• Title, Summary, Keyword: 꿀벌(Apis mellifera L.)

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Chemical Analysis of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. (동양종과 서양종 꿀벌의 표피탄화수소 성분 분석)

  • 이창주;신경우;박승찬;심재한
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 2003
  • Cuticular hydrocarbons of antenna, legs and wings from two species of honeybee worker of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. can be analyzed directly with gas chromatograph and GC/MS without solvent extraction. The saturated hydrocarbons identified in selected part of both species were nC22, nC23, nC25-nC3O, nC32 and nC34 except nC24. Two saturated hydrocarbons, nC26 (23.0-42.6%) and nC28 (16.8-54.8%), were major compounds in both species and others were minor compounds. A. mellifera can be distinguished from A. cerana F. by having higher proportion of nC30, nC32 and nC34 by having lower proportion of nC25 from three selected part of both species.

Effect on the Pollinating Activities of Honeybee, Apis mellierfa L.(Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. in Paprika Vinyl-Houses (시설파프리카에서 양봉꿀벌과 서양뒤영벌의 화분매개활동 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Beom;Ha, Nam-Gyu;Yoon, Hyung-Joo;Park, In-Gyun;Lee, Kyeong-Yong;Gang, Ho-Sung;Hwang, Seok-Jo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2008
  • This study was surveyed the effects by pollinating activity of Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris released in the paprika vinyl-houses. The foraging activity and behaviour of A. mellifera and B. terrestris visited on the paprika flowers were nearly alike. The pick times of pollinating activity by A. mellifera and B. terrestris were showed the hightest at 11:00 and 15:00, and 09:00 to 11:00, respectively. The rate of fruit set by A. mellifera and B. terrestris released for pollinating paprika were same level with 94%, and these rate were higher than the fruit setting rate which was 92% by fan operated. The qualities of paprika produced by pollinators released were higher than those by fan operated. And weight per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and economical profit per 2,310 $m^2$ were over 10% higher than those by fan operated. Therefore the economical effects by the pollinating activities of A. mellifera and B. terrestris released in the paprika vinyl-houses were obviously demonstrated.

Identification of Uncharacterized Anti-microbial Peptides Derived from the European Honeybee (꿀벌 Apis mellifera에서 유래 한 특성화 되지 않은 항균성 펩티드의 동정)

  • Park, Hee Geun;Kim, Dong Won;Lee, Man-Young;Choi, Yong Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2020
  • The European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) has multiple anti-microbial peptides, but many were unknown and demands for their characterization have increased. This study therefore focused on identifying novel anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) from A. mellifera L. To obtain high-throughput transcriptome data of the honeybee, we implemented next-generation sequencing (NGS), isolating novel AMPs from total RNA, and generated 15,314 peptide sequences, including 44 known, using Illumina HiSeq 2500 technology. The uncharacterized peptides were identified based on specific features of possible AMPs predicted in the sequencing analysis. AMP5, one such uncharacterized peptide, was expressed in the epidermis, body fat, and venom gland of the honeybee. We chemically synthesized this peptide and tested its anti-bacterial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (KACC 10005) and Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis (KACC 10168) by anti-microbial assay. AMP5 exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli (MIC50=22.04±0.66 μM) but not against B. thuringiensis. When worker bees were injected with E. coli, AMP5 was up-regulated in the body fat. This study therefore identified AMP5 in adult European honeybees and confirmed its anti-bacterial activity against Gram-negative E. coli.

Risk Assessment of Fipronil on Honeybee (Apis mellifera) (Fipronil의 꿀벌 (Apis mellifera)에 대한 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Byung-Seok;Yang, Yu-Jung;Park, Yeon-Ki;Jeong, Mi-Hye;You, Are-Sun;Park, Kyung-Hun;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the actual risk of fipronil on worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) through acute contact toxicity test, acute oral toxicity test, toxicity of residues on foliage test, and small scale field test. The $48h-LD_{50s}$ of fipronil SC on honeybee were $0.005{\mu}g$ a.i./bee in acute contact toxicity test and $0.004{\mu}g$ a.i./bee in acute oral toxicity test, respectively. In toxicity of residues on foliage test, fipronil showed over 90% of mortality during 28days after treatment at recommended application rate. The $DT_{50}$ of dislodgeable foliar residue was 9 days. Finally, In small scale field test, fipronil showed similar toxicity in the residues on foliage test. It was concluded that fipronil has very high acute toxicity and long residual toxicity to honeybee. Therefore, fipronil is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the treatment area. To protect honeybee and wild pollinators from outdoor use of fipronil, ultimately it should need to limit for only indoor use to prevent pollinators from unintentionally exposure of fipronil.

Evaluation of Honeybee Viral Safety from the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) Venom (생물학적 원료의약품 사용을 위한 꿀벌 봉독의 바이러스 안전성 검증)

  • Han, Sang Mi;Woo, Soon Ok;Kim, Se Gun;Jang, Hye Ri;Choi, Hong Min;Moon, Hyo Jung
    • Journal of Apiculture
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2018
  • Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom (BV) is a good candidate for development as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of acne vulgaris. However, BV has been restricted in the development of medical agents because BV has not been registered as an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). The aim of this study was to evaluate viral safety of BV, as biological origin agents. The viral diseases of honeybees were reported at least 18 virus types. Using RT-PCR we evaluated infected honeybees, BV isolated bee venom sac from virus infected honeybee, and BV collected from honeybees using BV collector for the presence of the seven bee viruses, complete genome sequence including Sacbrood virus (SBV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). The SBV, BQCV, DWV, CBPV, ABPV, KBV, and IAPV were not detected both BV isolated bee venom sac from virus infected honeybee and BV collected from honeybees using BV collector. According to these results, we have meanwhile observed that BV and BV sac might be safety for bee viruses contamination. We suggest that BV could be used a good candidate for API.

Effect of Insect Pollinators for Chinese jujube (Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder) in Rain shelter house (대추 비가림하우스 내 화분매개곤충의 수분 특성 및 효과)

  • Oh, Ha Kyung;Lee, Jong Won;Kim, Chung Woo;Lee, Kyeong Hee;Lee, Seong Kyun;Kim, Sang Hee;Yoon, Hyung Joo;Lee, Kyeong Yong
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.365-370
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    • 2017
  • The flowering season of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder) is overlaps with the rainy season and the abnormal weather conditions in Korea, thereby affecting pollination, fertilization, and fruit setting. We studied the pollinating activities of Apis mellifera L. and Bombus terrestris L. in rain shelter houses and their effects on fruit setting, with the ultimate aim of stabilizing fruit setting in Z. jujuba. A. mellifera and B. terrestirs were used for pollination in jujube orchard in the rain shelter house for approximately 55 days from June 1, 2016, to July 25, 2016. The peak time of the rate of outgoing and incoming A. mellifera was recorded in the afternoon. However, the diurnal activity of B. terrestris was constant between 09:30 and 17:30 h. The rate of jujube fruit set on current shoots by A. mellifera and B. terrestirs was 10.2 and 8.9%, whereas that in plots with no pollinators was 5.5%. Therefore, using pollinator in the rain shelter house in jujube orchard is effective in promoting jujube fruit setting.

Enzyme Activities of a Honeybee(Apis mellifera L.) Associated with the Degradation of Some Insecticides (서양종(西洋種)꿀벌의 살충제분해효소에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Suh, Yong-Tack;Shim, Jae-Han
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 1988
  • In order to determine the approptiate usage of insecticides to honeybee(Apis mellifera L.), median effective dose to seven insecticides were studied. $LC_(50)$ value of DDT was the highest as being 58 ppm, and that of EPN was the lowest as being 1.61ppm. Various detoxifying enzymes from the midget cf adult worker bee, including microsomal oxidases, glutathione Stransferases, esterases, and DDT-dehydrochlorinase were assayed. Effects of various insecticides on microsomal enzyme activities were as follows: Aldrin epoxidase activity was inhibited by malathione and permethrin treatment. N-demethylase activity was induced by diazinon and EPN treatment and O-demethlase activity was induced by diazinon treatment. Of the glutathione S-transferases, aryltransferase(DCNB conjugation) activity was significantly induced by diazinon, and moderately induced by permethrin. Of the esterases, ${\alpha}-NA$ esterase activity was moderately inhibited by malatjione and permethrin. Acetylcholinesterase activity was not affected by the sublethal exposure of honeybee to the insecticides. Sublethal exposure of honeybee to the insecticides had no effect on DDT-dehydrochlorinase activity, except carbaryl and permethrin were significantly induced.

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Comparison of the pollinating activities according to number of combs per honeybee (Apis mellifera) hive released in the strawberry (Seolhyang var.) vinyl-houses (서양종꿀벌(Apis mellifera L.) 소비매수별 시설딸기(설향) 화분매개활동 비교)

  • Lee, Sang-Beom;Yoon, Hyung-Joo;Kang, Seok Woo;Kwon, Jae Seok;Park, Ki-Kwan
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2014
  • This study was examined the pollinating activity and the economical effect according to numbers released of Apis mellifera in the $825m^2$ strawberry (Seolhyang var.) vinyl-houses. The time-zone of pollinating activity relative to numbers of honeycomb released at the strawberry (Seolhyang var.) vinyl-houses was together from 9A.M. to 4P.M., and the peak time of pollinating activity was 11A.M.. The effects on pollinating activity relative to the honeycomb numbers in the honeybee hive released at the strawberry houses were ordered 5 honeycombs (11,000 heads), 4 honeycombs (8,800 heads) and 3 honeycombs (6,600 heads). The rate of workers lost in A. mellifera hives with 5 honeybee combs and 4 honeycombs during the strawberry cultivating period were lower than that of 3 honeycombs. The rates of fruit set by pollinating activity relative to the honeycomb numbers in the honeybee hive released at the strawberry vinyl-houses were same level with over 98%. The fruit qualities; No. of seeds, sugar content and rate of normal fruit set were same level, but fruit weights were ordered 5 honeycombs in 37.2 g, 4 honeycombs in 35.6 g and 3 honeycombs in 32.6 g. The marketing incomes of 4 honeycombs and 5 honeycombs were 9% to 13% higher than that of 3 honeycombs, respectively. Therefore, when the strawberry (Seolhyang var.) was planted at $825m^2$ of a vinyl-houses, it was surveyed that the most suitable numbers of honeycomb were over 4 honeycombs (8,800 heads).

Honeybee Acute and Residual Toxicity of Pesticides Registered for Strawberry (딸기용 농약의 꿀벌에 대한 급성독성 및 엽상잔류독성)

  • Kim, Byung-Seok;Park, Yoen-Ki;Lee, Yong-Hoon;Joeng, Mi-Hye;You, Are-Sun;Yang, Yu-Jung;Kim, Jin-Bae;Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2008
  • Lack of honey bee toxicity data for most pesticide products used for strawberry restricts to predict the adverse effects to foraging honey bee after treatment of pesticide in plastic house. This study was conducted to evaluate the actual risk of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) through acute contact toxicity test, acute oral toxicity test and toxicity of residues on foliage test with 21 pesticide products. The mortality of honeybee sprayed with 6 pesticides including dichlofluanid WP showed significantly different from control at recommended application rate in acute contact toxicity test at 24 hours after treatment. Fenpropathrin EC and milbemectin EC treatment groups showed more than 25% mortalities at recommended application rate in acute oral toxicity test. In toxicity of residues on foliage test, only fenpropathrin EC treatment group showed more than 25% mortalities at 10 days after treatment at recommended application rate. It was concluded that the most toxic route to exposure for honey bee is direct contact exposure to sprayed pesticides. Safety interval for honey bee was established by concerning the results of these tests.

Acute Oral Toxicity of dsRNA to Honey Bee, Apis mellifera (꿀벌에 대한 dsRNA의 급성섭식독성 평가)

  • Lim, Hye Song;Jung, Young Jun;Kim, Il Ryong;Kim, Jin;Ryu, Sungmin;Kim, Banni;Lee, Jung Ro;Choi, Wonkyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) eliminates or decreases gene expression by disrupting the target mRNA or by interfering with translation. Recently, RNAi technique was applied to generate new crop traits which provide protection against pests. To establish the environmental risk assessment protocol of RNAi LMO in lab scale, we developed dsRNA expression system using E. coli and tested acute oral toxicity assay to honey. METHOD AND RESULTS: The dsRNA expression vector, L4440, was chosen and cloned 240 bp of Snf7 and GFP gene fragment. To develop the maximum dsRNA induction condition in E. coli, we tested induction time, temperature and IPTG concentration in media. To estimate the risk assessment of dsRNA to honey bee, it has been selected and cultured with dsRNA supplement for 48 hours according to OECD guideline. As a result, the optimum condition of dsRNA induction was $37^{\circ}C$, 4 hours and 0.4 mM IPTG concentration and the difference between Snf7 and GFP dsRNA molecules from E. coli was not significant in survival and behavior to honey bee. Furthermore, blast search results indicated that effective match of predicted dsRNA fragments were not existed in honey bee genome. CONCLUSION: In this study, we developed and tested the acute oral toxicity of dsRNA using E. coli expression system to honey bee.