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Detection Characteristics of Gamma-Irradiated Seeds by using PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS (PSL, TL, ESR 및 GC/MS 분석을 통한 감마선 조사된 유지종실류의 검지 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Son, Jin-Hyok;Kang, Yoon-Jung;Park, Hye-Young;Kwak, Ji-Young;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Park, Yong-Chjun;Jo, Tae-Yong;Kim, Jae-I;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Sang-Jae;Han, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we investigated the applicability of the photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods for 5 seeds which are not allowed to be irradiated in Korea. All 5 seeds including evening primrose seed, safflower seed, rape seed, sunflower seed and flax seed were analyzed. Samples were irradiated at 1~10 kGy using a $^{60}Co$ gamma-ray irradiator. In PSL study, the photon counts of all the unirradiated samples showed negative (lower than 700). The photon counts of irradiated (1, 5, 10 kGy) samples showed positive (higher than 5,000). In TL analysis, results showed that it is possible to apply TL method to all foods containing minerals. In ESR measurements, the ESR signal (single-line) intensity of irradiated foods was higher than non-irradiated foods. The hydrocarbons 1,7-hexadecadiene ($C_{16:2}$) and 8-heptadecene ($C_{17:1}$) from oleic acid were detected only in the irradiated samples before and after the treatment at doses ${\geq}$ 1 kGy, but they were not detected in non-irradiated samples before and after treatment. These two hydrocarbons could be used as markers to identify irradiated safflower seed, rape seed, Sunflower seed and flax seed. And then, the hydrocarbons 1,7,10-hexadecatriene ($C_{16:3}$) and 6,9-heptadecadiene ($C_{17:2}$) from linoleic acid were detected in the evening primrose seed, safflower seed and sunflower seed. According to the results, PSL, TL and GC/MS methods were successfully applied to detect the irradiated foods. It is concluded that PSL, TL and GC/MS methods are suitable for detection of irradiated samples and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results.

Dosimetric Evaluation of a Small Intraoral X-ray Tube for Dental Imaging (치과용 초소형 X-선 튜브의 선량평가)

  • Ji, Yunseo;Kim, YeonWoo;Lee, Rena
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.160-167
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    • 2015
  • Radiation exposure from medical diagnostic imaging procedures to patients is one of the most significant interests in diagnostic x-ray system. A miniature x-ray intraoral tube was developed for the first time in the world which can be inserted into the mouth for imaging. Dose evaluation should be carried out in order to utilize such an imaging device for clinical use. In this study, dose evaluation of the new x-ray unit was performed by 1) using a custom made in vivo Pig phantom, 2) determining exposure condition for the clinical use, and 3) measuring patient dose of the new system. On the basis of DRLs (Diagnostic Reference Level) recommended by KDFA (Korea Food & Drug Administration), the ESD (Entrance Skin Dose) and DAP (Dose Area Product) measurements for the new x-ray imaging device were designed and measured. The maximum voltage and current of the x-ray tubes used in this study were 55 kVp, and 300 mA. The active area of the detector was $72{\times}72mm$ with pixel size of $48{\mu}m$. To obtain the operating condition of the new system, pig jaw phantom images showing major tooth-associated tissues, such as clown, pulp cavity were acquired at 1 frame/sec. Changing the beam currents 20 to $80{\mu}A$, x-ray images of 50 frames were obtained for one beam current with optimum x-ray exposure setting. Pig jaw phantom images were acquired from two commercial x-ray imaging units and compared to the new x-ray device: CS 2100, Carestream Dental LLC and EXARO, HIOSSEN, Inc. Their exposure conditions were 60 kV, 7 mA, and 60 kV, 2 mA, respectively. Comparing the new x-ray device and conventional x-ray imaging units, images of the new x-ray device around teeth and their neighboring tissues turn out to be better in spite of its small x-ray field size. ESD of the new x-ray device was measured 1.369 mGy on the beam condition for the best image quality, 0.051 mAs, which is much less than DRLs recommended by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and KDFA, both. Its dose distribution in the x-ray field size was observed to be uniform with standard deviation of 5~10 %. DAP of the new x-ray device was $82.4mGy*cm^2$ less than DRL established by KDFA even though its x-ray field size was small. This study shows that the new x-ray imaging device offers better in image quality and lower radiation dose compared to the conventional intraoral units. In additions, methods and know-how for studies in x-ray features could be accumulated from this work.

Studies on the Applications of PSL, TL and ESR Methods for The Detection of Irradiated Foods not Allowed to be Irradiated in Korea (광자극발광법, 열발광법 및 전자스핀공명법을 이용한 국내 방사선 조사 허용 외 식품에 대한 검지법 적용 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Choi, Eun-Jin;Chang, Ho-Won;Shin, Choon-Shik;Kim, Moon-Young;Hwang, Cho-Rong;Kim, Eun-Jeong;Jo, Tae-Yong;Park, Geon-Sang;Kang, Myung-Hee;Kim, Jae-I;Kim, Jin-Sook;Park, Sue-Nie;Seong, Rack-Seon;Jang, Young-Mi;Yoon, Hae-Sung;Han, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.233-246
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we investigated the applicability of the photostimulated luminescence(PSL), thermoluminescence(TL) and electron spin resonance(ESR) methods for various foods which are not allowed to be irradiated in Korea. All 15 foods including sesame, almond, peanut, cocoa powder etc. were analyzed. Samples were irradiated at 1~10 kGy using a $^{60}Co$ gamma-ray irradiator. In PSL study, the photon counts of all the unirradiated samples showed negative(lower than 700). The photon counts irradiated(1 kGy) dried shrimp, roasted peanut and seasoned peanut showed positive(higher than 5,000) and the other samples were negative or intermediate(> 700 and < 5,000). In TL analysis, results showed that it is possible to apply TL method to all foods containing minerals. In ESR measurements, the ESR signal(single-line) intensity of irradiated foods was higher than non-irradiated foods. In particular, the specific ESR signals of irradiation-induced crystalline sugar, cellulose and bone radical were detected in dried plum, raisin, dried cherry, mango(dried, frozen), rambutan, cocoa(powder), cinnamon, parsley, carrot, broccoli, dried arrow squid, dried pollack and dried shrimp. According to the results, PSL, TL and ESR methods were successfully applied to detect the irradiated foods because TL method is not able to detect the irradiated foods rarely composed of minerals. ESR is also a difficult method to detect the changes of ESR signal patterns of food. It is concluded that TL analysis or ESR assay is suitable for detection of irradiated samples and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results.

Study on Fabric and Embroidery of Possessed by Dong-A University Museum (동아대학교박물관 소장 <초충도수병>의 직물과 자수 연구)

  • Sim, Yeon-ok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.230-250
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    • 2013
  • possessed by Dong-A University Museum is designated as Treasure No. 595, and has been known for a more exquisite, delicate and realistic expression and a colorful three-dimensional structure compared to the 'grass and insect painting' work and its value in art history. However, it has not been analyzed and studied in fabric craft despite it being an embroidered work. This study used scientific devices to examine and analyze the Screen's fabric, thread colors, and embroidery techniques to clarify its patterns and fabric craft characteristics for its value in the history of fabric craft. As a result, consists of eight sides and its subject matters and composition are similar to those of the general paintings of grass and insects. The patterns on each side of the 'grass and insect painting' include cucumber, cockscomb, day lily, balsam pear, gillyflower, watermelon, eggplant, and chrysanthemums from the first side. Among these flowers, the balsam pear is a special material not found in the existing paintings of grass and insect. The eighth side only has the chrysanthemums with no insects and reptiles, making it different from the typical forms of the paintings of grass and insect. The fabric of the Screen uses black that is not seen in other decorative embroideries to emphasize and maximize various colors of threads. The fabric used the weave structure of 5-end satin called Gong Dan [non-patterned satin]. The threads used extremely slightly twisted threads that are incidentally twisted. Some threads use one color, while other threads use two or mixed colors in combination for three-dimensional expressions. Because the threads are severely deterioration and faded, it is impossible to know the original colors, but the most frequently used colors are yellow to green and other colors remaining relatively prominently are blue, grown, and violet. The colors of day lily, gillyflower, and strawberries are currently remaining as reddish yellow, but it is anticipated that they were originally orange and red considering the existing paintings of grass and insects. The embroidery technique was mostly surface satin stitch to fill the surfaces. This shows the traditional women's wisdom to reduce the waste of color threads. Satin stitch is a relatively simple embroidery technique for decorating a surface, but it uses various color threads and divides the surfaces for combined vertical, horizontal, and diagonal stitches or for the combination of long and short stitches for various textures and the sense of volume. The bodies of insects use the combination of buttonhole stitch, outline stitch, and satin stitch for three-dimensional expressions, but the use of buttonhole stitch is particularly noticeable. In addition to that, decorative stitches were used to give volume to the leaves and surface pine needle stitches were done on the scouring rush to add more realistic texture. Decorative stitches were added on top of gillyflower, strawberries, and cucumbers for a more delicate touch. is valuable in the history of paintings and art and bears great importance in the history of Korean embroidery as it uses outstanding technique and colors of Korea to express the Shin Sa-im-dang's 'Grass and Insect Painting'.

A Study for the Norms of Audiometric Tests in Koreans (정상한국인의 청력검사치에 관한 연구)

  • 오혜경;서장수;이근해;김희남;김영명;권영화;서옥기
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • pp.38.1-38
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    • 1981
  • Currently in the otologic field, there are various methods of special audiometric examinations, such as, tone decay, SISI, and impedance audiometry and only a few studies has been done in these fields sporadically in Korea. The purpose of this paper is to establish norms of various special audiometric tests, so we have performed the special audiometric tests on 100 male medical students in good physical condition and the follow results were obtained. 1. All cases showed over 90% of PB scores. The mean and its 2 S.D. were 98$\pm$4.9% in the right ear and 97$\pm$5.6% in the left ear. 2. The mean and its 2 S.D. of MCL(most comfortable level) were 45$\pm$15.4 dB in the right ear and 46$\pm$17.9 dB in the left ear, and its range was 12$\pm$12.2 dB in the right ear and 13$\pm$12.6 dB in the left ear. 3. The mean and its 2 S.D. of UCL (uncomfortable level) were 102$\pm$7.9 dB in the right ear and 102$\pm$7.9 dB in the left ear and about an half in cases showed over 106 dB of UCL. 4. In 95% of cases, SISIs(short increment sensitivity index) at 1, 000 Hz and 4000 Hz was below 45% in the right ear in both frequencies and below 55% and 75% in the left ear, respectively. 5. In 95% of cases, tone decays at 2, 000 Hz and 4, 000 Hz was below 10 dB in both ears. 6. The difference between SRT and PTA (speech reception threshold minus pure tone average) was 4$\pm$9.2 dB in the right ear and 4$\pm$10.0 dB in the left ear. 7. The dynamic range(uncomfortable level minus speech reception threshold) was 98$\pm$13.5 dB in the right ear and 99$\pm$13.5 dB in the left ear. We had trouble in estimating the dynamic range in about an half in cases, in which we couldn't estimate the UCL with our conventional audiometry. 8. The results of impedance audiometric tests were as follow: A. In the tympanogram, all cases were of A type with one exception of B type in the left ear. The mean and its 2 S.D. of its peak level were 22.8$\pm$32.94mm $H_2O$ in the right ear and 23.9$\pm$29. 81mm $H_2O$ in the left ear. B. The mean and its 2 S.D. of the compliance were 0.6$\pm$0.54cc in the right ear and 0.6$\pm$0.53cc in the left ear. C. The results of stapedial reflex: a. The mean and its 2 S.D. of the controlateral stapedial reflex at 500Hz, 1, 000Hz, 2, 000Hz, 4, 000Hz were 99$\pm$17.7 dB, 87$\pm$14.4 dB, 79$\pm$13.7 dB, 77$\pm$20.0 dB in the right ear and 99$\pm$15.9 dB, 88$\pm$13.9 dB, 79$\pm$13.7 dB, 77$\pm$21.3 dB in the left ear. Depending on the tested frequencies, the stapedial reflex wasn't generated in 6 cases in the right ear and 11 cases in the left ear. b. The mean and its 2 S.D. of the ipsilateral stapedial reflex at 1, 000Hz, and 2, 000Hz were 89$\pm$16.3 dB, 82$\pm$15.9 dB in the right ear and 89$\pm$18.0 dB, 83$\pm$18.9 dB in the left ear. Depending on the tested frequencies, the stapedial reflex wans't generated in 1 case in the right ear and 2 cases in the left ear. 9. Eustachian tube function using with impedance audiometry was malfunctioned in21 cases depending on the tested pressure and the range of peak level of tympanogram was 14$\pm$26.9mm $H_2O$(tested pressure:+250mm $H_2O$), 8$\pm$21.9mm $H_2O$ (tested pressure:-250mm $H_2O$) in the right ear and 11 cases depending on the tested pressure and the range of the peak level of tympanogram was 12$\pm$22.5mm $H_2O$ (tested pressure: +250 mm $H_2O$, 9$\pm$17.3mm $H_2O$(tested pressure: -250mm $H_2O$) in the left ear.

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Overview of Utilization of Four-wheel Tractor in Korea(I) -Ownership and Annual Use by Different Farm Groups- (농용(農用)트랙터 이용(利用)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究)(I) -경영형태별(經營形態別) 농작업이용실태분석(農作業利用實態分析)-)

  • Park, Ho Seok;Kim, Kyong Su;Lee, Yong Kook;Han, Sung Kum
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.20-32
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    • 1982
  • This survey was conducted to investigate the present status of farm tractor utilization for obtaining a basic reference to the establishment of the government's agricultural mechanization strategies. Thirty two counties from the eight provinces except Jeju were covered in this study. From these selected areas, 433 sample farms having farm tractor were taken to obtain the general informations by the enquete, and 93 sample farms among them to investigate the status of daily tractor use in the year of 1980. The analyzed results are summarized as follows: 1. Farm tractors owned by the rice-oriented farms holds 71.5 percent of the total number of tractors the livestock-oriented farms 17.0 percent, and the orchard-oriented farms 7.0 percent. Among the farm tractors 64.3 percent was a large size (46ps) and 35.7 percent a small size(19~23ps). 2. Most of the tractors surveyed were equipped with the essential attachments such as plow and rotavator. About 18 percent of the tractor owners had no trailer, which seemed too high considering the large percentage of tractor use for transportation. The availability of other attachments was very low except a grader on the rice-oriented farms and a hay harvester and a front loader on the livestock-oriented farms. 3. The average size of farm was 3.9 hectare for the rice-oriented farms, 13.9 hectare for the livestock-oriented farms and 7.4 hectare for the orchard-oriented farms. It was obious that the average farm size of was too small compared to the theoretical machine capacity of the tractors. 4. About 70 percent of the tractor operators were in the age of twenties and thirties. About 90 percent of them had an educational level of middle school graduate or above even though their technical level was very low. 5. Any particular problem in tractor use was not found in this survey. From the farmer's preference for purchasing a new tractor, however, it is estimated the demand on a 20-30ps tractor will be more increased. 6. The average annual use of tractor was of about 100 days or 400 hours. It appeared that the rice-oriented farms used most with 412.4 hours per year, and followed by the livestock-oriented farms with 403.6 hours, the orchard oriented farms with 377.7 hours. 7. Among the total hours of tractor use, 47.3 percent was for transportation, and 41.6 percent was for plowing and rotary tillage. The largest portion of the annual tractor use was taken by transportation on the livestock-oriented farms, by land preperation on the rice-oriented farms, and by loading and chemical spraying on the orchard-oriented farms. 8. The hours of tractor use had a peak in May. The hours of use for own farm was remarkably different among the different farm oriented, but there was no considerable difference between the too different sizes of tractor. 9. The hours of tractor use decreased as the age of the operator or the educational level increased. The reason might be that the operators who had a high educational level or were older had a tendency of disliking custom works. 10. The average custom use of tractor was 171.3 hours per year, and the ratio of custom work was 63.7 percent on the rice-oriented farms, 31.7 percent on the livestock-oriented farms and 22.4 percent on the orchard-oriented farms. Among the custom works, the most popular one was the grader leveling. 11. The charge on custom work was about 40,000 Won per hectare for plowing and rotary tillage, and it was the most expensive in the southeastern region, and next followed by the southwestern region. 12. The average plowing capacity of the small tractor was 7.8 hours per hectare in the paddy field, and that of the large tractors was 4.3 hours per hectare. The average rotary-tilling capacities of the small and the large tractors were 6.5 and 4.3 hours per hectare, in the paddy field respectively.

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A Morphological Study of Bamboos by Vascular Bundle Sheath (대나무류(類)의 유관속초(維管束鞘)에 의(依)한 형태학적(形態學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Jai Saing
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.13-47
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    • 1975
  • Among the many species of bamboo, it is well known that the dwarf-type is widely distributed in the tropical regions, and the slender type in temperated zone. In the temperated zone the trees have extensively differentiated into one hundred species in 50 genera. In many oriental countries, the bamboo wood is being used as a material for construction and for the manufacture of technical instruments. The bamboo shoot is also regarded as a good and delicious edible resource. Moreover, recent medical investigation verifies that the sap of certain species of the bamboo is an antibiotic effect against cancer. Fortunately, it is very easy to propagate the bamboo trees by using cutting from southeastern Asian countries. This important resource can further be used as a significant source of pulp, which is becoming increasingly important. The classification system of this significant resource has not been completely established to date, even though its importance has been emphasized. Initiated by Canlevon Linne in the 18th century, a classification method concerning the morphological characteristics of flowers was the first step in developing a classification. But it was not an easy task to accomplish, because this type of classification system is based on the sexual organs in bamboo trees. Because the bamboo has a long life cycle of 60-120 years and classification according to this method was very difficult as the materials for the classification are not abundant and some species have changed, even though many references related to the morphological classification of bamboo trees are available nowadays. So, the certification of bamboo trees according to the morphological classification system is not reasonable for us. Consequently, the classification system of bamboo trees on the basis of endomorphological characteristics was initiated by Chinese-born Liese. And classification method based on the morphological characteristics of the vascular bundle was developed by Grosser. These classification methods are fundamentally related to Holltum's classification method, which stressed the morphology of the ovary. The author investigated to re-establish a new classification method based on the vascular sheath. Twenty-six species in 11 genera which originated from Formosa where used in the study. The results obtained from the investigation were somewhat coordinated with those of Crosser. Many difficulties were found in distinguishing the species of Bambusa and Dendrocalamus. These two species were critically differentiated under the new classification system, which is based on the existence of a separated vascular bundle sheath in the bamboo. According to these results, it is recommended that Babusa divided into two groups by placing it into either subspecies or the lower categories. This recommendation is supported by the observation that the evolutional pattern of the bamboo thunk which is from outward to inward. It is also supported by the viewpoint that the fundamental hypothesis in evolution is from simple to complex. There remained many problems to be solved through more critical examination by comparing the results to those of the classification based on the sexual organs method. The author observed the figure of the cross-sectional area of vascular trunk of bamboo tree and compared the results with those of Grosser and Liese, i.e. A, $B_1$, $B_2$, C, and D groups in classification. Group A and $B_2$ were in accordance with the results of those scholars, while group D showed many differences, Grosser and Liese divided bamboo into "g" type and "h" type according to the vascular bundle type; and they included Dendrocalamus and Bambusa in Group D without considering the type of vascular bundle sheath. However, the results obtained by the author showed that Dendrocalamus and Bambusa are differentiated from each other. By considering another group, "i" identified according to the existence of separated vascular bundle sheath. Bambusa showed to have a separated vascular bundle sheath while Dendrocalamus does not have a separated vascular bundle sheath. Moreover, Bambusa showed peculiar characteristics in the figure of vascular development, i.e., one with an inward vascular bundle sheath and the other with a bivascular bundle sheath (inward and outward). In conclusion, the bamboo species used in this experiment were classified in group D, without any separated vascular bundle sheath, and in group E, with a vascular bundle sheath. Group E was divided into two groups, i.e., and group $E_1$, with bivascular sheath, and group $E_2$, with only an inward vascular sheath. Therefore, the Bambusa in group D as described by Grosser and Liese was included in group E. Dendrocalamus seemed to be the middle group between group $E_l$ and group $E_2$ under this classification system which is summarized as follows: Phyllostachys-type: Group A - Phyllostachys, Chymonobambus, Arundinaria, Pseudosasa, Pleioblastus, Yashania Pome-type: Group $B_2$ - Schizostachyum, Melocanna Hemp-type: Group D - Dendrocalamu Bambu-type: Group $E_1$ - Bambusa ghi.

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Studies of Liming Effect on the Improvement of an Acid Sulphate Paddy Soil (특이산성답(特異酸性畓) 토양(土壤)의 개량(改良)을 위(爲)한 석회시용(石灰施用) 효과(?果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Young-Sun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.193-218
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    • 1974
  • These studies were carried out for the elucidation of liming effect on the growth of rice seedlings and the chemical characteristics of an acid sulphate paddy that shows not only extremely high acidity of soil but also poor growth of rice plants, consequently low yield. Thus the liming effect on the changes of acidity, oxidation-reduction potential, and the contents of iron, aluminium, sulphate, and phosphorus fractions in the soil was investigated under the waterlogging and drying condition. The reclaimable or inhibitory effect of phosphorus, iron and aluminium on the growth of rice seedlings was also investigated under liming. The results are summarized as follows: 1. After liming, the pH of the acid sulphate subsoil decreased again on drying. 2. The oxidation-reduction potential reached a minimum after 5 days of flooding and greatly decreased on liming but increased after drying. 3. The contents of ferrous iron soluble in water-and Morgan's solution reached a maximum after 15 days of flooding and only the content of water soluble ferrous iron was greatly decreased. 4. The content of aluminium soluble in water-and Morgan's solution decreased by flooding and liming, and showed a tendency to increase on drying. 5. In the limed acid sulphate soil, the content of water soluble calcium showed a highly significant negative correlation with the content of sulphate and liming decreased sulphate content in the soil. 6. The contents of total phosphorus was 496.3 ppm in the acid sulphate topsoil and 387.5 ppm in the subsoil. The content of each phosphorus fraction was in the order of Fe-P>Occ. Fe-P>Ca-P>Occ. Al-P>Al-P and Fe-P content in the soil was the highest fraction among them. 7. Lime application increased greatly Ca-P and Al-P, and Occ. Fe-P and Occ. Al-P only slightly, but decreased Fe-P differently in each soil. 8. Effect of phosphorus on the dry matter yield of rice seedlings was great. The optimum amount of phosphorus to produce maximum dry matter yield of rice seedlings appeared to be 6.8% of maximum absorption (absorption coefficient) without liming and 10.0% with liming. 9. In rice seedlings liming increased the content and uptake of calcium and silica but decreased those of iron and aluminium. Phosphorus application increased the content and uptake of phosphorus and decreased iron while the application of iron and aluminium increased their contents and uptake but decreased those of phosphorus. 10. Liming greatly alleviated such toxicity of iron and aluminium. 11. When phosphorus was applied, the dry matter yield of rice seedlings showed highly significant positive correlations with uptake of phosphorus, calcium and silica each. When iron and aluminium were applied, dry matter yields indicated significant positive correlations with the contents or uptake of calcium and silica each, but significant negative correlations with the content or uptake of iron and aluminium. 12. Under the application of phosphorus and lime, dry matter yields showed significant positive correlations with pH and Morgan's extractable calcium each of the soil samples after harvest. Under the application of lime, iron and aluminium, dry matter yields showed significant positive correlations with pH, calcium and silica each, but negative correlations with iron and aluminium contents each of the soil samples after harvest.

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GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY OF KOREA (한반도층서개요(韓半島層序槪要))

  • Chang, Ki Hong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.73-87
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    • 1975
  • Regional unconformities have been used as boundaries of major stratigraphic units in Korea. The term "synthem" has already been propsed for formal unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units of maximum magnitude (ISSC, 1974). The unconformity-based classification of the strata in the cratonic area in Korea comprises in ascending order the Kyerim, $Sangw{\check{o}}n$, $Jos{\check{o}}n$, $Py{\check{o}}ngan$, Daedong, and $Ky{\check{o}}ngsang$ Synthems, and the Cenozoic Erathem. The unconformites separating them from each other are either orogenic or epeirogenic (and vertical tectonic). The sub-$Sangw{\check{o}}n$ unconformity is a non-conformity above the basement complex in Korea. The unconformities between the $Sangw{\check{o}}n$, $Jos{\check{o}}n$, and $Py{\check{o}}ngan$ Synthems are disconformities denoting late Precambrian and Paleozoic crustal quiescence in Korea. The unconformities between the $Py{\check{o}}ngan$, Daedong, and $Ky{\check{o}}ngsang$ Synthems are angular unconformities representing Mesozoic orogenies. The bounding unconformities of the $Ky{\check{o}}ngsang$ Synthem involve non-conformable parts overlying the Jurassic and late Cretaceous granitic rocks.

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STUDIES ON THE DIMORPHISM AND FERTILITY OF PERSICARIA JAPONICA (MEISSNER) GROSS ET NAKAI (Persicaria Japonica (MISSNER) Gross et Nakai의 이형화와 수정력에 관한 연구)

  • HARN, Chang Yawl
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 1960
  • HARN, Chang Yawl : Studies on the dimorphism and Fertility of Persicaria japonica (MEISSNER) Gross et Nakai. Kor Jour. Bot. 3(I) 1-15 1960 Numerous investigations, since the works of DARWIN, have been made regarding the heterostylous plants by JOST (1907), CORRENS (1924), LAIBACK (1924), LEWIS (1943), and many others. Studies on the heterostylous Polygomum, however, were not reported except for the buckwhent, Fagopyrum esculentum, which was investigated by SCHOCH-BODMER (1930), EAST (1934), FROLOVA & Co-Workers (1946), MORRIS (1947, 1951) TATEBE (1949, 1951, 1953), present author (1957), and others. It is because no heterostylous species, besides buckwheat, have been known to exist in the Polygonum family. The author, during his studies on both heterostylism and fertility of Polygonaceae, has found that the species, persicaria japonica (Meissner) Gross et Nakai, is not diecious as has been known in taxonomy, but in reality beterostylous both morphologically and physiologically. It was found that this plant, regarded by taxonomist, as a male plant setting no seed, actually set seed (botanical fruit) when legitimate combination was made. Since his brief report on the dimorphic phenomens of this plant in 1956, the author's further research on the manner of fertilization has revealed that this species is a peculiar type whose dimorphism has undergone extreme specialization structurally and physiologically, the short-styled individual behaving in nature as a male plant and the long-styled individual, as female, whereas in controllled pollination the plant shows highly differentiated typical dimorphism. When compared with the other dimorphous species of this family, F. esculentum and P. sentiosa. it has been clarified that these three species differ in the degree of differentiation of their dimorphism morphologically and physiologically. That is, P. japonica has developed such a high specialization as to mislead the taxonomists, while P. senticosa shows almost no noticeable difference between long- and shortstyled individuals retaining most of the inherent physiological character cmmon to the genus except for the fact that it has two forms of flowers. F. esculentum appears to have taken the intermediate position in every respect. The result obtained in the present experiment are summarized as follows: 1) P. japonica has two kinds of individuals, one long style-short stamened; the other, short style-long stamened. The floral structure of this plants shows typical characteristics of dimorphic heterostylism. The differentiation between the two forms of flower has proceeded so highly both in primary and secondary difference of flower structure that this may be regarded as the most specialized form of dimorphism. 2) The differences of floral structure between the long and short styled individuals are remarkable compared with the other dimorphic species of the family. 3) The stamens of long styled plants show the sign of deteriolation whereas those of the short styled flower are well-developed. 4) When legitimate combinations are made, both L- and S-styled individuals are fertilized well and set seed (fruit), while in the illegitimate combination no fertilization and seed setting occur. Physiologically this species exhibits the typical behavior of dimorphic plants. 5) The self-fertile character, so common in other species of the other non-heterostyle Polygonum family, has disappeared completely. 6) Under natural conditions, no or few seed setting is observed in short styled individuals that behave as if they were male plants. 7) In hand pollination, the combination of both $L{\times}S$ and $S{\times}L$ alike yield relatively good fertility and seed-formation, the behavior of short styled individuals in artificial pollination differing remarkably from that in nature. 8) Under controlled pollination, $L{\times}S$ combination sets far more seed than in the combination of $S{\times}L$. In the S-styled individuals, the fertilized flower has the tendency of its seed more readily falling off in every stage of seed development than in the L-styled individuals. 9) The behaviors of pollen tubes just parallels the results of fertility test. That is, in the illegitimate combination, L-selfed, $L{\times}L$, S-selfed, and $S{\times}S$, the growth of pollen tubes is checked in the style, while in legitimately combined $L{\times}S$ and $S{\times}L$, the pollen tubes grow well reaching the ovaries within 40-50 minutes after pollination. The response of short styled individuals, known as male plant among taxonomists, is identical, as far as behavior fo pollen tube growth and fertilization are concerned, to that of long styled individuals, the so-called female plant. 10) The pollen grains from the short-styled plants are complete and fertile, whereas 70% of those of L-styled are found to be abortive, i.e., empty contents. 11) The remaining 30% of pollen of L-plant shows varied degree of stainability when stained with iron-aceto-carmine......mostly light red, while the pollen grains of S-style individuals are dark brown indicating complete fertility and viability. 12) The abundance of sterile pollen in L-styled and the nature of seed-dropping which occurs in S-styled individuals appear to be the main causes why the short styled individuals bear no seed in nature. Under controlled legitimate union, $S{\times}L$, the careful and elaborate pollination would give the S-styoled flowers the opportunities to receive the fertile pollens, though few in number, from L-styled plant, thus enabling S-plant to bear seed. 13) This species is not dioecious as is regarded by taxonomists, but typical dimorphic plant which has so highly specialized in floral structures and funcitons that the long-styled plant behaves just like a female individual; and the short-styled, like a male.

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