• Title, Summary, Keyword: 내공변위

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Estimation of Tunnel Convergence Using Statistical Analysis (통계처리를 활용한 터널 내공변위의 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 김종우
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.108-116
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    • 2003
  • Measured convergence data of a tunnel were investigated by means of statistical and regression analysis, where the rock mass were mainly composed of andesite and granite. The rock mass around tunnel were classified by RMR method into five different ratings, and then convergence data which belong to individual ratings were statistically processed to find out the appropriate regression equations. Exponential equations were better coincided with measured data than logarithmic equations. As the number of rock mass rating was increased, the magnitude and standard deviation of convergence were increased. Final convergence data were also investigated to study the relevance with both maximum displacement rate and early measured convergence. Some brief results of their relevance are presented. For instance, the regression coefficient between final convergence and maximum displacement rate was turned out to be 0.87 for this studied tunnel.

Relations between Initial Displacement Rate and Final Displacement of Arch Settlement and Convergence of a Shallow Tunnel (저심도 터널의 천단침하 및 내공변위의 초기변위속도와 최종변위의 관계)

  • Kim, Cheehwan
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 2013
  • It is generalized to measure the arch settlement and convergence during tunnel construction for monitoring its mechanical stability. The initial convergence rate a day is defined from the first convergence measurement and the final convergence defined as the convergence measured lastly. The initial and the final tunnel arch settlement are defined like the preceding convergence. In the study, the relations between the initial and final displacements of a shallow tunnel are analyzed. The measurements were performed in the tunnel of subway 906 construction site in Seoul. The overburden is 10-20 m and the tunnel goes through weathered soil/rock. The width and height of the tunnel are about 11.5 m, 10m, respectively. So this is a shallow tunnel in weak rock. The length of tunnel is about 1,820 m and the tunnel was constructed in 2 stages, dividing upper and lower half. The numbers of measurement locations of arch settlement and convergence are 184 and 258, respectively. As a result, the initial displacement rate and the final displacement are comparatively larger in the section of weathered soil.

Characteristics of Tunnel Convergence Behaviour based on Variation of Rock Mass Rating (암반 등급 변화에 따른 터널 내공 변위 거동 특설)

  • Kim, Kwang-Yeom
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2008
  • Face mapping and displacement monitoring during tunnel construction are the most influential information for the stability assessment of ground and around structures. Especially, the result of face mapping and displacement analysis is essential to the excavation and support design in NATM which is based on the drilling and blasting. However, there have not been so many studies to put those useful information into practice for decision-making process during construction. The study reviewed the tunnel behaviour based on the RMR rating and displacement monitoring when the geological condition of rock mass varies inevitably. The study analysed the crown settlement using convergence equation in order to compensate the disparity induced by the location and time of measurement and found a distinct relation between the geological condition and the line of influence. As a result of analysing the various parameters related to the tunnel convergence according to the geological condition, the study suggested the basic knowledge about the relation between face mapping and displacement behaviour of tunnel.

석탄층을 협재한 연암을 대상으로 한 도로터널 시공사례

  • 김주화;김선기;신경진
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Rock Mechanics Conference
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2002
  • 동복터널의 현장지질은 편마암과 석탄층(Coal Beds)이 협재된 암질이 매우 불량한 편암으로 구성되어 있으며, 설계 시에는 석탄층의 발달이 확인되지 않아 그 영향을 충분히 고려되지 않았다. 석탄층(두께 2~8m)은 편암의 Rock Cleavage와 같은 방향과 45~55도의 경사를 가지며 pinch out and swelling 형태로 발달이 불규칙하다. 하행선굴착 중 약 290m구간에 걸쳐 석탄층이 나타났으며, 90m 구간은 천단 및 측벽부에서 집중 발달되어 쳐대일변위가 20mm이상인 지점이 발생하는 등 상반굴착 시 111.2mm의 수평방향 내공변위가, 하반굴착 시에는 최대 127.8mm의 내공변위가 발생하였고 하반관통이후 수렴되었다. 내공변위 과다발생에 대한 대책으로 지보타입을 하향 조정하였고 측벽부는 하향 록볼트를 포함한 추가록볼트 보강을 실시하였다. 한편 터널 바닥부의 석탄층은 도로포장 후 침하문제가 예상되어 인버트를 기존 강지보공과 H-beam으로 연결.폐합한 후 콘크리트로 치환(140m구간)하여 추가변위를 최소화하였으며 무근콘크리트로 설계된 라이닝은 철근콘크리트 라이닝으로 변경 시공하였다.

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Study on the Convergence of the NATM Tunnel Constructed in the Weathered Granite (풍화 화강암 지반에 건설된 NATM터널에서의 내공변위 연구)

  • Shin, Sang-Sik;Kim, Hak Joon;Bae, Gyu Jin
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.515-526
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    • 2015
  • Predicting and measuring tunnel convergence is very crucial for estimating tunnel stability and economical construction of NATM tunnels. The method to estimate the tunnel convergence that occurs before and after construction is proposed based on literature reviews. The total displacement occurring related to tunnel construction is determined to be about 2.5 times that of measured displacements. The results of displacement measurements at two tunnels constructed with similar rock types are examined for the investigation of factors affecting the tunnel convergence. The average convergence of Gyungju A Tunnel is about 6.7 times bigger than that of Daejeon B Tunnel. The possible causes of the large convergence in Gyungju A Tunnel are suggested. In order to predict the convergence of tunnels, careful investigation of the geological structures in the ground surface and the influence of external conditions as well as careful face mapping of the tunnel face should be conducted.

A study on the relationship between initial and final convergence in NATM tunnels (NATM 터널 굴착시 초기 내공변위와 최종 내공변위의 상관관계 연구)

  • Kim, Bum-Joo;Hwang, Young-Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.233-243
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    • 2008
  • A tunnel behavior predicted in the investigation and design stage is often different from its actual behavior due to mainly the complexity of ground conditions. In a tunnel construction, therefore, it is necessary to ensure the stability of the tunnel by predicting the behaviors of the ground and the supports through observations and measurements, and modifying immediately excavation and reinforcing methods when necessary. To do so, it is important to be able to predict the final tunnel behavior based on the initial tunnel behavior as early as possible. In this study, the correlations were obtained between the initial and the final convergence by analyzing statistically the convergence measurement data, collected from two domestic road tunnels under construction using NATM. In order to estimate the unknown displacements, occurred during the period between the excavation and the first measurement, two methods were used - one is the method by means of regression analysis using a modified exponential function and the other the method by a simple linear regression analysis using the data measured within the distance from tunnel face equal to the tunnel diameter (D). Finally, the relationships were obtained between the initial and final convergence, including the non-measured displacements estimated from the two different methods, by performing linear regression analyses. The regression analysis results showed that there are clear linear relationships between the initial and final convegence and the difference between the two linear regression equations was not that large for when using the exponential function and the simple linear function to estimate the non-measured displacements.

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A Numerical Analysis Study for the Prediction of Convergences and Characteristics of Subsidence behavior in Shallow, Wide Tunnel Excavation (천층 광폭터널의 내공변위 및 침하거동특성 예측을 위한 수치해석적 연구)

  • 문승백;송승곤;양형식;전양수;한공창
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2001
  • Final convergence of tunnel crown due to excavation have been well predicted by regression analysis which is expressed as a function of convergence curve on a time and distance dependent. In this study, the validity of the equations for shallow, wide tunnel was investigated by measurement and numerical analysis. Studied tunnel(Sansoo Tunnel) is located at the boundary of downtown and mountain park. Exponential predictions equation was better coincided with measured data than fractional equation for studied tunnel, although the ground was expected to be elasto-plastic. This is because weathered rock ground is changed elasto-plastic ground into elastic ground by multi-steel grouting and forepoling.

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A New Design Method of Reinforcement Ahead of a Tunnel Face by using Convergence-confinement Method and Load-transfer Approach (내공변위-제어법과 새로운 하중전이함수를 이용한 터널 천단보강공 설계)

  • In, Sung-Yoon;Jeong, Sang-Seom;Kim, Yong-Min
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.2C
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2009
  • In this study the behavior of a steel pipe structure used as an auxiliary method was evaluated by the convergence-confinement method and load-transfer approach, and the result was compared with that of numerical approach and in-situ measured data. As calculated partially increased displacement of the installed pipe to obtain the tunnel displacement. A numerical analysis simulate well the general behavior of measured displacement of tunnel crown. Through this study, it was found that the proposed procedure produces conservative result so that it can be applied in preliminary design of the auxiliary method of tunnel face.

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The deformation behavior of soil tunnels reinforced with RPUM and fiberglass pipes (RPUM과 유리섬유 파이프로 막장을 보강한 토사터널의 변형거동)

  • Nam, Gi-Chun;Heo, Young;Kim, Chi-Whan;You, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, deformation behavior of shallow subway tunnel excavated in weathered soil and reinforcement effects of longitudinal support measures are investigated via three dimensional FDM analysis. Two excavation methods, half-face excavation and full-face excavation, are considered in simulation to study the influences of excavation methods on tunnel deformation behavior. In addition, the reinforcing effects of RPUM and fiberglass pipe are compared. Face extrusion, covergence, preconvergence, and sidewall displacement are investigated to analyze tunnel deformation behavior, and surface settlement is used to analyze the effects of excavation methods and longitudinal supports measures. The simulation results show that half-face excavation induces larger convergence, preconvergence, sidewall displacement, surface settlement than full-face excavation, while full-face excavation induces larger extrusion than half-face excavation. In addition, under same excavation method, all displacements are larger when RPUM is only used for longitudinal support than when RPUM is jointly used with fiberglass pipes.

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Case Studies on Applications of Convergence Measurement Systems at the Stages of Tunnel Construction and Maintenance (터널 시공 및 유지관리 단계 내공변위 계측시스템 적용사례 연구)

  • Lee, Dae-Hyuck;Han, Il-Yeong;Kim, Ki-Sun;Jin, Suk-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2000
  • Three-dimensional total station system which integrated the instrument with Target Pin and TEMS 3D software developed by SKEC R&D center was applied to a tunnel excavation for monitoring of convergence and crown settlement. The efficiency of the system was proved as the result in the aspects of exact monitoring and prediction of rock conditions ahead of the face. To monitor the behavior of tunnel lining at the maintenance stage, DOCS system was applied to the subway tunnel section. Such many effects as the vibration of sensors, verification of the system efficiency, the effect of test trains operation, the variation of temperature and the effect of high voltage was checked. Thus the management scheme for tunnel maintenance was laid out as a proposal.

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