lower epidermis occur much faster than in the upper one. The discharged substance is accumulated on the wall surface, and this aids the attachment of adhesive disks on the wall for long periods. In this manner, the shape and structure of the adhesive disk epidermis change drastically from initial growth to the mature stage. Further, the role of electron-dense substance and shrinkage of the disk during attachment has been discussed in Parthenocissus tricuspidata.