• Title, Summary, Keyword: 대변위 효과

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Dynamic Modeling Method for Beams Undergoing Overall Rigid Body Motion Considering Two Geometric Non-linear Effects (두 기하학적 비선형 효과들을 고려한 대변위 강체운동을 하는 보의 동적 모델링 방법)

  • Kim, Na-Eun;Yoo, Hong-Hee
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1014-1019
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    • 2003
  • A dynamic modeling method for beams undergoing overall rigid body motion is presented in this paper. Two special deformation variables are introduced to represent the stretching and the curvature and are approximated by the assumed mode method. Geometric constraint equations that relate the two special deformation variables and the cartesian deformation variables are incorporated into the modeling method. By using the special deformation variables, all natural as well as geometric boundary conditions can be satisfied. It is shown that the geometric nonlinear effects of stretching and curvature play important roles to accurately predict the dynamic response when overall rigid body motion is involved.

Analytical Study of Geometric Nonlinear Behavior of Cable-stayed Bridges (사장교의 기하학적 비선형 거동의 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Seungjun;Lee, Kee Sei;Kim, Kyung Sik;Kang, Young Jong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.1A
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2010
  • This paper presents an investigation on the geometric nonlinear behavior of cable-stayed bridges using geometric nonlinear finite element analysis method. The girder and mast in cable-stayed bridges show the combined axial load and bending moment interaction due to horizontal and vertical forces of inclined cable. So these members are considered as beam-column member. In this study, the nonlinear finite element analysis method is used to resolve the geometric nonlinear behavior of cable-stayed bridges in consideration of beam-column effect, large displacement effect (known as P-${\delta}$ effect) and cable sag effect. To analyze a cable-stayed bridge model, nonlinear 6-degree of freedom frame element and nonlinear 3-degree of freedom equivalent truss element is used. To resolve the geometric nonlinear behavior for various live load cases, the initial shape analysis is performed for considering dead load before live load analysis. Then the geometric nonlinear analysis for each live load case is performed. The deformed shapes of each model, load-displacement curves of each point and load-tensile force curves for each cable are presented for quantitative study of geometric nonlinear behavior of cable-stayed bridges.

Material and Geometrical Noninear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns under Cyclic Loading (반복하중을 받는 철근콘크리트 기둥부재의 재료 및 기하적인 비선형 해석)

  • 김운학
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 1999
  • This paper presents an analytical prediction of the hysteresis behavior of reinforced concrete long column with rectangular section under the cyclic loading state. The mechanical characteristic of cracked concrete and reinforcing bar in concrete has been modeled, considering the bond effect between reinforcing bar and concrete, the effect of aggregate interlocking at crack surface and the stiffness degradation after the crack has taken place. The strength increase of concrete due to the lateral confining reinforcement has been also taken into account to model the confined concrete. The formulation of these models for concrete and reinforcing bar has been based on the smeared crack concept that the stress-strain relationship of reinforced concrete element would be defined using the average values. In addition to the material nonlinear properties, the algorithm for large displacement problem that may give an additional deformation has been formulated using total Lagrangian formulation. The analytically predicted behavior was compared with test result and they showed good agreement in overall behavior.

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Effect of Geometric Shapes on Stability of Steel Cable-stayed Bridges (기하형상에 따른 강사장교의 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seung-Jun;Han, Seung-Ryong;Kim, Jong-Min;Cho, Sun-Kyu;Kang, Young-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.13-27
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    • 2011
  • This paper presents an investigation of the structural stability of cable-stayed bridges, using geometric nonlinear finite-element analysis and considering various geometric nonlinearities, such as the sag effect of the cables, the beam-column effect of the girder and mast, and the large displacement effect. In this analytic research, a nonlinear frame element and a nonlinear equivalent truss element were used to model the girder, mast, and cable member. The live-load cases that were considered in this research were assumed based on the traffic loads. To perform reasonable analytic research, initial shape analyses in the dead-load case were performed before live-load analysis. In this study, the geometric nonlinear responses of the cable-stayed bridges with different cable arrangement types were compared. After that, parametric studies on the characteristics of the structural stability in critical live-load cases were performed considering various geometric parameters, such as the cable arrangement type, the stiffness ratios of the girder and mast, the area of the cables, and the number of cables. Through this parametric study, the effect of geometric shapes on the structural stability of cable-stayed bridges was investigated.

A Study on the Slowly Varying Wave Drift Force Acting on a Semi-Submersible Platform in Waves (반잠수식 시추선에 작용하는 장주기 표류력에 관한 연구)

  • S.Y.,Hong;P.M.,Lee;D.C.,Hong
    • Bulletin of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 1989
  • Wave drift forces which are small in magnitudes compared to the first order wave exciting forces can cause very large motion of a vessel in waves. In this paper a theoretical and experimental analysis is made of the mean and slowly varying wave dirft forces on the semi-submersible platform. Theoretical calculations are performed by using near field method with three dimensional diffraction theory and model tests are carried out in regular and irregular waves with a 1/60 semi model. Test results are compared with theoretical calculations and the mooring spring effects in the test are discussed.

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Model Tests and GIMP (Generalized Interpolation Material Point Method) Simulations of Ground Cave-ins by Strength Reduction due to Saturation (불포화 강도 유실에 의한 지반함몰 현상의 모형 실험 재현 및 일반 보간 재료점법을 활용한 수치적 모사)

  • Lee, Minho;Woo, Sang Inn;Chung, Choong-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 2017
  • This study presents direct shear tests, model tests, and numerical simulations to assess the effect of reduction of soil strength because of saturation during formation of ground cave-in caused by damaged sewer pipe lines. The direct shear test results show that the saturation affects the cohesion of soil significantly although it does not influence the friction angle of soil. To experimentally reproduce ground cave-in, the model tests were performed. As ground cave-ins were accompanied with extreme deformation, conventional finite element method has difficulty in simulating them. The present study relies on generalized interpolation material point method, which is one of meshless methods. Although there are differences between the model test and numerical simulation caused by boundary conditions, incomplete saturation, and exclusion of groundwater flow, similar ground deformation characteristics are observed both in the model test and numerical simulation.

The Cause Analysis of Greenhouse Damage for Heavy Snow using Large Displacement Analysis (폭설시 대변위해석을 이용한 온실의 피해원인 분석)

  • Park, Soon-Eung;Lee, Jong-Won;Lee, Suk-Gun;Lee, Hyun-Woo;Choi, Jae-Hyouk
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2010
  • The collapsing accidents of pipe greenhouses in the farmhouse have been increased duo to heavy snow load. However, the study on exact structure analysis to prevent the collapse of pipe greenhouses is rare and the damage of the farmhouse is annually repeated. The method of existing structure analysis is basically made of linear elastic analysis based on the micro displacement. But the actual stiffness of the pipe greenhouse is significantly weaker than the stiffness of buildings and the load acting on the greenhouses gets to become relatively bigger. It means that the geometry shape of greenhouses changes so that the relation of strain-displacement gets to indicate a nonlinear behavior. Therefore, this study is performed to evaluate the structural safety so as to prevent the collapse of pipe greenhouses, which are the single-span greenhouse(farmhouse guidance shape, G) and multi-span greenhouse(farmhouse supply shape, 1-2W), by performing the large-displacement analysis considering nonlinear effects.

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Numerical Formulation of Consolidation Based on Finite Strain Analysis (대변형 압밀방정식의 수식화)

  • Shin, Ho-Sung;Lee, Seung-Rae
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2013
  • Embankments on soft ground experience significant deformation during time-dependent consolidation settlement, as well as an initial undrained settlement. Since infinitesimal strain theory assumes no configuration change and minute strain during deformation, finite strain analysis is required for better prediction of geotechnical problems involving large strain and geometric change induced by imposed loadings. Updated Lagrangian formulation is developed for time-dependent consolidation combining both force equilibrium and mass conservation of fluid, and mechanical constitutive equation is written in Janumann stress rate. Numerical convergence during Newton's iteration in large deformation analysis is improved by Nagtegaal's approach of considering the effect of rotation in mechanical constitutive relationship. Numerical simulations are conducted to discuss numerical reliability and applicability of developed numerical code: deformation of cantilever beam, two-dimensional consolidation. The numerical results show that developed formulation can efficiently describe large deformation problems. Proposed formulation is expected to facilitate the upgrading of a numerical code based on infinitesimal strain theory to that based on finite strain analysis.

Stability Analysis of Steel Cable-stayed Bridges under Construction Stage (폐합 전 강사장교의 안정성 해석)

  • Kim, Seung-Jun;Shim, Kyung-Suk;Won, Deok-Hee;Cho, Sun-Kyu;Kang, Young-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2011
  • This paper presents an investigation of the structural stability of cable-stayed bridges in the construction stage, using geometric nonlinear finite-element analysis and considering various geometric nonlinearities, such as the sag effect of the cables, the P-${\Delta}$ effects of the girder and mast, and the large displacement effect. Initial shape analysis and construction-stage analysis were performed to determine the equilibrium of the structure in the construction stage. After that, geometric nonlinear analysis was performed to study structural stability. In this study, the weight of the derrick crane and the key segment were considered the main external loads, which were applied to the tip of the center span. The cable arrangement type and the stiffness ratios of the girder and mast were considered the main parameters of the analytic research. Based on the results of the analysis, the change in the buckling mode and critical load factors with respect to the cable arrangement type and the stiffness ratios of the girder and mast was investigated. The buckling modes of the steel cable-stayed bridges in the construction stage were classified, and the ranges of the stiffness ratios of the girder and mast, which show these classified buckling modes, were suggested.

The Analysis on the Determinants of Energy Efficiency Changes in the Industrial Sector (산업부분 에너지 효율 변화요인 분석)

  • Na, In-Gang;Lee, Sung-Keun
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.255-286
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, it is tried to combine the decomposition method and econometric analysis for the extension of the decomposition method. Since two approaches approach the energy efficiency problem in the different perspectives, it is believed that it is hard to reconcile the results of two approaches. In the results of energy intensity effect analysis with the econometric method, it is found that the increase in the energy price results in the improvement of energy intensity effect. In enconometric analysis of energy efficiency, the coefficient of a time trend measured as a proxy of energy efficiency is significant and has a negative effect on the energy consumption. This finding implies the energy efficiency improves very slowly over time. In addition, the directions of energy efficiency improvement in the decomposition method are consistent with those in the econometric analysis in four industries. This finding indicates that two methods may be in complementary cooperation for the analysis of energy efficiency. Therefore, it is needed the efforts to seek the complementarity between two methods for the enhancement of academic and policy implications.

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