• Title, Summary, Keyword: 귀 불쾌감

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Effects of Earplug Wear on Patients' Displeasure and Anxiety Caused by Operation-Induced Noises (귀마개 적용이 수술 소음으로 인한 불쾌감 및 불안에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Sang Rip;Kim, Yeong Kyeong
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.319-328
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was done to identify nursing interventions clinically applicable to relieve displeasure and anxiety of patients having an operation in which loud noise was unavoidable. Methods: Participants were 34 patients scheduled to have a total knee replacement. They were assigned to either the control (17 patients) or experimental (17 patients) group. Data were collected from September to November 2010. The instruments used for the survey included noise-control earplugs, a noise level meter (TES-1358) and a structured scale measuring degree of noise perception, displeasure and anxiety. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, standard deviation, $x^2$-test, and t-test with the SPSS WIN 18.0 program. Results: Hypothesis 1: 'The displeasure levels of the experimental group of patients wearing earplugs will be lower than the control group patients without earplugs' was accepted (t=-20.769, p<.001). Hypothesis 2: 'The anxiety levels of the experimental group of patients wearing earplugs will be lower than the control group patients without earplugs' was accepted (t=-6.298, p<.001). Conclusion: Based on these findings, the wearing of earplugs for patients having a surgical operation with loud noises is recommended as an effective nursing intervention to relieve patient displeasure and anxiety during their surgical operations.

Study on synthesis rule of kinesthetic word using fuzzy theory (퍼지 이론을 이용한 운동감 어휘의 합성 규칙에 관한 연구)

  • 신동윤;이세한;송재복;김용일
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 1997
  • 인간이 움직이는 물체에 탑승하고 있거나 움직이는 물체를 잡고 있을때 어떤 종류의 감성을 느끼게 된다. 물체의 속도, 가속도, 또는 강성, 감쇠 등으로 인하여 인간은 쾌, 불쾌감을 갖게 되며, 본 논문에서는 이러한 감성을 운동감이라 정의한다. 이러한 운동감을 공학적으로 유용한 데이터로 만들기 위해 운동감 어휘를 도입하여 정량화를 시도하였으며, 복수의 운동감 어휘를 연산할 수 있는 방법과 가중치를 구할 수 있는 방법을 제시하고자 한다. 본 연구에서는 귀의 전정 기관에서 느끼는 몸 전체의 평형 감각 및 운동 감각은 고려의 대상으로 제외하며, 팔에 국한하여 피부 감각과 팔 근육의 위치 인지 등으로 인한 운동감을 해석 대상으로 한다. 해석의 편의성을 위하여 팔을 제외한 몸의 움직임은 없는 상태로 유지하며, 팔의 2차원 운동만을 고려하기고 한다. 퍼지는 사람의 언어와 같이 모호한 사건을 해석하기 위한 이론이다. 모호한 정도를 표현하는 방법으로 퍼지 정도척도(measutr of fuzziness)와 퍼지척도(fuzzy measure)가 많은 분야에서 이용되고 있다. 하지만 운동감에 대한 연구는 미비한 실정이므로 불확실성을 평가하는 퍼지 이론을 이용하여 운동감을 해석하려 한다.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Internal and External Pressure Variation for KTX (KTX차량 내외부의 압력변동 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 남성원
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2004
  • A study is conducted to clarify internal and external pressure variation of passenger cabin for KTX. These pressure variation may give rise to the ear-discomfort for passenger and fatigue for carbody. In this study, the pressure variation of interior, gangway and exterior of KTX passenger car is measured by using the atmospheric pressure sensors and portable data acquisition system. The tunnel from 4000m to 200m in length are chosen far the investigation of tunnel length effects. From the results of experiment, the pressure variation of interior per second is under the ear-discomfort limitation in all of tunnel. And, We found that there are similar patterns of exterior pressure variation for each critical tunnel length. These results generally agree to RTRI's experimental result fur Shinkansen.

Theoretical x-t Diagram Analysis on Pressure Waves of High Speed Train in Tunnel (터널에서의 고속철도 압력파에 관한 X-t선도 이론 해석)

  • 남성원;권혁빈
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2004
  • Theoretical study has been conducted to clarify pressure characteristics of KTX (Korea Train eXpress) in tunnel. The severe pressure change in tunnel may give rise to the ear-discomfort for passenger and fatigue for car body. Critical tunnel lengths which are induced by x-t diagram analysis can be applied to the experimental results measured by using the running test with atmospheric pressure sensors and portable data acquisition system in previous study. In this study, the tunnels from 200m to 4000m in length have been chosen for the investigation of tunnel length effects. We found that there are similar patterns of external pressure change for each critical tunnel length. The critical tunnel lengths are governed by train speed, train length and sonic velocity. And, the patterns of pressure wave in tunnel are classified into eight groups.

A study on the optimum cross-section design that satisfies the criteria of aural discomfort in Honam high speed railway tunnel (이명감 특성을 고려한 호남고속철도 터널단면 설정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seon-Hong;Mun, Yeon-O;Seok, Jin-Ho;Kim, Gi-Rim;Kim, Chan-Dong;Yu, Ho-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Rock Mechanics Conference
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    • pp.19-36
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    • 2007
  • When the trains runs at a high speed in the tunnel, passengers feel a pain in the ear that fast pressure fluctuation inside the tunnel being delivered with pressure fluctuation inside the passenger car. These phenomena are called "aural discomfort". Aural discomfort increase the passengers' uncomfort so that it is decreased a service level and serious case, it is able to damage the ear of the passenger. therefore aural discomfort must be considered the high-speed railroad tunnel cross-section design. To solve the problem of aural discomfort in a railway tunnel, some countries have standards on aural discomfort. It has been studied that different countries have different standards on aural discomfort. For that reason, the criteria of aural discomfort was reviewed through the standards of Kyungbu HSR line and different countries in this paper. And then Numerical Analysis of the Characteristics with tunnel cross-section change has been used for the selection of the optimum cross-section of Honam. The numerical analysis results were compared to field test results in order to verifying the reliability of the numerical analysis.

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Balloon dilatation for bronchial stenosis in Endobronchial Tuberculosis (협착성 기관지 결핵의 풍선카테타요법(II))

  • Ohn, Joon-Sang;Lee, Young-Sil;Yoon, Sang-Won;Son, Hyung-Dae;Kim, Chang-Seon;Seo, Jee-Young;Park, Mi-Ran;Rheu, Nam-Soo;Cho, Dong-Ill;Kwak, Byung-Kook
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.701-708
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    • 1996
  • Background : To evaluate the effect of the balloon dilatation in tuberculous bronchial stenosis, we performed balloon dilatation in 13 cases which had airway obstruction in main bronchus with the impairment of pulmonary function. Material and Methods: Thirteen women with tuberculous bronchial stenosis(9cases : left main bronchus, 4 cases: right main bronchus) underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation under the local anesthesia. Among the these patient, 9 cases were active endobronchial tuberculosis, and 4 cases were inactive. Immediate and long term follow-up(average 15.6months) assessments were done focused on change on PIT. The increase of FVC or FEV1 more than 15% after the procedure was considered effective. Complications after dilatation were evaluated in all patients. Result : 1) There were an decrease of self-audible wheezing in 75%(6/8), improvement of dyspnea in 62.5%(5/8), improvement of cough and expectoration in 50%(3/6), and improvement of chest discomfort in 50%(1/2). 2) Significant improvement of PFT was noted in 42.9%(3/7) of which respiratory symptoms duration was below 6 months. 8m, significant improvement of PFT was noted in only 25%(1/4) of which respiratory symptoms duration was above 12 months. 3) Active stage was 69.2%(9/13) and inactive was 30.8%(4/13). There was an significant improvement of PFT in 44.4%(4/9) of active stage, but, only 25%(1/4) of inactive stage was improved. 4) In 61.5%(8/13), FVC and FEV1 were increased to 35.5%, and 22.2% at post-dilatation 7 days. After 1 month later, FVC and FEV1 were increased to 54.7%, and 31.8% in 5 cases(38.5%). 4 cases in which long-term follow-up(average 19.8months) was possible the improvement of FVC, and FEV1 were 30.5%, and 10.1%. 5) Just after balloon dilatation therapy, transient leukocytosis or fever was noted in 30.8%(4/13), and blood-tinged sputum was noted in 30.8%(4/13). However, serious complication, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum or mediastinitis, was not noted. Conclusion : We conclude that tuberculous bronchial stenosis, which is on active stage, and short dulation of respiratory symptoms was more effective on balloon dilatation than inactive stage or long duration of respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, balloon dilatation is easier, much less invasive and expensive than open surgery. and cryotherapy or photoresection. Because of these advantage, we think that balloon dilatation could be the first choice for treating bronchial stenosis and could be done at first in early stage if unresponsiveness with steroid therapy is observed.

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