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A Study on Commemoration Characteristics of Vietnam War Memorials in Korea (한국에 있는 베트남전쟁 메모리얼에 나타난 기념성)

  • Lee, Sang-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.22-34
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze commemoration characteristics of fifty-nine Vietnam war memorials in Korea(VWMK) including monuments and national cemeteries from landscape architectural point of view such as location, spacial characteristic, landscape detail, sculpture, and interpretive text. Based on the commemoration characteristics of the analysis, the commemoration culture among Vietnam, the U.S.A., and Korea were studied and differences compared. The results are as follows. First, monuments were mainly located in public open space such as national cemeteries, parks, and plaza, and some of them were elected along with Korea war memorials to honor Vietnam war veterans at the national level. Second, because the monuments were relatively small and memorial towers were conventionally built on a square platform, the memorial style had been simply standardized to stereotype the commemoration characteristics. Third, outmoded memorial towers, stone plates, emblems, and memorial walls were used as main landscape details and standardized facilities were considered from an artistic and social point of view. Fourth, realistic soldier statues to show heroic and humanitarian image were in majority, while symbolic and abstract sculpture were small in number, they were mostly conventional and unexpressive. Fifth, the causes of participation in the Vietnam War were predominantly expressed as 'defending freedom', 'keeping world peace', and 'national economic development' based on anti-communism and patriotism, and also the collectivity of Vietnam War veterans by troop and local level was emphasized through engraving each veterans's name on towers, plates, and walls. VWMK are mostly conventional and stereotyped in style and show strongly national official memory and the collectivity of veterans from a sociopolitical perspective, and aim for anti-communistic patriotism ideologically. Further study and projects will be required to make creative and innovative memorials and to study how to rethink sublime fundamental themes like war, death, and the individual veteran's experience in VWMK.

A Study on the Coexistance of Ganghak(講學) and Yusik(遊息) space of Oksan Confucian Academy, Gyeongju: Directed Attention Restoration Theory Perspectives (주의집중 피로회복이론의 장으로 본 경주 옥산서원 강학 및 유식공간의 일원적 공간성)

  • Tak, Young-Ran;Sung, Jeong-Sang;Choi, Jong-Hee;Kim, Soon-Ae;Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.50-66
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    • 2016
  • This study attempts to understand and explain how "Directed Attention Restorative Environment (DARE)" is managed and fostered in "Gang-Hak (講學)" and "Yu-Sik (遊息)" spaces both inside and outside of Oksan Seowon Confucian Academy, Gyeongju. Directed Attention is a pivotal element in human information processing so that its restoration is crucial for effective thinking and learning. According to Kaplan & Kaplan's Attention Restoration Theory, an environment, in order to be restorative, should have four elements: 'Being Away,' 'Extent,' 'Fascination,' and 'Compatibility.' We could confirm OkSan Seowon Confucian Academy has an inner logic that integrates two basically different spacial concepts of "Jangsu" and "Yusik" and thus fosters the Attention Restorative Environment. Particularly, the Four Mountains and Five Platforms (四山五臺) surrounding the premises provides an excellent learning environment, and is in itself educational in terms of the Neo-Confucian epistemology with "Attaining Knowledge by way of Positioning Things (格物致知)" as its principle precept, and of its aesthetics with "Connectedness with Nature" as its central tenet. This study attempts to recapture the value of Korea's cultural heritage concerning the Human/Nature relationship; and it may provide useful insights and practical guidelines/grounds in designing today's schools and campuses, where the young people's needs for the Directed Attention- and Attention Restorative- Servicescapes seem to be greater than ever.

A Basic Study on the Euryale ferox Salisbury for Introduction in Garden Pond(II) - Focusing with Soil and Water Conditions - (정원 연못내 가시연꽃(Euryale ferox Salisbury) 도입을 위한 기초연구 II - 토양과 수환경을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Suk-Woo;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Park, Jae-Cheol;Kim, Hwa-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 2016
  • Through the research and analysis on the hydrological environment and soil environment of habitats through documentary and field studies over 14 habitats of Euryale ferox Salisb. within Jeollabukdo, with the objective of acquiring the basic data for forming an environment based on plantation of reservoirs that are composed with Euryale ferox, the following results were obtained. As a result of analyzing the construction period of the habitats of Euryale ferox from a total of 14 places, the average period of duration after construction of all subject reservoirs appeared to be 71.8 years. Moreover, when examining the relationship between the age of reservoirs and eutrophication, it could be judged that at least the eutrophication of subsoil and water environment is not an obstacle to the growth of Euryale ferox grows in habitats that have a reservoir age of approximately 70 years or more. As a result of analyzing the gardening of soil sediment of the Euryale ferox habitats, the component ingredients appeared to be composed of 80.2% of clay, 16.7% of silt and 3.1% of sand, and the soil class pursuant to such was classified as 'heavy clay'. The organic matter contents of soil sediment appeared to be an average of 36g/kg, and there appeared to be no noticeable difference between the habitats and non-habitats of Euryale ferox. The water quality environment of Euryale ferox habitat appeared to be pH 6.5~7.9, concentration of dissolved oxygen to be $1.8{\sim}8.8mg/{\ell}$, concentration of COD to be $6.8{\sim}74mg/{\ell}$, floating materials to be $2.0{\sim}213mg/{\ell}$, total nitrogen to be $0.422{\sim}10.723mg/{\ell}$, and phosphate to be $0.003{\sim}0.126mg/{\ell}$. The average DO concentration of Aedang Reservoir at Jeongeup, Daejeong Reservoir at Imsil, and Myeongdeokji at Gimje with high vitality and green coverage ratio of Euryale ferox appeared to be $3.5mg/{\ell}$, total nitrogen to be $1.33mg/{\ell}$, and concentration of phosphorus-phosphate to be $0.061mg/{\ell}$. When comparing such with the entire average value, the DO and total nitrogen concentration appeared to be rather low, and the phosphorus-phosphate concentration appeared to be higher by two times or more, thus, an in-depth study on the correlation of the vitality of Euryale ferox Salisb. and concentration of phosphorate-phosphorus will be needed in the future.

The Study of Satire Shown in Animation -Focusing on and (애니메이션에 나타난 풍자성 연구 -<대화의 차원>과 <이웃>을 중심으로)

  • Choi, Don-Ill
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.143-161
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted focusing on the role of auteurism animation. The purpose of auteurism animation is to criticize irregularities of a society in witty and fierce way through satires from the sharp perspectives of a animator that is not bound by tastes of people or the interests or standpoints of specific groups, and thus to induce positive changes in a society as a purifier. In the context, this study investigated satires shown in by Jan Svankmajer and by Norman Mclaren among the animators who utilize animation as a tool to produce social meaning. As a result, the following characteristics and meanings were found. First, Dimensions of Dialogue is an animation that satires absurdity and irregularities of a human society in symbolic and exceptional way through directing by segmentations of images and omnibus structures. The satire carries the lesson of improvement in the hidden part of cynical attack to history, society, and human beings. It also maximizes absolute reality and engagement of images of Jan Svankmajer through unique and grotesque images of the animator such as alienated world, confusing shapes, and amusement of irregularities. Second, the movie, is an exemplary animation that applied core concept of animation through pixilation techniques based on an event story structure by causal relationship. It satires the changing process of a good man to violent madness through confrontation and conflicts for material desires, with exaggerated slipstick movements and humors as a black comedy. The satire methods of both animation works are delivered through unique image styles and symbolic wordage of the animators who triggered ironical laughter in attacking humanism and moral insensitivity that might be felt seriously otherwise. That is, the animators try to show the positive will for changing the society to a sound one through the form of negativity in terms of moral perspective in animation rather than destruction against the target. As such, the satires in both works worked as an auteurism allegory that maximizes social functions and artistic influence of animation.

A Study on Integrated Visualization and Mapping Techniques using the Geophysical Results of the Coastal Area of the Dokdo in the East Sea (독도 연안 해저 지구물리 자료의 통합 중첩 주제도 작성 연구)

  • Lee, Myoung Hoon;Kim, Chang Hwan;Park, Chan Hong;Rho, Hyun Soo;Kim, Dae Choul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.381-388
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to integrate and visualize using mapping techniques based on precise seabed geomorphology, seafloor backscattering images and high-resolution underwater images of the nearshore area around the Dokdo, in the East Sea. We have been obtained the precise topography map using multibeam echosounder system around the nearshore area(~50 m) of the southern part of the Seodo. Side scan sonar survey for analysis seafloor backscattering images was carried out in the same area of topography data. High-resolution underwater images(zone(a), zone(b), zone(c)) were taken in significant habitat scope of the nearshore area of the southern part of the Seodo. Using the results of bathymetry, seafloor backscattering images, high-resolution underwater images, we performed an integrated visualization about the nearshore area of the Dokdo. The integrated visualizing techniques are possible to make the seabed characteristic mapping results of the nearshore area of the Dokdo. The integrated visualization results present more complex and reliable information than separate geological products for seabed environmental mapping study and it is useful to understand the relation between seafloor characteristics and topographic environments of the study area. The integrated visualizing techniques and mapping analysis need to study sustainably and periodically, for effective monitoring of the nearshore ecosystem of the Dokdo.

Comparison of the Mechanical Properties between Bulk-fill and Conventional Composites (Bulk-fill 복합레진과 전통적 복합레진의 물성비교)

  • Noh, Taehwan;Song, Eunju;Park, Soyoung;Pyo, Aeri;Kwon, Yonghoon;Kim, Jiyeon;Kim, Shin;Jeong, Taesung
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 2016
  • Composites are the most useful restorative material. However, composites have some disadvantages such as polymerization shrinkage, long working time, and susceptibility to water and contamination, which are stood out more especially when treating children. To solve these problems, bulk-fill composites have been developed. The aim of this study is to compare mechanical properties of bulk-fill and conventional composites. Bulk-fill composites (SureFil SDR flow (SDR), Tetric N-Ceram bulk fill (TBF)) and conventional composites (Filtek Z-350 (Z-350), Unifil Flow (UF), Unifil Loflo Plus (UL)) were used. The Vickers hardness tester was used to measure the microhardness of materials, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the degree of conversion. Polymerization shrinkage was measured by using a linometer. Flexural and compressive properties were measured by using the universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Most conventional composites showed higher microhardness than bulk-fill composites. However, bulk-fill composites showed a higher top/bottom microhardness ratio than conventional composites. Bulk-fill composites showed a higher top/bottom degree of conversion ratio than conventional composites. The polymerization shrinkage was highest in UL and lowest in Z-350. The polymerization shrinkage of flowable composites was higher than that of non flowable composites. The compressive properties were highest in Z-350 and lowest in SDR and UL. In terms of flexural properties, Z-350 was the highest. However, none of the bulk-fill composites exhibited mechanical properties as good as those of conventional composites. Nonetheless, the ratio of microhardness and degree of conversion, which are important properties of bulk filling, were higher in bulk-fill composites. Therefore, the bulk-fill composites might be considered suitable restorative materials in pediatric dentistry.

A study on 'audience participation' of contemporary theatre in 'Sleep No More" of Punchdrunk (동시대 공연에 나타나는 '관객 참여'방식 연구 - 런던 펀치드렁크(Punchdrunk)극단의 를 중심으로)

  • Jeon, Yunkyung
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.32
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    • pp.651-700
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    • 2016
  • The keyword of contemporary art in 21st is audience participation. London has emphasized the importance of audience participation since 2000. The National Theater of London is trying a new method, which is live performance to search new audiences. Also, they are trying to cross the boundaries between 'stage' and 'spectator'. This leads the other theaters to search new audiences and try new genre of performance. Therefore, they establish a new form of performance, which is that audience actively moves and find a new story in a theater. For example, "environmental theater" is the one. This theater escapes from the traditional stage, but it is based on "site-specific performance." Lots of new forms of theater have emerged. In this study, I focused on one of these new forms of theater, which is "Punchdrunk." "Punchdrunk" was founded by few students graduated from London University's Laban Center in 1999. They started at an empty stage in small school with only three audiences. 7 years after, it became one of major theaters in London. 10 years after, it showed their performances in the United state. Since then, their performances in New York have never been stopped. More strikingly, for last decades, this theater has been always full. In this study, I reasoned that the key of "Punchdrunk" success is audience participation. Therefore, I investigated the features of Punchdrunk theater and how they engage their audience in this performance. In this study, I focused on one of their performances, . Also, I categorized the audiences in three different ways: narrative visitor, walking visitor, and engaging visitor with mask. Three-part transition of Disney Theme Park from Louis Marin was applied to study "narrative visitor." For "walking visitor", Normadism from Gilles Deleuze was applied. For "engaging visitor with mask", Voyeurism was applied.

Protective effects of Gastrodia rhizoma and steamed & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma with anti-oxidant efficacy and suppression of NFκB signaling pathway on LPS-induced liver injury (LPS로 유발한 간손상 마우스에서 항산화 및 항염증 효능을 통한 천마와 증숙 발효 천마의 간보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Jin;Kwon, O Jun;Lee, Ah Reum;Roh, Seong-Soo;Seo, Young-Bae
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2016
  • This study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Gastrodiae rhizoma and steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in the mice model. Sample was selected to GR0F0 (not processed gastrodia rhizome) and GR6F4 (fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae before steamed and dried 6 times) based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups - Normal group, vehicle group (LPS treated), GR0F0 group (fed GR0F0 before LPS treated) and GR6F4 group (fed GR6F4 before LPS treated) with 6 mice in each group. GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group were fed each extract 200 mg/kg/day during 8 days. LPS 20 mg/kg injected to the experimental groups as abdominal injection. We measured aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino-transferase in serum. GR0F0 and GR6F4 showed a significant decrease compared to the vehicle group. As a result of measuring the ROS, GR6F4 group showed a significant reduction in both the serum and liver tissues compared to the vehicle group. GR0F0 group showed a significant reduction only in the liver tissues. Activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and Inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group. But tumor necrosis factor alpha only showed a significant reduction in GR6F4 group. GR0F0 and GR6F4 groups against liver damage in mice with LPS. That showed significant effects on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory action. The effects of GR6F4 group showed superior results compared to GR0F0 group. Therefore, Steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodia rhizoma was might have a protective effect on liver injury.

A Study on the Structure Style of Street Green Spaces on Port Island, Kobe, Japan (일본 고베시(神戶市) 포트아일랜드 가로녹지 구조 유형 연구)

  • Kwak, Jeong-In;Han, Bong-Ho;Noh, Tai-Hwan;Kwak, Nam-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.62-74
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to provide examples of planting methods for the construction of street green spaces with abundant greenery by analyzing road type, surrounding land use and planting structures in street green spaces on Port Island, Kobe, Japan. Port Island_(total area: 826ha) is a marine cultural city located in Japan's first artificial island with facilities of urban function and port facilities. The study site was designated at 11 plots of $55{\sim}285m^2$ on Port Island, and topography structure styles were divided into four types with mounding style, slope style, slope and flat style, flat style according to the adjacent roads width. The area adjacent to the middle roads with high levels of noise and pollution set up the mounding style, slope style, slope and flat style of multi-layer structures using topographic properties. The area adjacent to small roads focused on a green strip with shrubs on a flat style. Surrounding land-uses include a public institution, housing complex, and a commercial building. The planting concept was a buffer and landspace function in case of the middle road_(lane 4) while the small road_(lane 2) was a landspace function. Planting species were diverse with Liquidambe formosana, Cinnamomum camphora, Sapium sebiferum, Cedrela sinensis, Laeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus, Ginkgo biloba, Prunus serrulata var. spontanea, Zelkova serrata, Quercus glauca, Juniperus chinensis, Magnolia kobus, Rhododendron spp., Camellia japonica, Abelia mosanensis, etc. Planting density was 0.02~0.08(0.04) individual/$m^2$ at the canopy layer, 0.02~0.08(0.04) individual/$m^2$ at the understory layer. Ratio of green coverage was 40.0~173.7(93.0)% at the canopy layer, 2.1~79.8(34.9)% at the understory layer and 17.9~64.2(32.9)% at the shrub layer. $Gr{\ddot{u}}volumenzahl$ was $1.43{\sim}6.67(4.13)m^3/m^2$ at the canopy layer, $0.02{\sim}2.01(0.85)m^3/m^2$ at the understory layer and $0.14{\sim}0.58(0.26)m^3/m^2$ at the shrub layer. The ratio of green coverage of street green space on Port Island was higher than that of Seoul, and particularly, the ratio of green coverage and $gr{\ddot{u}}volumenzahl$ at the shrub layer differed, compared to the main street green space in Korea. The result of this study may be applicable to other coastal reclaimed cities in terms of setting methods for street greenery considering the topography structure, planting structure and planting function.

The KALION Automated Aerosol Type Classification and Mass Concentration Calculation Algorithm (한반도 에어로졸 라이다 네트워크(KALION)의 에어로졸 유형 구분 및 질량 농도 산출 알고리즘)

  • Yeo, Huidong;Kim, Sang-Woo;Lee, Chulkyu;Kim, Dukhyeon;Kim, Byung-Gon;Kim, Sewon;Nam, Hyoung-Gu;Noh, Young Min;Park, Soojin;Park, Chan Bong;Seo, Kwangsuk;Choi, Jin-Young;Lee, Myong-In;Lee, Eun hye
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.119-131
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    • 2016
  • Descriptions are provided of the automated aerosol-type classification and mass concentration calculation algorithm for real-time data processing and aerosol products in Korea Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (KALION, http://www.kalion.kr). The KALION algorithm provides aerosol-cloud classification and three aerosol types (clean continental, dust, and polluted continental/urban pollution aerosols). It also generates vertically resolved distributions of aerosol extinction coefficient and mass concentration. An extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) of 63.31 sr and aerosol mass extinction efficiency of $3.36m^2g^{-1}$ ($1.39m^2g^{-1}$ for dust), determined from co-located sky radiometer and $PM_{10}$ mass concentration measurements in Seoul from June 2006 to December 2015, are deployed in the algorithm. To assess the robustness of the algorithm, we investigate the pollution and dust events in Seoul on 28-30 March, 2015. The aerosol-type identification, especially for dust particles, is agreed with the official Asian dust report by Korean Meteorological Administration. The lidar-derived mass concentrations also well match with $PM_{10}$ mass concentrations. Mean bias difference between $PM_{10}$ and lidar-derived mass concentrations estimated from June 2006 to December 2015 in Seoul is about $3{\mu}g\;m^{-3}$. Lidar ratio and aerosol mass extinction efficiency for each aerosol types will be developed and implemented into the KALION algorithm. More products, such as ice and water-droplet cloud discrimination, cloud base height, and boundary layer height will be produced by the KALION algorithm.