• Title, Summary, Keyword: 기름유출

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Oil spill analysis caused by offshore pipeline damage (해저 파이프라인 손상에 기인한 기름 유출 분석)

  • Jo, Chul H.
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.28-34
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    • 1996
  • 해저면에 설치되 있는 기름 송유관에 손상이 생겨, 송유관 내부에 흐르는 기름이 유출 될경우 엄청난 환경오염 및 재난을 발생시킨다. 해저 송유관 손상에 의한 기름유출 원인은 여러가지 경우에 기인한다. 선박의 바닥이 해저면에 끌려 해저 송유관을 손상시키는 경우, 선박의 엥커에 의해 손상되는 경우, 지진에 의해 좌굴되는 경우, 자유 경간 (Free span)에 의해 좌굴 되는 경우, 송유관 수리 시 사고로 인한 유출, 송유관의 부식에 기인한 유출 등으로 나누어 질 수 있다. 어떠한 경우이든 해저 파이프 손상시, 유출된 기름의 양을 예측하고 그에 따른 적절한 대비가 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 1차 유출 및 2차 유출을 정의하여 각각의 경우에 유출량 해석 이론을 소개하였다. 또한 이 이론을 실제 경우에 응용하여 해저 송유관 손상에 의해 방출되는 기름량을 손상면적에 따라 계산하였고, 최대 유출량 산출 법을 적용하여 손상 위치에 따른 부분별 유출량 계산법을 소개하였다.

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Overview of Major Oil Spill at Sea and Details of Various Response Actions 2. Analysis of Marine Oil Pollution Incidents in Korea (대형 기름유출사고와 방제조치에 관한 연구 2. 국내 해양 기름오염사고 분석)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.467-475
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    • 2013
  • In order to seize quantitative materials as part of studies on measures for oil pollution prevention and control, the statistics of oil pollution incidents in Korean coastal waters for 10 years from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed with relation to the number of oil spills and the volume of oil spilt according to causes, sources and sea areas of spills. Total number and total volume of oil spills for 10 years were found to be 2,833 cases and 17,877 kL, respectively. 50.4 %(1,429 cases) of total number of oil spills were caused by negligence, although oil spillage due to negligence was 294 kL(1.7 %). While oil spillage caused by marine accidents was 17,400 kL(97.3 %), marine accidents accounted for 27.9 %(790 cases) of total number of oil spills. While negligence had a great influence on the number of oil spills, marine accidents had a huge impact on the amount of oil spilt. Fishing boats accounted for 42.7 %(1,210 cases) of the number of oil spills, and although oil tankers accounted for 9.2 %(261 cases) of the number of oil spills, oil spillage from oil tankers was 15,488kL(86.7 %). It means that oil tankers such as VLCC or ULCC may be the main sources of major oil spills and a few very large spills are responsible for a high percentage of the amount of oil spilt. While the number of oil spill incidents was closely related to the accidents of fishing boats, the volume of oil spilt was greatly affected by the major oil spill incidents of oil tankers such as M/T Hebei Spirit. The number and volume of oil spills were shown to be 1,613 cases(56.9 %) and 3,804 kL(21.3 %) in South Sea, 700 cases(24.7 %) and 13,501 kL(75.5 %) in West Sea, and 520 cases(18.2 %) and 572 kL(3.2 %) in East Sea of Korea, respectively. The highest number of oil spills was found in South Sea and the most volume of oil spilt was shown in West Sea of Korea for 10 years.

흡착재를 사용한 기름회수기 개발의 기초연구

  • 권병곤;고경찬;박외철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Industrial Safety Conference
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 1997
  • 환경문제에 관한 관심이 급속히 증가하고 있는 가운데, 1995년 여름 유조선 씨 프린스호의 여천 앞바다 좌초로 다량의 기름이 유출되었다. 이 사고 이후 두달이 채 지나기도 전에 유조선 제1유일호가 부산 앞바다에서 침몰하는 사고가 발생했다. 통계1)에 의하면, 1991년 1월부터 1995년 9월말까지 우리나라 연안에서 총 1,583 건의 오염사고가 발생하였고, 유출량은 22,541톤, 피해금액 3,231억원으로 집계되었다. 해양오염사고중 기름에 의한 오염사호는 총발생건수의 92%로 대부분을 차지하고 있다. 배출원인은 선박사고가 전체 발생건수의 87%, 육상 및 해양시설에 의한 사고가 10.5%, 배출원인 불명이 2.5%였다. 오염물질 중 기름의 종류별 유출랑은 경유 6,509톤, 벙커유 3,928톤, 선저폐수 759톤으로, 경유가 가장 많고 다음으로 벙커유가 많았다. 해상 기름유출사호는 기름운반선 등에 의해 하루에 한번 꼴로 크고 작은 기름유출사고를 일으키고 있으며, 발생건수가 매년 증가하고 있다. 우리나라 연안에서의 유류 해상 수송량 증가와 선박의 대형화로 대형기름유출사고의 발생 가능성이 잠재하고 있다. (중략)

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A Study on the Development of Regional Risk Mapping Program for Marine Oil Spills (해역별 기름유출사고 위험도 매핑 프로그램 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Jung-Hwan;Yun, Jong-Hwui
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.423-429
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    • 2016
  • A study was conducted to analyze the oil spill dynamic state using system dynamics method, and to developed regional risk program based on oil spill history for better judgement of the situation at the early stage of oil spill. Results were obtained as follows: Firstly, various variables were calculated by a score based on raw data of oil spill history in Korea. Regional oil spill risk was also calculated in a quantitative way. Secondly, calculated regional oil spill risk was analyzed and programmed with a help of smart-device for better use. Thirdly, comparison of oil spill risk between regions became possible and regional oil spill risk program proved to be useful in prompt decision under urgent situation in response to oil spill at sea. Convenient and quick oil spill risk without special restrictions have been able to determine. and it can help in anticipative preparation (strategy) for oil spills.

Overview of Major Oil Spill at Sea and Details of Various Response Actions -1. Number and Volume of Marine Oil Spills in Korea and in the World (대형 기름유출사고와 방제조치에 관한 연구 -1. 국내외 해양기름오염사고 건수와 유출량)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.129-137
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    • 2013
  • In order to obtain quantitative basic data for marine oil pollution prevention, the statistics of oil spill incidents in Korea and in the world for 20 years from 1993 to 2012 were collected and analyzed with relation to the number of oil spills and the amount of oil spilt. In Korea for 20 years, total number and average annual number of oil spills were 6,608 cases and nearly 330 cases/year, respectively, and total volume and average annual volume of oils spilt were 57,328 kL and nearly 2,866 kL/year, respectively. Due to major oil spills from oil tankers, annual volumes of oils spilt in Korea were sharply increased to 15,388 kL in 1993, 15,773 kL in 1995, 3,428 kL in 1997 and 13,008 kL in 2007. In case of worldwide oil spills for 20 years, total number and average annual number of oil spills of 8 kL (or 7 tonnes) and above were 420 cases and 21 cases/year, respectively, and total amount and average annual amount of oils spilt 8 kL (or 7 tonnes) and above were about 800,000 kL (or 704,000 tonnes) and about 40,000 kL/year (or 35,200 tonnes/year), respectively. Major oil spills from oil tankers increased massively annual amounts of oils spilt worldwide to about 159,000 kL (or 140,000 tonnes) in 1993, about 147,600 kL (or 130,000 tonnes) in 1994, about 90,900 kL (80,000 tonnes) in 1996, about 81,800 kL (72,000 tonnes) in 1997 and about 76,100 kL (or 67,000 tonnes) in 2002. Obvious correlation between annual number of oil spills and annual amount of oil spilt was not found in both Korea and the world, while both annual number and annual volume tended to decrease with the lapse of year in both Korea and the world, though there were wide fluctuations from year to year in both annual number of oil spills and annual amount of oils spilt worldwide and in Korea for 20 years. From 2008 to 2012 worldwide, there were sharp decreases in both annual number and annual amount of oil spills. In particular, no oil spill of 800 kL (or 700 tonnes) and above occurred in the year of 2012.

Numerical Investigation on Oil Spill from Damaged Riser (손상된 라이저로부터 유출된 기름 확산에 대한 수치해석)

  • Kim, Hyo Ju;Lee, Sang Chul;Park, Sunho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2016
  • When a riser is damaged, the oil spills to sea. Oil spills cause huge economic losses as well as a destruction of the marine environment. To reduce losses, it is needed to predict spilled oil volume from risers and the excursion of the oil. The present paper simulated the oil spill for a damaged riser using open source libraries, called Open-FOAM. To verify numerical methods, jet flow and Rayleigh-Taylor instability were simulated. The oil spill was simulated for various damaged leak size, spilled oil volume rates, damaged vertical locations of a riser, and current speeds. From results, the maximum excursion of the spilled oil at the certain time was predicted, and a forecasting model for various parameters was suggested.

The Present State of Marine Oil Spills and the Enhancement Plans of National Oil Spill Response Capability in Vietnam - Through the Comparison of Statistics and OSR System between Vietnam and Republic of Korea - (베트남의 해양기름유출 현황과 국가대응역량 증강 방안 - 통계자료와 유출유 방제시스템에 대한 베트남과 한국 간의 비교를 통하여 -)

  • Phan, Van Hung;Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.690-698
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    • 2017
  • Vietnam is a marine nation with more than 3,444 km of shorelines, thousands of islands, and 2,360 rivers and canals of over 42,000 km long. As the frequency and the volume of oil transportation by ships increase, the possibility of oil spill incidents becomes higher than ever. Fuel oil and cargo oil spills at sea have widespread impact and long-term consequences on marine ecosystems, coastal resources and human health as well as socio-economy. This study is to show not only the present state of marine oil spills in Vietnam such as the number and the volume of oil spills for two decades, and an overall about Vietnamese national response system like national framework for Oil Spill Response (OSR), etc. but also to present the recommendations for enhancing national capability in response to oil spill incidents in Vietnam, especially, with a comparison of national OSR systems between Vietnam and South Korea. As the result, the number and the volume of marine oil spills in Vietnam showed an upward trend as opposed to a downward trend in South Korea. This means that Vietnam has the possibility of oil spills in coastal waters. Therefore, three main recommendations for the enhancement of national OSR capability in Vietnam are proposed as follows: (1) the development of alternative plan for reenforcing national OSR system involving legal system for preparedness and response to oil spill pollution such as the acceptance and implementation of OPRC Convention as well as the establishment of national fund compensating for the damage and loss caused by oil pollution; (2) the enhancement of a consistent reporting, alerting and monitoring system; and (3) the development of training and exercise programs with standard contents of educational courses.

OIL SPILL DETECTION AND MONITORING BY HEBEI SPIRIT DISASTER USING SATELLITE DATA (허베이 스피리트호 유류 유출 탐지 연구)

  • Yang, Chan-Su
    • Proceedings of KOSOMES biannual meeting
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    • pp.125-127
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    • 2008
  • 허베이스피리트호 원유유출 사고는 2007년 12월7일 아침 7시6분경 서해안 만리포 북서쪽 10km 해상에서 크레인을 적재한 1만1800t급 바지선이 정박 중인 흥콩 선적 유조선 허베이 스피리트호(14만6000t급)와 부딪치면서 발생했다. 이와 같은 기름 유출 사고의 경우, 유출 범위를 정확하게 이해하는 것이 중요하다. 여기서는 위 사고 기간에 얻어진 인공위성 자료를 이용하여 기름 유출을 탐지하기 위한 연구결과를 소개한다. 광학과 마이로파영상에 대해 유출 범위의 계산 및 해석 알고리듬에 대한 현재까지의 결과를 소개한다. 광학영상으로는 아리랑 2호 (다목적 실용위성 2호, KOMPSAT II) MSC(Multi Spectral Camera)자료가 사용되었으며, 합성개구레이더로는 ENVISAT ASAR, TerraSAR-X 및 ALOS PALSAR의 자료가 사용되었다.

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