• Title, Summary, Keyword: 구속범위

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승객석 Restraiant System의 구속 효과와 인체상해 연구 -어린이(6세)탑승자 중심으로-

  • 이창민
    • Proceedings of the ESK Conference
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    • pp.398-405
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    • 1997
  • 과거 8년간의(1985-1992) 통계에 의하면 정면과 측면 충돌시 구속 시스텡의 하나인 Airbag장착 차량의 사망자 및 중상자 수가 현저히 감소하고 있는 것으로 나타나고있다. 그 러나 최근 소비자로 부터의 Airbag에 관한 불만을 보고 받고 있다. 즉 구속효과를 발휘함에 있어 부수적으로 인체 부상을 유발하고 있다는 것이다. 사망내지는 심각한 부상은 방지하고 있으나 경미한 부상은 오히려 증가하고 또한 신체가 적은 여성 운전자나 6세 이하의 어린이 에게는 심각한 부상의 우려가 있다는 것이다. 본 연구에서는 구속시스템의 총아인 Airbag 시스템의 심각한 부수적인 부상 보고를 입증하기 위하여 우리나라 어린이 6세 신체를 기준 으로하여 구속시스템을 착용하지 않았을 경우(실제로 많은 경우), seat belt만 착용시, Airbag만 작용시, 그리고 seat belt와 Airbag을 동시에 사용할 때를 컴퓨터 Simulation Package 이용 신체 dynamic을 모의실험 하였다. 실험결과, 기존에 알려진바와 같이 구속시스템을 사용하지 않았을 경우에 부상은 매우 컸다. 신체 사이즈가 작은 어린이 혹은 여성 운전자의 경우 Seat belt만을 사용한 경우는 Airbag만을 사용한 경우보다는 부상정도가 약간 경미하였으나 두 경우 모두 인체가 구속시스템의 구속 범위를 이탈하여 구속 시스템으로써의 역할을 충분히 하지 못하고 있었다. 특히 Seat belt와 Airbag을 동시에 사용하였을시에도 Airbag이 충분히 개선된 이후라도 신체 사이즈가 작은 경우에는 흉부부위에 의한 충격 흡수가 먼저 이루어지지 못하고, 머리에 먼저 Airbag이 접촉이 되어 충격 흡수 역할보다는 반동효과가 더 커서 머리 및 몸체가 뒤로 Rebound 하는 효과로 머리, 혹은 목의 신체 부상한계를 넘고 있어 큰 부상 내지는 사망에 이르고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 사료된다.의 결과는 자전거 에르고노미터의 결과가 트레드밀의 결과에 87.60%정도 나타났다.음을 관찰하였다. 특히 vitamin C와 E의 병용투여는 상승적으로 적용하여 간세포손상을 더욱 억제시킴을 알 수 있었다.mance and on TFP(Total Factor Productivity) growth which is a pure measure of firm performance. To utilize the advantage of panel data, FEM(Fixed Effect Model) and REM(Random Effect Model) were used. The empirical result shows that the entropy index as a measurement of inter-business relatedness is not significant but technological relatedness index is significant. OLS estimates on pooled data were considerably different from FEM or REM estimates on panel data. By introducing interaction effect among the three variables for business portfolio properties, we obtained three findings. First, only VI (Vertical integration) has a significant positive correlation with ROS. Second, when using TFP growth as an dependent variable, both TR(Technological Relatedness) and f[ are significant and positively rel

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Constitutive Model of Laterally Confined High Strength Concrete (횡구속된 고강도 콘크리트의 구성모델)

  • Yun, Sung-Hwan;Kang, Yoon-Sig;Park, Tae-Hyo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.481-488
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    • 2010
  • Since existing constitutive models developed for confined normal strength concrete overestimate ductility when they are applied to confined high strength concrete, these models cannot be directly applied to confined high strength concrete. In an effort to solve this problem, an accurate stress-strain relationship of the hihg strength concrete needs to be formulated by examining the confinement effects due to increase of the concrete strength. In this study, a constitutive model is developed to express the stress-strain relationship of confined high strength concrete by carrying out regression analysis of the main parameters affection strength and ductile behavior of reinforced high strength concrete columns. Twenty-five test specimens were chosen from the reported experimental studies in the literature. The experimental results of stress-strain relationships of show a good agreement with results of the stress-strain relationships of suggested high strength concrete, covering a strength range between 60 and 124 MPa.

Structural Analysis of Spaceborne Two-axis Gimbal-type Antenna of Compact Advanced Satellite (차세대 중형위성용 2축 짐벌식 안테나의 구조해석)

  • Park, Yeon-Hyeok;You, Chang-Mok;Kang, Eun-Su;Oh, Hyun-Ung
    • Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2018
  • A two-axis gimbal-type antenna for a Compact Advanced Satellite (CAS) is used to efficiently transmit high resolution image data to a ground station. In this study, we designed the structure of a two-axis gimbal-type antenna while applying a launch lock device to secure its structural safety under a launch environment. To validate the effectiveness of the structural design, a structural analysis of the antenna was performed. First, a modal analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic responses of the antenna with and without the mechanical constraints of the launch lock device. In addition, a quasi-static analysis was performed to confirm the structural safety of the antenna structure and bolt I/Fs between the antenna base and the satellite. The suitable range of constraint force on the launch lock device was also determined to ensure the structural safety and mechanical gapping of the ball & socket interfaces, which places multi-constraints on the azimuth and elevation stage of the antenna.

Acquisition Behavior of a Class of Digital Phase-Locked Loops (Digital Phase-Locked Loops의 위상 포착 관정에 관한 연구)

  • 안종구;은종관
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.55-67
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    • 1982
  • In this Paper new results relating to the acquisition behavior of a class of first-and secondorder digital phase-locked loops (DPLL) originally proposed by Reddy and Cupta are presented in the absence of noise. It has been found that the number of quantization levels L and the number of phase error states N play important roles in acquisition. For a given L-level quantizer, as N increases, the acquisition time increases, and the lock range decreases. However, the deviation of the steady state phase error decreases in this case. When L increases, the acquisition time decreases, and the lock range increases. However, variation of L affects little for the steady state phase error. In addition, the effects of a loop filter on acquisition have also been considered. One can get smaller acquisition time and larger lock range as the filter parameter value becomes larger. However, deviation of the steady state phase error increases in that case. Analytical results have been verified by computer simulation.

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Research of the human factors required to the stereoscopic camera system in cellular phone (핸드폰용 스테레오 카메라에서의 입체시 인지 요소에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, K.H.;Son, J.Y.;Kim, S.H.;Yoon, Y.S.;Kim, S.K.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
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    • pp.60-63
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    • 2007
  • 최근, 핸드폰은 일상생활의 필수품이 되었다. 특히 카메라가 장착된 핸드폰은 개인홍보와 오락요소로의 대표적인 도구로 사용된다. 나아가 양안카메라가 적용된 핸드폰은 사용자에게 입체감을 전달할 것이며, 입체감은 보다 효과적인 개인홍보 및 오락성을 제공할 것이다. 핸드폰은 휴대가 용이하지만 제한된 표시소자의 크기 및 해상도로 인하여 입체시 구현 시 사용자에게 손실된 정보 및 낮은 임장감을 제공한다. 이에 본 연구는 기존의 입체시 구현에 대한 구속조건들을 분석하고 핵심 요인을 산출하여, 핸드폰 환경에서의 최적의 입체시 구현을 위한 새로운 구속조건의 범위를 정량화하였다. 대표적인 구속조건으로는 수평, 수직 시차량이 고려되었다. 본 연구의 결과는 핸드폰용 양안카메라의 제작공차 및 효과적인 시차영상 제작을 위한 기준을 제시한다. 연구에 사용된 제품으로는 QVGA해상도(320*240) 및 2.8' 크기의 표시소자인 PDA폰이며, 입체시에 대한 구속조건을 정량화하기 위하여 수직, 수평이동이 가능한 지그를 사용하여 실험의 정확성을 높였다. 피실험자는 10명이며 남자 7명, 여자 3명으로 구성되었다.

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Consideration of Voluntary Company by Police to Legality of Criminal Investigation (경찰의 임의동행에 의한 수사의 적법성에 대한 고찰)

  • Son, Bong-Son
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.7 no.12
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2007
  • Company without voluntary agreement(nature) of police, violation on the reason of company, violation on identification state, Violations on duties to notify the party's family members and to allow the party have a chance to be notified. Violation on duty to notify the party to have the right to call an investigation authority, Violation on the time of company, Violation on the place of company, and Violation on using force such as compulsory during the process of voluntary company in state of illegal voluntary company. It also has to decide whether the evidences are illegal and eliminated by these two requisites even in probative value and evidence admissibility on confession of the party under the illegal voluntary company.

A Nonlinear Material Model for Concrete Compression Strength considering confining effect (콘크리트 압축강도에 따른 횡철근 구속효과를 고려한 비선형 재료모델)

  • Park, Jae-Guen;Lee, Heon-Min;Sung, Dae-Jung;Choi, Jung-Ho;Shin, Hyun-Mock
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 2008
  • When the concrete is confined to width direction, stress-strain curve of concrete are different from the uniaxial behavior. In case of normal strength concrete, Mander model are used with concrete material model which considers confining effect. Sakino-Sun model showed experimental result of specimen-level and the highest accuracy. Therefore, Normal strength concrete used Mander model. and High strength concrete used Sakino-Sun model. But there are significant differences from actual data when medium strength concrete used Mander or Sakino-Sun model. and Limit scope of maximum or minimum compressive strength of concrete is not clear when applied to two models. Therefore, In this research, material nonlinear model of confined concrete is suggested when concrete which has 30-40MPa's strength is confined to width direction.

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Experimental Study on the Shear Strength Characteristics of the Saturated Sand (포화(飽和)모래의 전단강도특성(剪斷强度特性)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(研究) -대구지역(大邱地域) 낙동강(洛東江) 모래에 대해-)

  • Kim, Young Su;Seo, In Shik;Kim, Byoung Tak
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1417-1431
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    • 1994
  • In this study, shear strength characteristics of the Nak-Dong river sand in Taegu area are investigated by triaxial compression test, considering shear strain control velocity, relative density, and confining pressure. The results from Lade model and Modified Lade model are compared with the measured value in the laboratory test. The results by the change of shear strain control velocity, relative density, and confining pressure are as follows; 1) The stress limit, which can be Coulomb's law about the Nak-Dong river sand, have ranged 120~200 kpa at 0.08%/min and 120~150 kpa at 0.5%/min. These limits are smaller than that of the calcareous sand and the well-graded, quartz sand. 2) The parameters needed to Lade model and Modified Lade model are much affected by the strain control velocity and the relative density. Consequently, in the field, it is important to use parameters aptly after accurately understanding both the loading condition and subsoil condition. 3) Overall, the principal stress ratio obtained from constitutive model equations is not affected by the control velocity, but both the relative density and confining pressure affect the result of constitutive model equations. Consequently, the study on the various conditions about the relative density and confining pressure is needed to accurately predict the stress-strain behavior on the Nak-Dong river sand. 4) For the range of the used confining pressure in the study, the Lade model shows better agreements with the measured value than the Modified Lade model, comparing the measured value with the principal stress ratio at failure and the internal friction angle of failure envelope obtained from the Lade model and Modified Lade model.

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Confining Effect of Mortar Grouted Splice Sleeve on Reinforcing Bar (모르타르 충전식 철근이음과 구속효과)

  • Ahn, Byung-Ik;Kim, Hyong-Kee;Park, Bok-Man
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 2003
  • The grouted splice steeve has been applied widely due to its superior construction efficiency, such as the unnecessity of post concrete and the large allowable limit to the arrangement of reinforcing bars. However, studies on grout-filled splice steeve still have not been sufficiently peformed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the confining effect of mortar grouted splice sleeve on reinforcing bar, known to strengthen the bond capacity between grout mortar and reinforcing bar. To accomplish this objective, totally 6 full-sized specimens were made and tested under monotonic loading. Each specimens were equipped with strain gauges at the 12 location of sleeve and reinforcing bar. The experimental variables adopted in this study are embedment length and size of reinforcing bars. Following conclusions are obtained; 1) Under ultimate strength condition, the confining pressure of grouted splice sleeve calculated from measured tangential and axial strain of the sleeve is over $200{\sim}300kgf/{cm}^2$ at any location of sleeve and improved with reduction in embedment length of reinforcing bar. 2) Untrauer and Henry's equation which describe bond strength of mortar as a function of its compressive strength and confining pressure, predicted the measured bond capacity of this test within the 5% limits.

Performance Verification of Hinge Driving Segmented Nut Type Holding and Release Mechanism for Cube Satellite Applications (큐브위성용 힌지 구동형 분리너트식 구속분리장치의 실험적 성능검증)

  • Oh, Hyun-Ung;Lee, Myeong-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.529-534
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    • 2014
  • Pyrotechnic devices are widely used for space appendages. However, a cube satellite requirements do not permit the use of explosive pyrotechnic device. A nichrome burn wire release has typically been used for holding and release of deployable appendages of the cube satellite due to its simplicity and low cost. However, relatively low mechanical constraint force and system complexity for application of multi-deployable systems are disadvantages of the conventional mechanism. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a hinge driving segmented nut type holding and release mechanism based on the nichrome burn wire release. The functional performance of the mechanism has been verified through release function test, static load test and shock level measurement test.