• Title, Summary, Keyword: 뇌 선호도

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Breast Conserving Operation and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer : Interim Analysis (초기유방암에서 유방보존수술 후 방사선치료 : 중간분석)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Ok-Bae;Kim, You-Sah
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : To evaluate interim results in terms of failure, cosmetic results and survival after breast conserving operation and radiation therapy in early breast cancer. Material and Methods : From January 1992 through December 1997, seventy two patients with early stage 0, I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. Age distribution was 25 to 77 years old with median age of 43. According to TNM stage, five patients had stage 0, thirty three were stage I, twenty five were IIa, and nine were IIb. Most patients underwent excision of all gross tumor and ipsilateral axillary dissection. Breast was irradiated through medial and lateral tangential fields of 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. We delivered a boost irradiation dose of 10 to 16 Gy in 1 to 2 weeks to excision site. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in forty one patients with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) regimens of 6 cycles concurrently or before radiation. Cosmetic results were assessed by questionnaire to patients grading of excellent, good, fair, poor. Follow-up periods were 22 to 91 months with median 40 months. Results : Five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was $95.8\%$. According to stage, 5YDFS was $100\%,\;96.9\%,\;96\%\;and\;88.9\%$ in stage 0, I, IIa and IIb, respectively. Two patients had distant metastasis and one had local and distant failure. One patient with distant failure had bone and liver metastasis at 14 months after treatment and the other had lung and both supraclavicular metastasis at 21 months after treatment. Patient with local and distant failure had local recurrence on other quadrant in same breast and then salvaged with total mastectomy and chemotherapy but she died due to brain metastasis at 55 months. Complications were radiation pneumonitis in five patients (four patients of asymptomatic, one patients of symptomatic) and hand or arm edema(4 patients). Fifty nine patients answered our cosmetic result questionnaire and cosmetic results were good to excellent in fifty one patients $(86\%)$. Conclusion : We considered that conservative surgery and radiation for the treatment of early stage invasive breast cancer was safe and had excellent survival and cosmetic results. We need to assess about prognostic factors with longer follow up and with large number of patients.

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Comparison of Resistance to Fowl Typhoid among Crossbreed (산란계 합성종의 가금티푸스 저항성 비교 연구)

  • 김기석;이영주;강민수;한성욱;오봉국
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.59-75
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    • 2002
  • The present study was conducted to compare the disease resistance to fowl typhoid among White Leghorn (WL) known as possessing greater genetic resistance to Salmonella, Rhode Island Red (RIR) susceptible to the disease and their mating crossbreed, WL ${\times}$RIR. Also, it was carried out to compare fowl typhoid-resistance among Hyline white${\times}$Hyline brown(HwHb), Hw${\times}$lsa brown(Hwlb), Isa white${\times}$lb(Iwlb), Iw${\times}$ Hb(IwHb) and Ib ${\times}$ Iw(IbIw) in order to select crossbreed chickens which have disease resistance to fowl typhoid and simultaneously produce the brown eggs which our domestic consummers prefer There was no death of WL chickens challenged with Sal. gallinarum at each 2, 5 and 8 wk of age, while average 86.2 to 64.1% of RIR chickens tested died at the same challenge age during the test period of 2 weeks. Their maiting crossbreed, WL ${\times}$ RIR were intermediate between the two breeds. weight gains of tested chickens were significantly higher in WL and WL ${\times}$RIR without difference between them than RIR. In recovery rate of tested strain of Sal. gallinarum from braun, heart, fiver, spleen and cecum of chickens challenged, WL ${\times}$RIR fell between the other two breeds, with somewhat higher rate then WL but much lower then RIR. In the disease resistance determination test using HwHb, Hwlb, Iwlb, IwHb and IbIw$.$ crossbreed chickens experimentally infected with Sal. gallinarum, it was recognized that all of crossbreeds tested developed marked resistance to fowl typhoid, based on the results judged by the measurement parameters of mortality, weight gain, recovery rate of challenged strain of bacteria, and positive rate of agglutination antibody, and HwHb had a tittle higher disease resistance then ethers.