• Title, Summary, Keyword: 교통망 균형

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Sensitivity Analysis of Stochastic User Equilibrium in a Multi-Modal Network (다수단 확률적 사용자 균형의 민감도 분석)

  • Kim, Byeong-Gwan;Im, Yong-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.117-129
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    • 2010
  • This study presents a sensitivity analysis method for stochastic user equilibrium of multi-modal network flows. We consider a multi-modal network consisting of a road network for passenger cars physically separated from a transit network for public transport. We first establish a sensitivity analysis method with respect to arbitrary link parameters and perform a sensitivity analysis with respect to link capacity and transit line frequency as practical link parameters. Next, We establish a sensitivity analysis method and perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to modal split by passenger car and public transit. As with the elasticity of economics, these results can be important information for analyzing changes in travel behavior due to the changes in operation and policy of transportation facilities, as well as for analyzing the effects of these operational changes and policies. These results also can be utilized as a tool to constitute a multi-modal network design problem by using cooperative game theory.

Multi-class Variable Demand Network Equilibrium (다계층 가변수요 교통망 균형)

  • Kim, Byung-Kwan;Lim, Yong-Taek;Lim, Kang-Won;Lee, Young-Ihn
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.155-167
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    • 2008
  • This paper studies a multiple user class variable demand user equilibrium and system optimal condition, and then establishes solution algorithms for them. The traffic network equilibrium is accomplished with basis on following assumptions. For considering heterogeneous road user, several user classes have discrete set of VOTs and the travel demand of each user classes varies according to generalized travel cost. this paper specifically investigates following question on multi-class variable demand: Are user equilibrium flows pattern dependent on the unit (time or money) perceived by road user classes? What is system optimal condition according to the unit used in measuring the travel cost or disutility? Finally, using this network equilibrium condition, The traffic assignment algorithm of each equilibrium condition are established.

A Traffic Equilibrium Model with Area-Based Non Additive Road Pricing Schemes (지역기반의 비가산성 도로통행료 부과에 따른 교통망 균형모형)

  • Jung, Jumlae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.28 no.5D
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    • pp.649-654
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    • 2008
  • In the definition of non additive path, the sum of travel costs of links making up the path is not equal to the path cost. There are a variety of cases that non-additivity assumption does not hold in transportation fields. Nonetheless, traffic equilibrium models are generally built up on the fundamental hypothesis of additivity assumption. In this case traffic equilibrium models are only applicable within restrictive conditions of the path cost being linear functions of link cost. Area-wide road pricing is known as an example of realistic transportation situations, which violates such additivity assumption. Because travel fare is charged at the moment of driver's passing by exit gate while identified at entry gate, it may not be added linearly proportional to link costs. This research proposes a novel Wordrop type of traffic equilibrium model in terms of area-wide road pricing schemes. It introduces binary indicator variable for the sake of transforming non-additive path cost to additive. Since conventional shortest path and Frank-Wolfe algorithm can be applied without route enumeration and network representation is not required, it can be recognized more generalized model compared to the pre-proposed approaches. Theoretical proofs and case studies are demonstrated.

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Elastic Demand Stochastic User Equilibrium Assignment Based on a Dynamic System (동적체계기반 확률적 사용자균형 통행배정모형)

  • Im, Yong-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2007
  • This paper presents an elastic demand stochastic user equilibrium traffic assignment that could not be easily tackled. The elastic demand coupled with a travel performance function is known to converge to a supply-demand equilibrium, where a stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) is obtained. SUE is the state in which all equivalent path costs are equal, and thus no user can reduce his perceived travel cost. The elastic demand SUE traffic assignment can be formulated based on a dynamic system, which is a means of describing how one state develops into another state over the course of time. Traditionally it has been used for control engineering, but it is also useful for transportation problems in that it can describe time-variant traffic movements. Through the Lyapunov Function Theorem, the author proves that the model has a stable solution and confirms it with a numerical example.

A Multi-modal Continuous Network Design Model by Using Cooperative Game Approach (협력적 게임을 이용한 다수단 연속형 교통망 설계 모형)

  • Kim, Byeong-Gwan;Lee, Yeong-In;Im, Yong-Taek;Im, Gang-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.81-93
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    • 2011
  • This research deals with the multi-modal continuous network design problem to resolve the transportation policy problems for constructing and operating transportation facilities with considering the mutual decision-making process between transportation operator and user in the multi-modal network. Particularly, in the consideration of changes in travel pattern between transport modes due to the changes in transportation policy, road network for passenger car and transit network for public transportation are considered together. In the development of network design model, more rational Stackelberg equilibrium(cooperative game) rather than more general Nash equilibrium(non-cooperative game) approach is used and sensitivity analysis considering transport mode is used. A multi-modal continuous network design model in this study is developed for the arbitrary continuous network design parameters(${\epsilon},\hat{\epsilon},p$) of transportation policy decisions. As examples of application and evaluation for these design parameters, the developed model is applied to calculate 1)the optimal capacity of road link in the road transport policy, 2)the optimal frequency of transit line in public transport policy and 3)the optimal modal split in transport modal share policy.

Cooperative User Equilibrium Under Advanced Traveler Information Systems (첨단교통정보체계(ATIS)하에서 협력적 사용자 균형)

  • Lim Yong-Taek
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2005
  • Cooperation among network users would be possible in a near future, as real time communication between them can be available by telematics. This implies that non-cooperative assumption like Wardrop's principle, which has been widely used so far in network modelling may not be appropriate for route choice problem. So a new principle requires for describing such cooperative case. This paper presents a criterion, which represents cooperative route choice behaviour among network users. With some examples, we compare the non-cooperative principle and the cooperative one presented in this paper. Numerical results from the examples show that the new principle would be better than the existing one.

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A Solution Algorithm for Elastic Demand Traffic Assignment Model Based on Dynamic Process (동적과정을 이용한 가변수요 통행배정모형의 알고리듬 개발)

  • Im, Yong-Taek;Kim, Hyeon-Myeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2006
  • Traffic assignment has been used both for predicting travel demands and for evaluating the tools for alleviating congestion on road network in advance. Some assignment models have been proposed such as equivalent mathematical minimization method, variational inequality problem, nonlinear complementary problem and fixed point method, in following the principle of Wardrop (1952) that no driver can not Improve his travel cost by unilaterally changing his route. Recently Jin(2005a) presented a traffic assignment model based on dynamic process. This paper proposes a solution algorithm for the model of Jin and assesses the performances. Compared to the Frank-Wolfe method, which has been wildly used for solving the existing assignment models, the proposed algorithm is expected to be more efficient because it does not need to evaluate the objective function. Two numerical examples are used for assessing the algorithm, and they show that the algorithm converges to user equilibrium of Wardrop.

Multiple User Class Traffic Assignment based on Variational Inequality Formulation in Variable demands (변동부등식을 이용한 가변수요 다사용자계층 통행배정문제의 해석)

  • 임용택
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2002
  • 다사용자계층 통행배정(Multiple User Class Assignment) 문제란 교통망을 이용하는 통행자들이 이질적인 통행계층으로 구성된 경우, 이들 각 계층의 통행수요를 교통망에 배정하는 문제를 의미한다. 이는 기존 통행 배정모형들이 모든 통행자의 통행특성이 동질적이라고 가정함으로서 발생하는 불합리한 통행배정 결과를 완화시키기 위한 방법이다. 또한, 최근 지능형교통체계(Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITS)사업에서 교통정보제공시스템이 구현될 예정임에 따라, 교통정보를 제공받는 계층과 그렇지 못한 계층간의 영향을 분석하거나 혼잡통행료부과 등과 같은 교통관리전략을 정확히 평가하기 위해서 다사용자계층 통행배정모형에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있다. 그러나, 다사용자계층 통행배정모형의 경우, 사용자간의 상호영향으로 통행비용함수의 1차 편미분행렬(Jacobian matrix)이 비대칭(Asymmetric)이 되어 동등 수리최소화문제(Equivalency mathematical Minimization program)로 구성할 수 없고 또한 수치적으로 풀기가 어렵다는 문제가 있다. 본 연구는 이런 문제점을 극복할 수 있는 모형식과 알고리듬을 제시코자 한다. 본 연구에서 제시된 모형은 2가지 특징이 있다. 먼저, 각 사용자 계층간의 상호영향을 모형내에 반영하며, 기종점쌍간의 통행시간변화에 따른 수요변화를 고려한다는 점이다. 이를 위하여 변동부등모형(Variational Inequality Model. VI)으로 문제를 구성하며, 이에 대한 해석 알고리듬도 제시한다. 또한, 변동부등모형으로 구축된 다사용자계층 모형이 다사용자계층 균형조건과 동일함을 보여주는 동등성조건(Equivalency condition)도 제시한다.