• Title, Summary, Keyword: 굽힘 저항

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Fracture Mechanics Assessment for Different Notch Sizes Using Finite Element Analysis Based on Ductile Failure Simulation (유한요소 연성파손 모사기법을 이용한 노치 결함 반경 크기에 따른 파괴역학적 평가)

  • Bae, Keun Hyung;Jeon, Jun Young;Han, Jae Jun;Nam, Hyun Suk;Lee, Dae Young;Kim, Yun Jae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.693-701
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    • 2016
  • In this study, notch defects are evaluated using fracture mechanics. To understand the effects of notch defects, FE analysis is conducted to predict the limit load and J-integral for middle-cracked and single-edge cracked plates with various sizes of notch under tension and bending. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, although the limit load remains constant. The values of fracture toughness($J_{IC}$) of SM490A are determined for various notch radii through FE simulation instead of conducting an experiment. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, together with a more significant increase in fracture toughness. To conclude, as the notch radius increases, the resistance to crack propagation also increases.

Joint Design and Strength Evaluation of Composite Air Spoiler for Ship (선박용 복합재 에어 스포일러의 체결부 설계 및 강도 평가)

  • Pi, June-Woo;Jeon, Sang-Bae;Lee, Guen-Ho;Jo, Young-Dae;Choi, Jin-Ho;Kweon, Jin-Hwe
    • Composites Research
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 2015
  • Air spoiler, which can reduce the drag during operation, can be considered as a possible means to reduce carbon dioxide emission and to increase fuel efficiency. In this study, a composite air spoiler was designed and tested by static and repeated loads. The Green Water Pressure of 0.1 MPa a ship experiences during operation was perpendicularly applied to the air spoiler. Air spoiler was manufactured with sandwich panel which has glass fabric face and balsa core. Multiple sandwich panels were assembled to steel frame by bolt joint. The joint was designed to have bearing failure and examined by static and fatigue tests. Tests showed that the designed joint has enough margin of safety to endure joint failure. The developed sandwich panel to air spoiler is planned to be applied to a large scale commercial ship.

Failure Probability Assessment of Natural Gas Pipeline under Combined Stresses (복합하중에 의한 천연가스 배관의 파손확률 평가)

  • Baek, Jong-Hyun;Chang, Yun-Chan;Kim, Ik-Jung;Kim, Cheol-Man;Kim, Young-Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2020
  • The structural reliability assessment can be used to improve the reliability in the asset integrity management of the pipeline by using a geometric variation, mechanical characteristics, load change and operating condition as evaluation factors. When evaluating structural reliability, the failure probability of the natural gas pipe is evaluated by the relationship of the resistance of the pipe material to external loads. The failure probability of the natural gas pipe due to the combined stresses such as the internal pressure, thermal stress and bending stress was evaluated by using COMREL program. When evaluating the failure probability of the natural gas pipe, a buried depth of 1.5 to 30 m, a wheel load of 2.5 to 20 ton, a temperature difference of 45℃, an operating pressure of 6.86MPa, and a soil density of 1.8 kN/㎥ were used. The failure probabilities of the natural gas pipe were evaluated by the Von-Mises stress criterion as the maximum allowable stress criterion under the combined stresses.

EFFECT OF CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF 6 NICKEL-TITANIUM ROTARY INSTRUMENTS ON THE FATIGUE FRACTURE UNDER CYCLIC FLEXURAL STRESS: A FRACTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS (반복 굽힘 스트레스 하에서 전동식 니켈-티타늄 파일의 단면적의 크기가 피로파절에 미치는 영향 : 파절역학 분석)

  • Hwang, Soo-Youn;Oh, So-Ram;Lee, Yoon;Lim, Sang-Min;Kum, Kee-Yeon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.424-429
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    • 2009
  • This study aimed to assess the influence of different cross-sectional area on the cyclic fatigue fracture of Ni-Ti rotary files using a fatigue tester incorporating cyclical axial movement. Six brands of Ni-Ti rotary files (ISO 30 size with. 04 taper) of 10 each were tested: Alpha system (KOMET), HeroShaper (MicroMega), K3 (SybronEndo), Mtwo (VDW), NRT (Mani), and ProFile (Dentsply). A fatigue-tester (Denbotix) was designed to allow cyclic tension and compressive stress on the tip of the instrument. Each file was mounted on a torque controlled motor (Aseptico) using a 1:20 reduction contra-angle and was rotated at 300 rpm with a continuous, 6 mm axial oscillating motion inside an artificial steel canal. The canal had a $60^{\circ}$ angle and a 5 mm radius of curvature. Instrument fracture was visually detected and the time until fracture was recorded by a digital stop watch. The data were analyzed statistically. Fractographic analysis of all fractured surfaces was performed to determine the fracture modes using a scanning electron microscope. Cross-sectional area at 3 mm from the tip of 3 unused Ni-Ti instruments for each group was calculated using Image-Pro Plus (Imagej 1.34n, NIH). Results showed that NRT and ProFile had significantly longer time to fracture compared to the other groups (p < .05). The cross-sectional area was not significantly associated with fatigue resistance. Fractographycally, all fractured surfaces demonstrated a combination of ductile and brittle fracture. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between fatigue resistance and the cross-sectional area of Ni-Ti instruments under experimental conditions.

Effect to Material Strength Recovery of Stepped Patch Repair with Epoxy based Particle Reinforced GFRP Composites under Hygrothermal Environment (에폭시 기지 입자 강화 GFRP를 사용한 계단형 패치 보수법이 고온 고습 환경하에서 재료의 물성 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Kyung-Seok;Park, Soo-Jeong;Kim, Yun-Hae
    • Composites Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.88-93
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    • 2018
  • In this study, damaged composite laminates were repaired by a stepped patch repair method using halloysite nanotube(HNT) and milled carbon(MC) reinforced composite materials with different amount of the particles. And the mechanical and structural effects of the particles on the interface between the damaged and repair surfaces were analyzed. At this time, after exposing them to a harsh environment of high temperature and humidity for a long time, the recovery rate of the material properties relative to the material forming the damaged plate was compared. As a result, at $70^{\circ}C$ high temperature distilled water, the hygroscopicity of the HNT/GFRP composites was significantly different from that of the MC/GFRP composites. Especially, 0.5, 1 wt. % HNT was added, the moisture absorption rate was the lowest and this was the factor that contributed to the mechanical strength increase. On the other hand, MC showed a high hygroscopic resistance only with a small amount, and the strength was different according to the action direction of the load, and the addition amount was also different.

Preparation of PMN-PT-BT/Ag Composite and its Mechanical and Dielectric Properties (PMN-PT-BT/Ag 복합체 제조 및 기계적, 유전적 특성)

  • Lim, Kyoung-Ran;Jeong, Soon-Yong;Kim, Chang-Sam;Nahm, Sahn
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.846-850
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    • 2002
  • A PMN-PT-BT/Ag composite was prepared by surface modification with MgO sol with hoping to suppress silver's migration during sintering. The mixture of PbO, $N_2O_5,\;TiO_2\;with\;Mg(NO_3)_2$ instead of MgO was ball milled, the solvent was removed and then the dried powders were calcined at 950$^{\circ}C$/1h. The calcined powder were treated with 3.0 mol% $Ag_2O$ and 1.0 wt% MgO sol and calcined at 550$^{\circ}C$/1h. The dielectrics sintered at 1000$^{\circ}C$/4h under a flowing oxygen showed the density of 7.84g/$cm^3$, the room temperature dielectric constant of 18400, the dielectric loss of 2.4%, the specific resistivity of $0.24{\times}10^{12}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$. It also showed the bending strength of $120.7{\pm}11.26$ MPa and the fracture toughness of $0.87{\pm}0.002\;MPam^{1/2}$ which were comparable to commercial PZT. The microstructure sonsisted of grains of ∼4${\mu}m$. SEM and SIMS analysis showed that Ag grew as ∼1${\mu}m$ and excess MgO as ∼0.5${\mu}m$.

Effect of Stitching on Mechanical and Impact Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite (스티칭에 의한 유리섬유강화 복합재료의 물성 및 충격거동 변화)

  • Park, Jae-Yong;Kang, Tae-Jin;Yuk, Jong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.2 no.5
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    • pp.366-374
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    • 1992
  • Mechanical and impact properties of stitched S2 glass fiber reinforced polyester woven laminates composites have been studied. Laminates were stitched using Kevlar 49 thread with 1/2, 1, and 2 inch stitch spacing. Tensile and 3-point bending tests haute been performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of stitched and unstitched laminates. Impact tests at applied energy of 234.7J were performed to examine the impact behavior and toughness changes of the specimen. The same specimens were also tested repeatedly at low impact energy level of 110.2J for 3 times to evaluate damage tolerance properties. The tensile and 3-point bending test results showed that one inch spacing specimen had the highest tensile and flexural strength. It also showed the highest energy absorption capability and the best damage tolerance property at the repeated impact test. The half inch spacing specimen showed the lowest tensile strength and energy absorption property at the impact energy level of 234.7J, even though it had the highest frequency of stitching thread.

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Development of rotor overlay welding process (로타 오버레이 용접공정 개발)

  • Lee, Kyong-Woon;Kim, Dong-Jin;Kang, Sung-Tae
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.12-12
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    • 2009
  • 터빈에서 핵심부품인 로터는 블레이드를 원심 운동시키는 대형 단조강이며, 고압의 증기 조건에서 고속회전하며 고온에서 운전과 저온에서 과속시험 동안 높은 원심력을 받는다. 또한 기동/정지 천이 동안 열응력을 받기 때문에, 이러한 운전조건에 부합되는 소재로서는 높은 Creep 강도 및 피로강도를 가지는 CrMoV type의 강종이 사용되어져 왔다. 발전소의 대용량화 및 고온화에 따라 종래의 증기조건에서 사용되어져 왔던 1%CrMoV강은 내산화성 및 내부식성이 문제가 되어 더 이상 사용이 불가하며, 고온/고압하에서도 우수한 소재 특성을 가지는 12%Cr강의 사용이 필수적이다. 그러나 12%Cr강으로 제작되는 로타는 Cr 양이 높기 때문에 저널부에 Galling 또는 Scuffing 이라 불리는 부적절한 마모현상과 사용 중 소착이 발생하기 쉬운 단점이 있기 때문에, 저널부에 Cr 함유량 2~3% 이하의 저합금강을 오버레이 용접하여 육성하는 일체형 가공구조의 로타 저널부가 주목되어 왔다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 Large scale 로타가 용접 도중 급열 및 급냉이 되지 않으면서 균일한 온도로 일정 시간 유지할 수 있는 열관리 장치 개발, 최적 오버레이 용접조건 선정 및 용접부 건전성 시험 평가를 통하여 12%Cr 로타 저널부의 최적 오버레이 용접공정을 확립하고자 하였다. 용접 열관리 장치는 전기저항 가열방식을 적용하고 있으며 용접이 최종 완료되기 전까지 로타 제품 전체는 $93^{\circ}C$이상의 온도로 유지 되어져야 하며, 규정 용접후열처리 온도는 $650^{\circ}C{\pm}14^{\circ}C$ 이다. 또한 로타 오버레이 용접은 모재 Set up $\Rightarrow$ 용접예열 $\Rightarrow$ GTA용접 $\Rightarrow$ SA용접 $\Rightarrow$ 용접후열(Post heating) $\Rightarrow$ 용접후열처리(PWHT) $\Rightarrow$ 정삭가공 $\Rightarrow$ NDE(UT) 순으로 수행 되어진다 실제 로타의 1/3 Scale로 시험편을 제작하여, 오버레이 mockup 시험을 수행한 후 화학성분, 경도 분포, 인장강도, 충격인성 및 굽힘시험을 수행한 결과, 오버레이 용접에서 요구되어지는 용접 물성값을 만족하는 것으로 확인되었다. 또한 균열 등의 선형 결함이나 기공, 슬라그 혼입과 같은 결함은 관찰되지 않았으며, 용접 시 아크의 안정성과 슬라그의 박리성은 양호하였으며 비드의 외관도 미려하여 용접 작업성도 양호하였다.

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Effect of Oxide Film Formation on the Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloy (알루미늄합금 재료의 산화막 형성이 피로거동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Cheon;Cheong, Seong-Kyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.421-428
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the effects of surface oxide film formation on the fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were analyzed in terms of the corrosion time of the alloy. The aluminum material used is known to have high corrosion resistance due to the passivation phenomenon that prevents corrosion. Aluminum alloys have been widely used in various industrial applications such as aircraft component manufacturing because of their lighter weight and higher strength than other materials. Therefore, studies on the fatigue behavior of materials and passivation properties that prevent corrosion are required. The fatigue behavior in terms of the corrosion time was analyzed by using a four-pointing bending machine, and the surface corrosion level of the aluminum material in terms of the corrosion time was estimated by measuring the surface roughness. In addition, fractographic analysis was performed and the oxide films formed on the material surface were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that corrosion actively progressed for four weeks during the initial corrosion phase, the fatigue life significantly decreased, and the surface roughness increased. However, after four weeks, the corrosion reaction tended to slow down due to the passivation phenomenon of the material. Therefore, on the basis of SEM analysis results, it was concluded that the growth of the surface oxide film was reduced after four weeks and then the oxide film on the material surface served as a protection layer and prevented further corrosion.

Evaluation of Stress Thresholds in Crack Development and Corrected Fracture Toughness of KURT Granite under Dry and Saturated Conditions (포화유무에 따른 KURT 화강암의 균열손상 기준 및 수정 파괴인성 측정(Level II Method))

  • Kim, Jin-Seop;Hong, Chang-Ho;Kim, Geon-Young
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.256-269
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    • 2020
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the stress thresholds in crack development and the corrected fracture toughness of KURT granite under dry and saturated conditions. The stress thresholds were identified by calculation of inelastic volumetric strain from an uniaxial compression test. The corrected fracture toughness was estimated by using the Level II method (Chevron Bend specimen), suggested by ISRM (1988), in which non-linear behaviors of rock was taken into account. Average crack initiation stress(σci) and crack damage stress(σcd) under a dry condition were 91.1 MPa and 128.7 MPa. While, average crack initiation stress(σci) and crack damage stress(σcd) under a saturated condition were 58.2 MPa and 68.2 MPa. The crack initiation stress and crack damage stress of saturated ones decreased 36% and 47% respectively compared to those of dry specimens. A decrease in crack damage stress is relatively larger than that of crack initiation stress under a saturated condition. This indicates that the unstable crack growth can be more easily generated because of the saturation effect of water compared to the dry condition. The average corrected fracture toughness of KURT granite was 0.811 MPa·m0.5. While, the fracture toughness of saturated KURT granite(KCB) was 0.620 MPa·m0.5. The corrected fracture toughness of rock in saturated condition decreases by 23.5% compared to that in dry condition. It is found that the resistance to crack propagation decreases under the saturated geological condition.