• Title/Summary/Keyword: 농약잔류

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Population of Pesticide Resistant Strains in Cultivated Soils of Honam Area and Degradation of Chlorothalonil in soil (호남지역 농경지 토양에 분포된 농약내성균의 밀도와 살균제 Chlorothalonil의 분해)

  • Lee, Sang-Bok;Choi, Yoon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2001
  • To obtain the basic information for degradation of remaining pesticide accumulated in cultivated soil of Honam area, the resistant bacterial strains were investigated in Chlorothalonil(TPN). Mancozeb, Bentazone, and Butachlor levels of 100, $500{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$, and degradation of TPN by TPN-resistant bacteria in sterilized soil was studied under TPN levels 0, 10, 50 and $100{\mu}g\;g^{-1}$. A number of resistance strains were decreased with higher at concentration level of pesticide, and were higher in greenhouse than upland or paddy soil. The resistance of bacteria was strong in other of Bentazone> Butachlor> TPN> Mancozeb. The percentage of bacterial strains of resistance for pesticides isolated from the cultivated soil were the highest in Acinetobacter spp. and Corynebacterium spp., and the lowest in Moraxella spp. A number of TPN-resistant strains were the highest at the TPN level of $10{\mu}g\;g^{-1}$, and 5 days after strains inoculation, and were higher in Pseudomonas spp. TD-25 than TC-23 or strains in non-sterilized soil. The degradation of TPN was fast in order of strain TD-25>strain in non-sterilized soil >TC-23.

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Determination of Heavy Metals, Sulfur Dioxide and Residual Pepsticides in Oriental Medical Materials at SangJi University Oriental Medical Hospital (모 한방병원 한약재내 중금속과 이산화황 함량 및 잔류농약 분석 연구)

  • Heo, Seong-Kyu;Cha, Yun-Yop;Kim, Eu-Gene;Cho, Woong-Hee;Lee, Han;Baik, Tai-Hyun;Seo, Hyung-Sik;Park, Hee-Soo;Kim, Byoung-Woo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Lee, Seung-Gi;Yoo, Jun-Sang;Sohn, Young-Joo;Sun, Seung-Ho;Kang, Hee-Chul;Seo, Yong-Chan
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.948-953
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze harmful heavy metals, sulfur dioxide and residual pesticides in 27 kinds of oriental medical materials. This study was carried out on 27 samples of oriental medical materials. The GC-ECD(Varian, CP-3800) was used to analyze residual pesticides. ICP-OES(Varian, Vista-MPX) was used to analyze lead, arsenic, cadmium. Mercury was analyzed by amalgamation method. A modified Monier-Williams method was used to analyze sulfur dioxide. Arsenic was detected less than 3(mg/kg) in 14 samples and was not detected 13 samples. Lead was detected less than 5(mg/kg) in 15 samples and was not detected 12 samples. Mercury was detected less than 0.2(mg/kg) in 15 samples and was not detected 12 samples. Cadmium was detected more than 0.3(mg/kg) in 3 samples was detected less than 0.3(mg/kg) in 16 samples and was not detected 11 samples. A few residual pesticides was detected, but all residual pesticides was safe. Sulfur dioxide was detected in all samples, but all residual sulfur dioxide was safe.

Determination of Heavy Metals and Residual Pepsticides in Oriental Medical Materials - Cultivated Oriental Medical Materials at Sangji University Oriental Medical Hospital - (한약재내 중금속 함량 및 잔류농약 분석 - 모 한방병원 한약재 중심으로 -)

  • Heo, Seong-Kyu;Kim, Dong-Gun;Baik, Tai-Hyun;Seo, Hyung-Sik;Park, Hee-Soo;Kim, Byoung-Woo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Lee, Seung-Gi;Yoo, Jun-Sang;Sohn, Young-Joo;Sun, Seung-Ho;Cha, Bae-Cheon;Seo, Seung-Hak;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.226-230
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze harmful heavy metals and residual pepsticides in 30 kinds of oriental medical materials. This study was carried out on 32 samples with 30 kinds of Oriental medical materials. The GC-ECD(Varian, CP-3800) was used to analyze residual pepsticides. ICP-OES(Varian, Vista-MPX) was used to analyze lead, arsenic, cadmium. Mercury was analyzed by amalgamation method. Arsenic was detected less than 3(mg/kg) in 21 samples and was not detected 11 samples. Lead was detected less than 5(mg/kg) in 25 samples and was not detected 7 samples. Mercury was detected less than 0.2(mg/kg) in 12 samples and was not detected 20 samples. Cadmium was detected more than 0.3(mg/kg) in 3 samples was detected less than 0.3(mg/kg) in 17 samples and was not detected 12 samples. A few residual pepsticides was detected, but all residual pepsticides was safe.

The Recycling of Nutrient Balance from Small Oranic farming System in Korea (소규모 유기농가단위 경축연계 자원순환 모델연구(I))

  • Yoon, Sung-Hee;Park, Dong-Ha;Choi, Si-Young;Kim, Jeong-Eun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.307-307
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    • 2009
  • 우리나라에서 농가단위 경축순환농업 모델에 대한 조사와 농장내 순환구조에서 양분수지를 조사한 사례도는 미미한 실정이다. 이에 경축연계 자원순환 유기농업농가의 실천사례 발굴하고, 실천모델별 축산형태 및 경종형태를 조사하여 경종부분의 양분순환과 양분수지를 조사하고자 하였다. 발굴된 농가단위 경축순환농업 사례는 3가지 형태로 모두 한우를 11~21두 범위에서 사육하는 동시에 $15,510m^2$의 밭농사를 수행하는 농가, $8,019m^2$의 밭농사와 $8,250m^2$ 논농사를 동시에 수행하는 농가, $26,400m^2$의 논농사만 수행하는 농가들이었다. 각 모델에서 배합사료는 모두 외부에서 구입하고 있었으며 조사료의 자급율은 25 ~ 100%인 것으로 조사되었다. 특히, 한우 20두와 논농사 $26,400m^2$를 경영하는 농가에서 조사료(볏짚)의 100%를 자급하였고 동시에 한우사육과정에서 발생한 자급퇴비를 전량 논농사에 사용하여 유기농 벼농사를 유지하고 있었다. 밭농사를 함께 수행하는 농가에서는 자급퇴비 외에 외부로부터 유박비료 및 발효유기질비료를 구입하여 양분을 충당하고 있었다. 각 농가의 토양이화학성을 분석한 결과 pH는 5.49~7.61, 유기물 함량은 1.37~1.40%, 유효인산 함량 253.32~329.63 mg/kg, 칼륨 0.24~0.3, 칼슘 3.97~10.1, 마그네슘 0.89~1.77 $Cmol^+$/kg, CEC는 7.92~11 $Cmol^+$/kg 이었므며 토양내 잔류농약은 검출되지 않았다. 농가별로 발생한 우분퇴비의 성분 분석결과는 전질소 0.68 ~ 0.73%, 전인산 0.68 ~ 0.86%, 칼륨 0.70~0.78% 수준이었다. 각 사례농가별 투입한 실제시비량, 토양분석결과와 사용된 자재의 성분 분석결과를 이용한 시비처방법에 따른 시비량 및 표준시비법에 따른 시비량을 산출하여 3요소의 양분수지를 계산하였다. 이와 함께 유기질비료의 무기화율을 감안한 시비량도 산출하였다. 양분수지를 분석한 결과 3농가 모두 실제시비량은 3요소 모두 초과 되는 것으로 나타났으며, 특히 인산과 칼륨이 2배정도 초과되는 경향을 보였다. 그러나 투입된 자급퇴비 및 유기질비료의 무기화율을 감안한 시비량으로 환산할 경우에는 질소성분이 3농가 모두 부족한 것으로 산출되었으며, 인산과 가리 성분은 충분하거나 초과되는 것으로 계산되었다. 농장내 축산경영을 통해 발생하는 자급퇴비만을 이용할 경우에 경종부문의 양분수지를 산출한 결과를 보면 실제시비량 기준으로 질소는 56~186%, 인산은 90~346%, 칼륨은41~221%로 양분수지가 달라졌으며, 무기화를 감안한 기준으로는 질소는 16~53%, 인산은 52~197%, 칼륨은 41~221%로 양분수지가 달라졌다. 소규모 유기농가단위 경축연계 자원순환 모델 연구를 통해 유기경종농업이 유지될 수 있으나, 3요소별 양분수지의 불균형이 발생할 수 있는 것으로 조사되었으며, 유기질비료의 특성상 무기화율을 감안한 시비량을 적용할 경우에는 질소 성분의 부족과 동시에 인산, 칼륨 성분의 과다가 예측되었다. 따라서 이러한 성분의 불균형을 조정할 시비체계 연구가 필요한 것으로 판단되었다. 본 연구는 농촌진흥청의 "유기가축사양 및 유기 순환체계모델" 연구사업의 세부과제로 수행한 1년차 결과입니다.

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Development and Application of Enzyme Immunoassay for Endosulfan Residue Analysis (Endosulfan 과 그 분해산물의 Enzyme Immunoassay에 의한 분석법의 개발과 응용)

  • Suh, Yong-Tack;Shim, Jae-Han;Lee, Kang-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 1992
  • An enzyme immunoassay(EIA) was developed for the analysis of insecticide endosulfan and its degradation products. The sensitivity and specificity of the antibody produced were examined. Optimal conditions in the ELISA system for residue analysis were also discussed. A mixed suspension of endosulfan-hemocyanin conjugate(ES-KLH) 1.1 mg/ml and Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously to white rabbits and then collected antisera were tested for titers by indirect ELISA(1/24,000). Because of difficulties in the synthesis of endosulfan peroxidase conjugate, amine derivative of endosulfan-diol was synthesized and it showed 40% of conjugate yields(2mg/ml of conjugate). the highest sensitivity obtained enzyme-conjugate was a concentration of 200ng/ml. The detection limit of endosulfan in ELISA system was 5 ppb on the standard curve. In application of ELISA for residue analysis, the recoveries were really 100% both in the spiked soil and apple sample regardless of endosulfan concentration treated. On the other hand, chlorinated hydrocarbons of similar structure with endosulfan showed low cross-reactivity$(2.2%{\sim}29.2%).$

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A Study on the Perception of and Concern for Food Safety among Urban Housewives (대도시 주부들의 식품안전에 대한 인식 및 우려도에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeung-Yun;Kim, Kyu-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.999-1007
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    • 2009
  • We investigated consumer perception of and concern for food safety. The subjects of this study were 275 urban housewives aged more than 20years. The results showed that vegetables and fruit showed the highest purchase frequency of 29.2%, and meat was the highest with 17.2% in the food which feel concerned about safety. Respondents observed that 'domestic food was safer than imported food' (3.92 on a 5 point scale) and 'I always feel concerned about food safety' (3.37). The study also showed that respondents were aware of environmental hormones (3.57), natural toxins (3.51), mad cow disease (3.48), and avian influenza (3.43), in that order. Finally, respondents were deeply concerned about mad cow disease (4.43), heavy metals in food (4.05), environmental hormones (4.02), food poisoning bacteria (3.96), avian influenza (3.87), agrichemical residues (3.86), and food additives (3.84), in that order.

Isolation of endosulfan degrading bacteria and their degradation characteristics (유기염소계 농약 endosulfan을 분해하는 미생물의 분리 및 분해 특성)

  • Shin, Jae-Ho;Kwak, Yun-Young;Kim, Won-Chan;So, Jai-Hyun;Shin, Hyun-Soo;Park, Jong-Woo;Kim, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Jang-Eok;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.292-297
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    • 2008
  • A bacterium, which was named to be Bacillus sp. E64-2, capable of degrading endosulfan was isolated from the environmental sample using enrichment culture technique. The Bacillus sp. E64-2 was able to degrade 99% of 10 mg/L endosulfan in the culture media within 7 days at $30^{\circ}C$. Endosulfan diol was the only intermediate by the endosulfan degrading bacterial culture and the pH value of the culture media was significantly increased to pH 8.4 from pH 7.0 after 7 days of incubation. When the endosulfan and the crude extract of the strain were incubated, endosulfan diol was a major metabolite. Both the enzymatic reaction and the pH-increasing effect contribute to the degradation of endosulfan by the bacterial culture.

Wahsing Effect of Micor-Bubbles and Changes in Quality of Lettuce (Lacutuca sativa L.) during Storage (마이크로버블에 의한 상추의 세척효과 및 저장 중 품질변화)

  • Lee, Seon-Ah;Youn, Aye-Ree;Kwon, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Byeong-Sam;Kim, Sang-Hui;Cha, Hwan-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 2009
  • We assessed quality changes in and washing effects (time and method) on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with micro-bubbles. Samples were treated with micro-bubbling for 1, 3, or 5 min, and the 5-min treatment yielded the best results in terms of reduced total microorganism counts, sensory aspects, and degree of washing. Total microorganism counts were 4.30 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g in unwashed lettuce(CT), 4.10 log CFU/g in hand-washed lettuce (HW), 3.98 log CFU/g in conventional, bubble-washed lettuce (BW) and 3.25 log CFU/g in micro-bubble-washed lettuce (MW). In comparison, total counts of samples examined after 10 days of storage were 7.00 log CFU/g for CT, 6.19 log CFU/g for HW, 6.02 log CFU/g for BW, and 5.89 log CFU/g for MW. The lowest counts were seen after micro-bubble treatment. BW and MW samples showed significantly higher counts than did CT and HW samples. In general, BW and MW samples did not vary significantly in count numbers. MW showed a 2.3-fold lower residual pesticide level compared with CT, and also had the lowest level of impurities. HW and BW samples were not well washed.

A Study on the Degradation Mechanism of Diazinon and the Acute Toxicity Assessment in Photolysis and Photocatalysis (광반응과 광촉매 반응을 이용한 Diazinon 농약의 분해 기전과 독성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Ji-Yoon;Kim, Moon-Kyung;Son, Hyun-Seok;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1087-1094
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    • 2008
  • Diazinon is a phosphorothiate insecticide widely used in the world including Korea. This study investigates the feasibility of photolysis and photocatalysis processes for the degradation of diazinon in water. Both photolysis and photocatalysis reactiosn were effective in degrdading diazinon, however lower TOC removals were achieved. In case of photocatalysis, approximately 40% of nitrogen from diazinon was recovered as NO$_3^-$, and less than 5% of phosphorus as PO$_4{^{3-}}$. However, the sulfur in diazinon molecule was completely recovered to SO$_4{^{2-}}$ from photocatalysis reaction, and the recovery from photolysis was 50%, indicating that P=S bond easily breaks first during photolysis and photocatalysis. The poor recoveries of ionic byproducts and TOC from photolysis and photocatalysis indicate the presence of other organic intermediates during reactions. The formation of organic intermediates were identified during reactions using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS, and the main degradation products were diazoxon, and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMP), respectively. Finally, the acute 48-hr toxicity test using Daphnia magna were employed to measure the toxicity reduction during photocatalysis of degradation. The results showed that the toxicity increased until 180 min of the photocatalysis reaction (from EC$_{50}$ (%) of 69.6 to 13.2%), however, acute toxicity completely disappeared (>100%) after 360 min. The toxicity results showed that the intermediates from photocatalysis such as diazoxon were more toxic than diazinon itself, however these intermediates can be degraded or mineralized with further reaction.

Dissipation of Fenitrothion, IBP, and Butachlor in Flooded Soil Under Outdoor Conditions (실외조건(室外條件)의 담수토양중(湛水土壤中) fenitrothion, IBP, butachlor의 소실(消失))

  • Moon, Young-Hee;Ryang, Hwan-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 1990
  • The dissipation of insecticide fenitrothion(O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate), fungicide IBP(S-benzyl O, O-diisopropyl phosphorothioate), and herbicide butachlor(N-butozymethyl-2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide) in flooded soil planted with rice plants was investigated in outdoor pot conditions. The half lives of IBP, butachlor and fenitrothion in the flooding water treated with IBP at 98g, butachlor at 352.8g, and fenitrothion at 100g ai/10a, were 3.6, 1.7 and within 1 day, respectively. The concentration of fenitrothion at 5 days after application was found to be less than 0.0lppm. In the case of IBP and butachlor after 20 days, the concentration was 0.025 and 0.004ppm, respectively. The concentration of fenitrothion, IBP, butachlor in a soil depth of 0-3cm was 0.07, 1.45 and 3.37ppm on the 3rd day after application, and below 0.05, 0.18, 0.39ppm after 7 days, respectively. However, 27 days after application concentration of IBP and butachlor at 0-5cm soil depth resulted in 0.04 and 0.05ppm, respectively. The disappearance of pesticides was remarkably rapid, compared to those in the some soil under the laboratory conditions. Differences in the concentration of IBP in different soil profiles were few, but amounts of butachlor were remarkably higher at 0-2cm soil depth than below 2cm soil depth.

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