• Title/Summary/Keyword: 대체물질

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항생제 대체물질과 무항생제 축산에 대한 전망

  • Kim, Seong-Gwon
    • Feed Journal
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    • v.4 no.12 s.40
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    • pp.84-92
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    • 2006
  • 항생제(antibiotics)란 공생(symbiosis)의 반대 개념인 항생(antibiosis)에서 유래된 것으로 ‘생물, 특히 미생물에 의해 만들어진 물질로서 다른 미생물의 성장이나 생명을 막는 것’을 말한다. 축산에서 성장촉진용 항생제 사용은 성장률과 사료효율 및 특정 질병을 치유시켜준다는 장점이 있어 그 동안 대중적으로 많이 사용했던 것이 사실이다. 그러나 무분별한 항생제 사용으로 인해 내성 문제와 체내 잔류와 같은 문제가 발생하여 가축뿐만 아니라 사람에게도 부정적인 문제를 야기 시킬 수 있다고 하여 최근 각 국가별로 항생제의 사용을 전면 금지 또는 강력한 규제를 하고 있다. 이러한 국제적인 움직임 속에 전 세계는 항생제를 대체할 수 있는 대체 물질 개발 대체물질을 이용한 친환경 무항생제 사육 프로그램을 도입하여 소비자에게 고품질의 안전하고 위생적인 축산물을 공급하기 위해 노력을 기울이고 있다. 다라서 본고에서는 항생제 사용에 따른 문제점을 지적하고 최근 각광 받고 있는 항생제 대체물질에 대해 살펴보며 추후 이러한 대체 물질을 통해 친환경 무항생제 사육의 가능성은 얼마나 되는지 살펴보기로 한다.

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Heat Balance for the coal substitute materials in the Ferronickel manufacturing process (페로니켈 공정의 석탄대체 물질에 대한 열정산)

  • Kim, Hiyoul
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2010.06a
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    • pp.161.2-161.2
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    • 2010
  • 페로니켈 제조 공정에 있어서 석탄의 비중은 총 에너지원 중 70%에 상당하며, 온실가스 배출 또한 65%에 달한다. 이에 석탄을 대체할 물질로서 RPF, RDF, Biomass, TDF 등을 고려하였으며, 자체 개발한 열정산 프로그램을 활용하였다. 해석결과 석탄 대체물질의 사용할 경우 페로니켈 제조공정의 에너지 비용을 상당량 저감할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

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Sensory and Physical Properties of Low-fat Mayonnaise Made with Starch-based Fat Replacers (저지방 마요네즈의 물성과 관능적 특성)

  • Chun, Jung-Ah;Song, Eun-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.839-844
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    • 1995
  • Appropriate types and concentrations of starch-based fat replacers which are low-pH stable, shear resistant and heat stable were selected to develop reduced-fat mayonnaise without affecting taste, texture and emulsion stability. Four kinds of commercial fat replacers [Neutral DR (DR), Stellar 100X (SX), Sta Slim 150 (SS) and N-Lite L (NL)] were thermally activated after appropriately hydrated and applied to mayonnaise formulation. For each fat replacer, eight recipes having various ratios of soybean oil/fat replacer(95/5 to 60/40) were formulated and compared with standard formulation(100% soybean oil) using rheological and sensory evaluations. All tested starch pastes showed pseudoplastic behavior, time-dependent thixotropic gel characteristics. The increasing order of pseudoplasticity and yield stress was RM, NL, SS and ST. The hardness and adhesiveness of each fat replacer-added mayonnaise was increased in the same order as above. Formulated mayonnaise which contained higher ratio of fat replacer showed lower values in hardness and adhesiveness. ST at up to 25% oil replacement exhibited the highest oil replacing ability among four replacers. ST-added mayonnaise also exhibited the highest sensory score and emulsion stability among all products including standard formula. The high sensory score in spreadability of RM-added mayonnaise well reflected the consistent index of RM paste. Use of fat replacers reduced oily odor and greasy aftertaste of mayonnaise.

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Study on Environmental Hazards of Alternatives for PFOS (PFOS 대체물질의 환경유해성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Bong-In;Chung, Seon-Yong;Na, Suk-Hyun;Shin, Dong-Soo;Ryu, Byung-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2016
  • While PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) was not degraded by microorganisms for 28 days, the 4 alternatives were biodegraded at the rates of 21.6% for $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, 20.5% for $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, 15.8% for $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and 6.4% for $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$, respectively. The acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna was conducted for 48 hours, the half effective concentration ($EC_{50}$) of PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) was evaluated in 54.5 mg/L. While the 4 alternatives did not show any effect at 500.0 mg/L. The surface tension of the PFOS salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) is 46.2 mN/m at a concentration of 500.0 mg/L. While the surface tension of the 4 alternatives was found to be superior to PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$). The surface tension of $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ (20.9 mN/m) has the lowest, followed by $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ (23.4 mN/m), $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ (27.3 mN/m), $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ (28.2 mN/m). The four kinds of alternatives ($C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$) were found to be superior to PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) in terms of biodegradation, Daphnia sp. acute toxicity and surface tension, and thus they were considered applicable as PFOS alternatives. Especially biodegradation rate of $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ was relatively high as 15.8~21.6%, and Daphnia sp. acute toxicity and surface tension were considerably superior (surface tension 39~55%) to PFOS sodium salt. Therefore, these alternatives are considered to be available as an alternative of PFOS.