• Title, Summary, Keyword: 균열단면

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Prediction of Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Beams due to Creep (크리프에 의한 철근콘크리트 보의 처짐 예측)

  • 이상순;김용빈;김진근;이수곤
    • Magazine of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 1998
  • An approximate method for the calculation of creep deflections of reinforced concrete beams under sustained service loads is proposed. The position of neutral axis and strain and stress distribution of fully cracked section after creep is determined from the requirements of strain compatibility and equilibruim of a section and then the long-term flexural rigidity of fully cracked section is determined based on the new neutral axis. The long-term flexural rigidity of uncracked section at the level of the reinforcenment. The approach of calculating long-term effective flexural rigidity and defections is similar to the current American Concrete Institue procedure for calculating effecitve moment of inertia and short-term deflections. The accuracy of the analysis is verified by comparison with several experimental mesurements of beam deflectons. The result is good between the theotetical values and mesured valus.

Evaluation of the Shear Strength Component by Circular Transverse Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Columns (철근콘크리트 기둥에서 원형전단철근에 의한 전단강도 산정)

  • 하태훈;홍성걸
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.982-988
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    • 2002
  • Current design equations for shear strength of reinforced concrete columns generally overestimate the shear strength contribution by the circular transverse reinforcement. This is due to the simplification of the discrete distribution of the reinforcement to the continuous one and the imprudent application of the classical truss model to the circular section, which is different in shear-resisting mechanism from the rectangular section. This study presents a rational model for the prediction of shear strength contribution by the circular transverse reinforcement considering the starting location of a diagonal crack, the number of transverse reinforcing bars crossing the main crack and the geometrical strength component of the transverse resistance. It was found that, for lower amount transverse reinforcement, the crack starting point and the number of crack crossing bars greatly influence the shear-resisting capacity. Proposed model leads to a reliable design equation which is derived using a linear regression method and is in good agreement with the lower bound of exact strength curve.

Evaluation of Leak Rate Through a Crack with Linearly-Varying Sectional Area (선형적으로 변하는 단면적을 가진 균열에서의 누설률 평가)

  • Park, Jai Hak
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.821-826
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    • 2016
  • The leak before break (LBB) concept is used in pipe line design for nuclear power plants. For application of the LBB concept, leak rates through cracks should be evaluated accurately. Usually leak late analyses are performed for through-thickness cracks with constant cross-sectional area. However, the cross-sectional area at the inner pipe surface of a crack can be different from that at the outer surface. In this paper, leak rate analyses are performed for the cracks with linearly-varying cross-sectional areas. The effect of varying the cross-sectional area on leak rates was examined. Leak rates were also evaluated for cracks in bi-material pipes. Finally, the effects of crack surface morphology parameters on leak rates were examined.

Time-dependent Analysis of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Sections with Biaxial Bending (2축휨을 고려한 철근콘크리트 균열단면의 장기거동 해석)

  • Yang, Joo Kyoung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.28 no.2A
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 2008
  • An analytical approach to calculate time-dependent stresses and strains in initially cracked reinforced concrete section with biaxial bending was proposed. The method utilized the aging coefficient approach of Bazant and the linear creep theory. The position of neutral axis and strain and stress distributions of cracked section after creep and shrinkage were determined from the requirements of strain compatibility and equilibrium of a section. With this proposed algorithm, examples were given for rectangular section and a comparative analysis for stress and strain was also made.

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Effect of Long-Term Load on Flexural Crack Widths in FRP-Reinforced Concrete Beams (장기하중이 FRP-보강근 콘크리트 보의 휨균열폭에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Bong-Seob
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.694-701
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    • 2018
  • Larger crack widths can be observed more in FRP-reinforced concrete members than in steel-reinforced concrete members as a result of the lower elastic modulus and bond strength of FRP reinforcement. The ACI 440.1R-15 design guide provides equations derived as the maximum bar spacing to control the crack widths indirectly. On the other hand, it is not concerned with long-term effects on the crack control design provisions. This study provides suggestions for how to incorporate time-dependent effects into the crack width equation. The work presented herein includes the results from 8 beams composed of four rectangular and T-shaped FRP-reinforced concrete beams tested for one year under four-point bending. Over a one year period, the crack widths increased as much as 2.6~3.0 times in GFRP and AFRP-reinforced specimens and 1.1~1.4 times in the CFRP-reinforced specimens compared to steel-reinforced specimens. In addition, the average multiple for crack width at one year relative to the instantaneous crack width upon the application of the sustained load was 2.4 in the specimens with a rectangular section and 3.1 in the specimens with a T-shaped section. As a result, it is recommended conservatively that the time-dependent coefficient be taken as 2.5 for the rectangular beams and 3.5 for T-beams.

Flexual-Shear Cracking Mechanism in Slender Reinforced Concrete Bems (철근콘크리트보의 휨전단균열 발생 메카니즘에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Woo
    • Magazine of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.185-196
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    • 1998
  • 이 논문은 직사각형 단면을 갖는 철근콘크리트 보에서 휨전단균열(Flexural-Shear Crack)이 원인을 규명하기 위해 모두 16개의 보를 실험한 결과를 기술한 것이다. 실험에 이용된 콘크리트보는 전단균열에 영향을 준다고 생각되는 몇 가지 요소를 인위적으로 소거 도는 고립되도록 특수하게 제작된 것이다. 이러한 특수보의 실험결과를 같은 재원을 갖는 보통의 정상보의 결과와 직접 비교하여서 그 차이를 분석함으로써 휨전단 균열의 발생원인을 규명하였다. 그 결과, 일반적인 콘크리트보에서의 휨전단균열 발생은 철근과 콘크리트의 경계면의 부착현상과 매우 밀접한 관련이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 발생된 휨전단균열의 안정성은 주철근을 따라 발생되는 수평균열의 크기에 직접적인 영향을 받고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구에서 나타난 몇 가지 사실은 현재 사용중인 전단설계규준의 근본을 이루는 전단 위험단면개념과는 상반되는 것도 있었다. 실험에서 알아낸 사실을 근거로 전단파괴기구에 대한 새로운 가설을 제안하였다. 이 새 가설은 지금까지 잘 설명되지 않은 휨전단균열의 발생과 진행에 대한 원인 및 과정을 상당히 잘 설명해주고 있다고 생각된다.

Electron Beam Welding on Module-typed Turbine Diaphragm (모듈 형 터빈 다이아프람의 전자빔 용접 기술)

  • Kim, Yong-Jai;Shim, Duck-Nam;Jung, In-Chul
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.107-107
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    • 2009
  • 모듈 형 터빈 다이아프람은, 아우터 링(outer ring), 스팀 패스(steam path)와 이너 웹(inner web)의 원형 형상을 갖는 세 부분을 조립하여 원주 방향의 용접 조인트를 형성하는 기존의 다이아프람 형태가 아니라, 아우터 슈라우드(outer shroud), 베인(vane)과 이너 슈라우드(inner shroud)의 세 부분이 하나의 모듈을 이루고 이러한 모듈을 원주 방향으로 조립하여 방사 방향의 조인트를 형성한다. 전자빔 용접은 이와 같은 방사 방향의 조인트를 수직으로 가로지르는 용접 궤적을 따라 진행되며, 용접 패스에 따라 형성되는 용융 비드의 단면적만큼 인접하는 두 모듈을 접합시킨다. 이 경우 용융 비드의 단면적과 형상은 두 모듈의 결합 강도를 결정하는 중요한 요소가 되어, 제작 시 다이아프람의 크기와 두께에 따라 용입 깊이와 평균 단면 비드 폭을 규정하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 용입 깊이와 단면 비드 폭의 요구 조건을 만족하면서 결함이 없는 건전한 용접부를 얻을 수 있는 최적 용접 조건을 도출하는데 그 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 플레이트 시편과 모듈 시편을 사용한 기초 실험과 유사 시제품(semi-mockup) 실험을 실시하였다. 플레이트 기초 실험을 통해 전자빔 주요 변수인 빔 전류, 초점 위치, 용접 속도, 빔 진동 폭 변화에 따른 용융 비드 형상 변화를 관찰하였고, 빔 전류가 용입 깊이에 가장 큰 영향을 주는 인자임을 확인하여 요구 용입 깊이 별 적정 빔 전류 값을 설정하였다. 용접 속도는 생산성 측면에서 균열이 발생하지 않는 범위에서 가능하면 가장 큰 값을 사용하였고, 빔 진동 폭은 초점 위치와 함께 단면 비드 형상 결정에 많은 영향을 주는 인자로 확인되어 균열이 없는 가장 이상적인 단면 비드 형상인 완만한 쐐기 형태가 되도록 설정하였다. 이 후 실제 제품 폭과 용접 패스를 갖는 블록 모듈 실험을 통해 설정 용접 변수의 적용성과 균열 발생 여부를 확인하였고, 이 때 적용 제품 폭이 30 mm 이하이며 요구 용입 깊이가 50 mm 이상의 경우에서 비드 중앙부 균열이 발생함을 관찰하였다. 따라서 해당 영역의 제품에는 균열 저항성이 높도록 용접 속도와 빔 진동 폭을 줄여 최적 용접 변수를 새롭게 설정하였으며, 이를 유사 시제품 실험에 적용하여 최종적으로 용접 변수 안정성을 검증하였다. 이러한 실험을 통해 확인된 최적 용접 조건을 실 제품 제작에 적용하여 모듈 형 터빈 다이아프람 전자빔 용접 제작을 성공적으로 완료할 수 있었다.

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Investigation on the Effective Moment of Inertia of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members Under Service Load (사용하중 상태에서 철근콘크리트 휨부재의 유효 단면2차모멘트에 대한 고찰)

  • Lee, Seung-Bea;Park, Mi-Young;Jang, Su-Youn;Kim, Kang-Su;Kim, Sang-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.393-404
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    • 2008
  • The approaches in many design codes for the estimation of the deflection of flexural reinforced concrete (RC) members utilize the concept of the effective moment of inertia which considers the reduction of flexural rigidity of RC beams after cracking. However, the effective moment of inertia in design codes are primarily based on the ratio of maximum moment and cracking moment of beam subjected to loading without proper consideration on many other possible influencing factors such as span length, member end condition, sectional size, loading geometry, materials, sectional properties, amount of cracks and its distribution, and etc. In this study, therefore, an experimental investigation was conducted to provide fundamental test data on the effective moment of inertia of RC beams for the evaluation of flexural deflection, and to develop a modified method on the estimation of the effective moment of inertia based on test results. 14 specimens were fabricated with the primary test parameters of concrete strength, cover thickness, reinforcement ratio, and bar diameters, and the effective moments of inertia obtained from the test results were compared with those by design codes, existing equations, and the modified equation proposed in this study. The proposed method considered the effect of the length of cracking region, reinforcement ratio, and the effective concrete area per bar on the effective moment of inertia, which estimated the effective moment of inertia more close to the test results compared to other approaches.

Strength and Crack-Damage Control Characteristics of Concrete Beams Layered with Strain-Hardening Cement Composites (SHCCs) (변형 경화형 시멘트 복합체로 단면 대체된 콘크리트 보의 강도 및 균열손상 제어 특성)

  • Yun, Hyun-Do;Kim, Sun-Woo;Jeon, Esther;Kim, Yun-Soo;Jang, Kwang-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.269-272
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    • 2008
  • This paper reports on the cracking mitigation and flexural behavior experimentally observed in concrete prisms layered with strain-hardening cement composites (SHCCs) which is micro-mechanically designed cement composite and exhibits pseudo tensile strain-hardening behavior accompanied by multiple cracking while using a moderate amount of fiber, typically less than 2 percent in term of fiber volume fraction. In this study, SHCC is reinforced with 1.3 percent polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and 0.20 percent polyethylene (PE) in volume fraction. Tests were conducted using $100{\times}100{\times}400mm$ long prisms supported over a simply supported span of 350mm. The four point load was applied using MTS servo control machine. The thickness patched with SHCC is the main variable for this study. Experimental study shows that when subject to monotonic flexural loading, the SHCC layered repair system showed 2.7 - 4.2 times increased load carrying capacity, and mitigated cracking damage of concrete beams layered with SHCC compared with plain concrete beams.

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Crack Propagation Analysis Using the Concept of an Equivalent Plastic Hinged Length (등가소성힌지개념을 이용한 지하구조물 균열진전해석)

  • Park, Si-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2009
  • In this study, a numerical analysis technique was newly developed to evaluate the damage propagation characteristics of concrete structures. To do this, numerical techniques are incorporated for the concrete members up to the compressive damage due to the bending compressive forces after the tensile crack based on the deformation mechanism. Especially, for the compressive damage stage after the tensile crack, the crack propagation process will be analyzed numerically using the concept of an equivalent plastic hinged length. Using this concept, it can be established that section forces, such as axial forces and the moment cracks takes place, can be related to the width of the crack making it possible to analyze the crack extension.