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[ $^1H$ ] MR Spectroscopy of the Normal Human Brains: Comparison between Signa and Echospeed 1.5 T System (정상 뇌의 수소 자기공명분광 소견: 1.5 T Signa와 Echospeed 자기공명영상기기에서의 비교)

  • Kang Young Hye;Lee Yoon Mi;Park Sun Won;Suh Chang Hae;Lim Myung Kwan
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : To evaluate the usefulness and reproducibility of $^1H$ MRS in different 1.5 T MR machines with different coils to compare the SNR, scan time and the spectral patterns in different brain regions in normal volunteers. Materials and Methods : Localized $^1H$ MR spectroscopy ($^1H$ MRS) was performed in a total of 10 normal volunteers (age; 20-45 years) with spectral parameters adjusted by the autoprescan routine (PROBE package). In all volunteers, MRS was performed in a three times using conventional MRS (Signa Horizon) with 1 channel coil and upgraded MRS (Echospeed plus with EXCITE) with both 1 channel and 8 channel coil. Using these three different machines and coils, SNRs of the spectra in both phantom and volunteers and (pre)scan time of MRS were compared. Two regions of the human brain (basal ganglia and deep white matter) were examined and relative metabolite ratios (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios) were measured in all volunteers. For all spectra, a STEAM localization sequence with three-pulse CHESS $H_2O$ suppression was used, with the following acquisition parameters: TR=3.0/2.0 sec, TE=30 msec, TM=13.7 msec, SW=2500 Hz, SI=2048 pts, AVG : 64/128, and NEX=2/8 (Signa/Echospeed). Results : The SNR was about over $30\%$ higher in Echospeed machine and time for prescan and scan was almost same in different machines and coils. Reliable spectra were obtained on both MRS systems and there were no significant differences in spectral patterns and relative metabolite ratios in two brain regions (p>0.05). Conclusion : Both conventional and new MRI systems are highly reliable and reproducible for $^1H$ MR spectroscopic examinations in human brains and there are no significant differences in applications for $^1H$ MRS between two different MRI systems.

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NEW DRUG THERAPY IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY-NEW LONG-ACTING PSYCHOSTIMULANTS (소아청소년 정신과 영역에서의 새로운 약물치료:새로운 장기작용형 중추신경자극제)

  • Choi, Sung-Ku
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.3-11
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    • 2003
  • Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and among the most prevalent chronic health conditions affecting school-aged children. Children with ADHD experience significant functional problems, such as school difficulties, academic underachievement, troublesome interpersonal relationships with family members and peers, and low self-esteem. The most widely used pharmacological treatments for ADHD are psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine salts. These medications provide clinical efficacy by increasing the availability of catecholamines, primarily dopamine, in the frontal lobe of the brain. immediate-release(IR) formulations of sychostimulants were among the most effective psychotrophic medications in the psychopharmacological treatment. However, there are some limitations of IR formulations:the short half-life and duration of efficacy, which result in the need for multiple daily dosing and the poor compliance. These limitations have led to the development of once-daily, extended-release(ER) formulations of methylphenidate and amphetamine salts. However, these ER formulations may not be as immediately helpful to ADHD children due to delayed onset of action and the acute tolerance which is the failure to sustain the efficacy with the same concentration of drug as the initial stage of medication. OROS-methylphenidate(Concerta$^{\circledR}$) given once a day produces an ascending-pattern plasma drug level generated by the osmotically released, timed drug-delivery system. These new formulations of the psychostimulants have been shown to be a useful alternative to old stimulant medications through the evidence by the clinical trials.

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Amyloid-β Levels in Mice Hippocampus According to the ALDH2 Enzyme Activity followed Ethanol Exposure for 8-Weeks (ALDH2 효소 활성과 8주간 에탄올 노출에 따른 해마조직의 아밀로이드 베타 발현)

  • Moon, Sun-In;Eom, Sang-Yong;Yim, Dong-Hyuk;Song, Sun-Ho;Kim, Yong-Dae;Kim, Heon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1636-1640
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    • 2011
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, resulting in the loss of cognitive function. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) has been proposed to be a risk factor for the development of AD, but there is still controversy about that. In this study, we demonstrated the role of ALDH2 enzyme activity on amyloid-beta (A${\beta}$) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) expression in mice brain following ethanol exposure for 8 weeks. Five male Aldh2 (+/+) and Aldh2 (-/-) mice, 8 weeks-old of age (C57BL/6J strain), in each group were exposed to ethanol for 8 weeks (2 g/kg wt./day) using gavage. Those in the control groups received 0.9% saline alone. Results showed a difference in expression level of A${\beta}$ in the hippocampus after ethanol exposure according to the ALDH2 enzyme activity (p<0.05), but not in the level of NF-${\kappa}B$). Our results suggest a possibility that ALDH2 enzyme activity may be an important role in the development of AD.

Development of Elementary School Science Instructional Program for Nurturing Creativity - 1. Survey of the Status in Creativity Education - (창의력 계발을 위한 자연과 교수.학습 자료 개발 -1. 창의력 교육의 실태조사-)

  • Kang, Ho-Kam;Noh, Suk-Goo;Lee, Heui-Soon;Hong, Seok-In;Choi, Sun-Young;Won, Wyong-Jun;Ha, Jung-Won;Kim, Ji-Sun
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.542-559
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to develop the teaching-learning materials for students' creativity in elementary school science class. For this, we asked some questions to both teachers and students: 25-item- questionnaires were given to 122 teachers in charge of 5th graders and 6th graders in elementary schools located in Seoul, Inchon and Kyonggi province, and 20-item-questionnaires to 825 students of 5th grade and 6th grade in the same schools. The results of this study are as follows: most of teachers admitted the need of creativity education, but they taught class mostly with textbook only. The lack of students' divergent thinking and creative scientific activities in science class made it difficult to develop students' creativity. Besides, teaching-learning materials for whole brain learning were not enough. In case that the students did not make experiment in class, they liked VCR tapes or TP materials Students thought that the most effective materials for class are VCR tapes and next were worksheets. Not a few students answer they do hard only interesting experiments. Most of students wanted worksheets including various interesting activities like games, quiz, experiments, drawing, etc.

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Sex Differences in Cerebellar Structure of Healthy Adults (정상 성인에서 남녀의 소뇌 구조 차이)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun H.;Bae, Su-Jin;Ryu, Keun-Taik;Kang, Min-Seong;Lim, Soo-Mee;Lee, Sun-Ho;Lee, So-Jin;Ko, Eun;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : Although there have been studies that examine sex differences of the brain structures using magnetic resonance imaging, studies that specifically investigate cerebellar structural differences between men and women are scarce. The purpose of current study was to examine sex differences in structures of the cerebellum using cerebellar template and cerebellum analysis methods. Methods : Sixteen men and twenty women were included in the study. A MATLAB based program (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA), Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5) using the spatially unbiased infra-tentorial atlas template (SUIT) as the cerebellum template, was used to analyze the brain imaging data. Results : There was no significant difference in age between men (mean age=28.1) and women (mean age=27.2). Men showed higher gray matter density than women in two left cerebellar areas including the clusters in the lobules IV and V (a cluster located across the lobules IV and V), and the lobule VIIIb (lobules IV and V, t=4.75, p<0.001 ; lobule VIIIb, t=3.08, p=0.004). Conclusions : The current study found differences in cerebellar gray matter density between men and women. The current study holds its significance for applying the template specifically developed for the analysis of cerebellum.

Interstitial Hyperthermia by Radiofrequency Needle Electrode System : Phantom and Canine Brain Studies (8 MHz 라디오파를 이용한 자입식 온열치료 -조직등가물질을 통한 온도분포 및 개 뇌실질의 조직병리 변화에 관한 연구-)

  • Lee, Hyung-Sik;Chu, Sung-Sil;Sung, Jin-Sil;Suh, Chang-Ok;Kim, Gwi-Eon;Loh-John-Juhn-Kyu;Kim, Young-Soo;Kim, Sun-Ho;Chung, Song-Sup;Han, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Tae-Seung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 1991
  • An interstitial radiofrequency needle electrode system was constructed for interstitial heating of brain tissue. Radiofrequency electrodes with Thermotron RF 8 were tested in an agar phantom and in a normal canine brain to determine how variations in physical factors affected temperature distributions. Temperature distributions were checked after heating with 1 mm diameter needle electrode implants on the corners of 1 and 2 cm squares in a phantom and plot isotherms for various electrodes arrangement. We observed that the 1 cm square array would heat a volume with a 1.25 cm radius circular field cross section to therapeutic temperatures ($90\%$ relative SAR using Tm) and the 2 cm square array with a 1.75 cm radius rectangular field with central inhomogeneity. With 2 cm long electrode implants, we observed that the 1 cm square array would heat a 3 cm long sagittal section to therapeutic temperature ($90\%$ relative SAR using Tm). We found that radiofrequency electrodes could be selected to match the length of the heating area without affecting its performance. The histopathological changes associated with RF heating of normal canine brains have been correlated with thermal distributions. RF needle electrode heating was applied for 50min to generate tissue temperatures of $43^{\circ}C$. We obtained a quarter of the heated tissue material immediately after heating and sacrificed at intervals from $7\sim30$days. The acute stage (immediately after heating) was demonstrated by liquefactive necrosis, pyknosis of neuronal element in the gray matter and by some polymer-phonuclear leukocytes infiltration. The appearance of lipid-laden macrophages surrounding the area of liquefaction necrosis was demonstrated in all three sacrificed dogs. Mild gliosis occurring around the necrosis was demonstrated in the last sacrificed (Days 30) canine brain.

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Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Tumors; Early Experience with Linear Accelerator (두개강내 종양에 대한 방사선 뇌수술의 역할)

  • Suh Chang Ok;Chung Sang Sup;Chu Sung Sil;Kim Young Soo;Yoon Do Heum;Kim Sun Ho;Loh John Juhn Kyu;Kim Gwi Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 1992
  • Between August 1988 and December 1991, 24 patients with intracranial tumors were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery(RS) using a 10 MV linear accelerator at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine. There were 5 meningiomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 9 glial tumors, 2 solitary metastases, 2 acoustic neurinomas, 2 pineal tumors, and 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ten patients were treated as primary treatment after diagnosis with stereotactic biopsy or neuroimaging study. Nine patients underwent RS for post-op. residual tumors and three patients as a salvage treatment for recurrence after external irradiation. Two patients received RS as a boost followed by fractionated conventional radiotherapy. Among sixteen patients who were followed more than 6 months with neuroimage, seven patients (2 meningiomas, 4 benign glial tumors, one non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) showed complete response on neuroimage after RS and nine patients showed decreased tumor size. There was no acute treatment related side reaction. Late complications include three patients with symptomatic peritumoral brain edema and one craniopharyngioma with optic chiasmal injury. Through this early experience, we conclude that stereotactically directed single high doses of irradiation to the small intracranial tumors is effective for tumor control. However, in order to define the role of radiosurgery in the management of intracraniai tumors, we should get the long-term results available to demonstrate the benefits versus potential complications of this therapeutic modality.

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An Assessment of the Accuracy of 3 Dimensional Acquisition in F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose Brain PET Imaging (3차원 데이터획득 뇌 FDG-PET의 정확도 평가)

  • Lee, Jeong-Rim;Choi, Yong;Kim, Sang-Eun;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kim, Byung-Tae;Choi, Chang-Woon;Lim, Sang-Moo;Hong, Seong-Wun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.327-336
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: To assess the quantitative accuracy and the clinical utility of 3D volumetric PET imaging with FDG in brain studies, 24 patients with various neurological disorders were studied. Materials and Methods: Each patient was injected with 370 MBq of 2-[$^{18}F$]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. After a 30 min uptake period, the patients were imaged for 30 min in 2 dimensional acquisition (2D) and subsequently for 10 min in 3 dimensional acquisition imaging (3D) using a GE $Advance^{TM}$ PET system, The scatter corrected 3D (3D SC) and non scatter-corrected 3D images were compared with 2D images by applying ROIs on gray and white matter, lesion and contralateral normal areas. Measured and calculated attenuation correction methods for emission images were compared to get the maximum advantage of high sensitivity of 3D acquisition. Results: When normalized to the contrast of 2D images, the contrasts of gray to white matter were $0.75{\pm}0.13$ (3D) and $0.95{\pm}0.12$ (3D SC). The contrasts of normal area to lesion were $0.83{\pm}0.05$ (3D) and $0.96{\pm}0.05$ (3D SC). Three nuclear medicine physicians judged 3D SC images to be superior to the 2D with regards to resolution and noise. Regional counts of calculated attenuation correction was not significantly different to that of measured attenuation correction. Conclusion: 3D PET images with the scatter correction in FDG brain studies provide quantitatively and qualitatively similar images to 2D and can be utilized in a routine clinical setting to reduce scanning time and patient motion artifacts.

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Optimum Population in Korea : An Economic Perspective (한국의 적정인구: 경제학적 관점)

  • Koo, Sung-Yeal
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.1-32
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    • 2005
  • The optimum population of a society or country can be defined as 'the population growth path that maximizes the welfare level of the society over the whole generations of both the present and the future, under the paths allowed by its endowments of production factors such as technology, capital and labor'. Thus, the optimum size or growth rate of population depends on: (i) the social welfare function, (ii) the production function, and (iii)demographic economic interrelationship which defines how the national income is disposed into consumption(birth and education of children included) and savings on the one hand and how the demographic and economic change induced thereby, in turn, affect production capacities on the other. The optimum population growth path can, then, be derived in the process of dynamic optimization of (i) under the constraints of (ii) and (iii), which will give us the optimum population growth rate defined as a function of parameters thereof. This paper estimates the optimum population growth rate of Korea by: specifying (i), (ii), and (iii) based on the recent development of economic theories, solving the dynamic optimization problem and inserting empirical estimates in Korea as the parametric values. The result shows that the optimum path of population growth in Korea is around TFR=1.81, which is affected most sensitively, in terms of the size of the partial elasticity around the optimum path, by the cost of children, share of capital income, consumption rate, time preference, population elasticity of utility function, etc. According to a survey implemented as a follow up study, there are quite a significant variations in the perceived cost of children, time preference rate, population elasticity of utility across different socio-economic classes in Korea, which implied that, compared to their counterparts, older generation and more highly educated classes prefer higher growth path for the population of Korea.

Changes of Polyamine Metabolism and Delayed Neuronal Degeneration of Hippocampus after Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbils (뇌허혈 손상에 있어서 Polyamine 대사의 변동이 해마신경세포의 지연성괴사에 미치는 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Kyung-Ho;Shin, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Young-Jae;Kim, Hyung-Gun;Choi, Sang-Hyun;Chun, Yeon-Sook;Chun, Boe-Gwun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.323-334
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    • 1996
  • Male Mongolian gerbils $(60{\sim}80g)$ were given DL-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; 250mg/kg, ip) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG; 50 mg/k, ip), respectively, 1 h prior to transient (7 min) occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (OBC7) and a daily dose of one of them for 6 days after recirculation, and the polyamine contents, activities of ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases (ODC and SAM-DC), and light microscopic findings of the hippocampus were evaluated. The hippocampal putrescine (PT) levels of the control gerbils treated with saline (STGr), markedly increased after OBC7, showing a peak level at 24 h after recirculation. The peak PT level was reduced in DFMO treated gerbils (DTCr) and in MGBG treated gerbils (MTGr). And 7 days after recirculation, the PT level of DTGr was decreased to about 75% of the PT level in the sham operated group (nonTGr) and to about 55% of the STGr level, respectively. The hippocampal spermidine (SD) level of STGr tended to decline, showing the lowest value at 8 h after recirculation. But the spermidine (SD) level of DTGr was somewhat higher at 8 h after OBC7 than those of STGr and MTGr The hippocampal spermine (SM) levels of all the experimental groups were little changed for 7 days after OBC. OBC7 markedly increased the hippocampal ODC activity. reaching a maximum (about 3 times higher than preischemic level) at 8 h and rapidly recovered to the control value by 24 h in STGr gerbils, and the OBC7-induced increase of ODC activity was significantly attenuated by DFMO or MGBG treatment. Whereas OBC7 induced a rapid decrease of the hippocampal SAMDC activity follwed by gradual recovery to the preischemic level, and the decrease of the SAMDC activity was slightly attenuated by DFMO or MGBG treatment. 7 Days after OBC7 the histological finding of the hippocampal complex stained with cresyl violet showed an extensive delayed neuronal damage in the CA1 region and to a lesser extent, in the dentate gyrus, sparing the CA3 region. And the neuronal death was aggevated by DFMO but significantly attenuated by MGBG. The immunochemical reactivity of hippocampus to anti-GFAP antibody was significantly increased in the CA1 region and to a lesser extent, in the dentate gyrus 7 days after OBC7, but was little changed in the CA3. And the increase of the anti-GFAP immunoreactivity was moderately enhanced by DFMO and significantly suppressed by MGBG. These results suggest that the polyamine metabolism may play a modulatory role in the ischemic brain damage.

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