• Title, Summary, Keyword: 데이터베이스

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Analysis and Evaluation of Frequent Pattern Mining Technique based on Landmark Window (랜드마크 윈도우 기반의 빈발 패턴 마이닝 기법의 분석 및 성능평가)

  • Pyun, Gwangbum;Yun, Unil
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2014
  • With the development of online service, recent forms of databases have been changed from static database structures to dynamic stream database structures. Previous data mining techniques have been used as tools of decision making such as establishment of marketing strategies and DNA analyses. However, the capability to analyze real-time data more quickly is necessary in the recent interesting areas such as sensor network, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Landmark window-based frequent pattern mining, one of the stream mining approaches, performs mining operations with respect to parts of databases or each transaction of them, instead of all the data. In this paper, we analyze and evaluate the techniques of the well-known landmark window-based frequent pattern mining algorithms, called Lossy counting and hMiner. When Lossy counting mines frequent patterns from a set of new transactions, it performs union operations between the previous and current mining results. hMiner, which is a state-of-the-art algorithm based on the landmark window model, conducts mining operations whenever a new transaction occurs. Since hMiner extracts frequent patterns as soon as a new transaction is entered, we can obtain the latest mining results reflecting real-time information. For this reason, such algorithms are also called online mining approaches. We evaluate and compare the performance of the primitive algorithm, Lossy counting and the latest one, hMiner. As the criteria of our performance analysis, we first consider algorithms' total runtime and average processing time per transaction. In addition, to compare the efficiency of storage structures between them, their maximum memory usage is also evaluated. Lastly, we show how stably the two algorithms conduct their mining works with respect to the databases that feature gradually increasing items. With respect to the evaluation results of mining time and transaction processing, hMiner has higher speed than that of Lossy counting. Since hMiner stores candidate frequent patterns in a hash method, it can directly access candidate frequent patterns. Meanwhile, Lossy counting stores them in a lattice manner; thus, it has to search for multiple nodes in order to access the candidate frequent patterns. On the other hand, hMiner shows worse performance than that of Lossy counting in terms of maximum memory usage. hMiner should have all of the information for candidate frequent patterns to store them to hash's buckets, while Lossy counting stores them, reducing their information by using the lattice method. Since the storage of Lossy counting can share items concurrently included in multiple patterns, its memory usage is more efficient than that of hMiner. However, hMiner presents better efficiency than that of Lossy counting with respect to scalability evaluation due to the following reasons. If the number of items is increased, shared items are decreased in contrast; thereby, Lossy counting's memory efficiency is weakened. Furthermore, if the number of transactions becomes higher, its pruning effect becomes worse. From the experimental results, we can determine that the landmark window-based frequent pattern mining algorithms are suitable for real-time systems although they require a significant amount of memory. Hence, we need to improve their data structures more efficiently in order to utilize them additionally in resource-constrained environments such as WSN(Wireless sensor network).

Design and Implementation of Medical Information System using QR Code (QR 코드를 이용한 의료정보 시스템 설계 및 구현)

  • Lee, Sung-Gwon;Jeong, Chang-Won;Joo, Su-Chong
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2015
  • The new medical device technologies for bio-signal information and medical information which developed in various forms have been increasing. Information gathering techniques and the increasing of the bio-signal information device are being used as the main information of the medical service in everyday life. Hence, there is increasing in utilization of the various bio-signals, but it has a problem that does not account for security reasons. Furthermore, the medical image information and bio-signal of the patient in medical field is generated by the individual device, that make the situation cannot be managed and integrated. In order to solve that problem, in this paper we integrated the QR code signal associated with the medial image information including the finding of the doctor and the bio-signal information. bio-signal. System implementation environment for medical imaging devices and bio-signal acquisition was configured through bio-signal measurement, smart device and PC. For the ROI extraction of bio-signal and the receiving of image information that transfer from the medical equipment or bio-signal measurement, .NET Framework was used to operate the QR server module on Window Server 2008 operating system. The main function of the QR server module is to parse the DICOM file generated from the medical imaging device and extract the identified ROI information to store and manage in the database. Additionally, EMR, patient health information such as OCS, extracted ROI information needed for basic information and emergency situation is managed by QR code. QR code and ROI management and the bio-signal information file also store and manage depending on the size of receiving the bio-singnal information case with a PID (patient identification) to be used by the bio-signal device. If the receiving of information is not less than the maximum size to be converted into a QR code, the QR code and the URL information can access the bio-signal information through the server. Likewise, .Net Framework is installed to provide the information in the form of the QR code, so the client can check and find the relevant information through PC and android-based smart device. Finally, the existing medical imaging information, bio-signal information and the health information of the patient are integrated over the result of executing the application service in order to provide a medical information service which is suitable in medical field.

The Strategy of Characterizing Space that uses Anti-House as a Metaphor for Character's Self-Defense Mechanism - Focusing on the TV Series and the Theater version of - (캐릭터의 자아방어기제를 은유하는 '안티돔' 공간의 성격화 전략 - <에반게리온>의 TV 시리즈와 극장판 를 중심으로 -)

  • Yang, Se-Hyeok;Ryu, Beom-Yeol
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.75-106
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    • 2015
  • Animations characterize space as a strategy to effectively show the inner conflicts of characters and to highlight the theme. During the process of inner conflict, characters unconsciously use defense mechanism to protect their egos from the fear that came from deficiency, and because of the self-deceptive quality of self-defense mechanism, the reality is distorted and conflicts get intensified. This study focuses on the concept of anti-house, the space where conflicts get intensified, analyzes animations to find out the aspect of inner conflict, and interprets the characteristic of space that is used for metaphoric structure frame. Also, it aims to reveal how the defense mechanism, which intensifies the inner conflict of characters, is characterized as anti-house. The analysis in this study was mainly done with the TV series, , and the theater version of . It is because the characters have serious deficiency from broken home and have a psychological quality of closed boundary that is symbolized as 'A.T. field'. Especially, the core character, 'Shinji Ikari', shows how a character uses compulsive self-defense mechanism to deal with inner conflict and as a result, goes through ego-collapse and then introspection. This process of the character's experience is the core of the whole plot. Through analysis, the relationship between the character's self-defense mechanism and the space, anti-house(which expands to Anti-city), was inferred. The space is made up of three axes, x-axis of horizontal space, y-axis of vertical space, and in the sense that all the space has no exit, z-axis of deeper contradictory space. This thesis started with the decision that is the most suitable work in analyzing the metaphorical relationship between self-defense mechanism and anti-house. There was limitation, however, as the typical characteristics of Japanese animations, pedantic composition and the possibility of broad interpretation, hindered clear verification. Hopefully, this limitation will be overcome by following studies and this study is expected to show the importance of space in interpreting the text of animations, and to serve as database for other creative works.

Effect of LED mixed light conditions on the glucosinolate pathway in brassica rapa (배추 유묘의 글루코시놀레이트 합성 기작에 미치는 LED 혼합광의 효과)

  • Moon, Junghyun;Jeong, Mi Jeong;Lee, Soo In;Lee, Jun Gu;Hwang, Hyunseung;Yu, Jaewoong;Kim, Yong-Rok;Park, Se Won;Kim, Jin A
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.245-256
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    • 2015
  • In the agricultural industries, LEDs are used as supplementary, as well as main lighting sources in closed cultivation systems. In cultivation using artificial light sources, various light qualities have been tried to supplement fluorescent lamps to promote plant growth and metabolism. Microarray analysis of Brassica rapa seedlings under blue and fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions identified changes in three genes of the glucosinolate pathway. This attracted attention as functional materials highly expressed 3.6-4.6 fold under latter condition. We selected four more genes of the glucosinolate pathway from the Brassica database and tested their expression changes under fluorescent light mixed with red, green, and blue, respectively. Some genes increased expression under red and blue mixed conditions. The Bra026058, Bra015379, and Bra021429; the orthologous genes of CYP79F1, ST5a, and FMOGS-OX1 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions. Further, Bra029355, Bra034180, Bra024634, and Bra022448; the orthologous genes of MAM1, AOP3, UGT74B1, and BCAT4 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with red light conditions. The various light conditions had unique effects on the varieties of Brassica, resulting in differences in glucosinolate synthesis. However, in some varieties, glucosinolate synthesis increased under mixed blue light conditions. These results will help to construct artificial light facilities, which increase functional crops production.

Dietary total sugar intake of Koreans: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011 (한국인의 총 당류 섭취실태 평가: 2008~2011년 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Lee, Haeng-Shin;Kwon, Sung-Ok;Yon, Miyong;Kim, Dohee;Lee, Jee-Yeon;Nam, Jiwoon;Park, Seung-Joo;Yeon, Jee-Young;Lee, Soon-Kyu;Lee, Hye-Young;Kwon, Oh-Sang;Kim, Cho-Il
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.268-276
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to estimate total sugar intake and identify major food sources of total sugar intake in the diet of the Korean population. Methods: Dietary intake data of 33,745 subjects aged one year and over from the KNHANES 2008-2011 were used in the analysis. Information on dietary intake was obtained by one day 24-hour recall method in KNHANES. A database for total sugar content of foods reported in the KNHANES was established using Release 25 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, a total sugar database from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, and information from nutrition labeling of processed foods. With this database, total sugar intake of each subject was estimated from dietary intake data using SAS. Results: Mean total sugar intake of Koreans was 61.4 g/person/day, corresponding to 12.8% of total daily energy intake. More than half of this amount (35.0 g/day, 7.1% of daily energy intake) was from processed foods. The top five processed food sources of total sugar intake for Koreans were granulated sugar, carbonated beverages, coffee, breads, and fruit and vegetable drinks. Compared to other age groups, total sugar intake of adolescents and young adults was much higher (12 to 18 yrs, 69.6 g/day and 19 to 29 yrs, 68.4 g/day) with higher beverage intake that beverage-driven sugar amounted up to 25% of total sugar intake. Conclusion: This study revealed that more elaborated and customized measures are needed for control of sugar intake of different subpopulation groups, even though current total sugar intake of Koreans was within the range (10-20% of daily energy intake) recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. In addition, development of a more reliable database on total sugar and added sugar content of foods commonly consumed by Koreans is warranted.

Multi-dimensional Security Threats and Holistic Security - Understanding of fusion-phenomenon of national security and criminal justice in post-modern society - (다차원 안보위협과 융합 안보)

  • Yun, Min-Woo;Kim, Eun-Young
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.31
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    • pp.157-185
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    • 2012
  • Today, the emergence of cyberspace and advancement of globalization caused not only the transformation of our productive and conventional life but also the revolutionary transition of use of destructive violence such as crime and warfare. This transition of environmental condition connects various security threats which separatedly existed in individual, local, national, and global levels in the past, and transformed the mechanical sum of all levels of security threats into the organic sum of multi-dimensional security threats. This article proposes that the sum of multi-dimensional security threats is caused by the interconnectivity of various different levels of security threats and the integrated interdisciplinary perspective is essential to properly understand the fundamental existence of today's security problem and the reality of fear that we face today. The holistic security, the concept proposed here, is to suggest the mode of networked response to multi-dimensional security threats. The holistic security is suggested to overcome the conventional divisional approach based on the principle of "division of labor" and bureaucratic principles, which means more concretely that national security and criminal justice are divided and intelligence, military, police, prosecution, fire-fighting, private security, and etc. are strictly separated into its own expertise and turf. Also, this article introduces integrated security approaches tried by international organization and major countries overseas with the respect of the holistic security. The author have spent some substantial experience of participant observation, meetings, seminar, conference, and expert interviews regarding the issues discussed in the article in various countries including the United States, Russia, Austria, Germany, Canada, Mexico, Israel, and Uzbekistan for the last ten years. Intelligence and information on various levels of security threats and security approaches introduced in this paper is obtained from such opportunities.

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A Study on the Classified Jang(Fermented Soybean) in Goryeo and Chosun Dynasty Period (고려시대 및 조선시대 장류)

  • Ann, Yong-Geun;Woo, Nariyah
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.460-482
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    • 2012
  • On the basis of the cookbooks and Data Base of the Korean Classics(http://db.itkc.or.kr/itkcdb/mainIndexIframe.jsp), this paper analyzed the fermented soybean listed in the general documents of the Chosun Dynasty(1392~1897) and the Goryeo Dynasty(918~1392). In the Goryeo Dynasty, there are 15 kinds of Jang(soybean paste or solution), among which are Jang (soybean paste fermented by mold)(6 documents), Yeomgjang, Yeomshi(2), and Gaejang(1). However, the cookbook at that time is defunct. The Goryeo Court relieved the famine-stricken people by proving them with Jang. In the Chosun Dynasty, 111 kinds of Jang were listed in the general documents, and 153 kinds in cookbooks. There were 55 kinds of general Jang, such as Jang(204), Yeomjang(63), Chojang, Goojang(7), and Gaejang(6), are listed in the general documents, and in the cookbooks, there are 55 kinds of Jang, such as Sookwhangjang(9 cookbooks), Daemaekjang(8), Myeonjang(8), Saengwhangjang (8), and Yooinjang(8), and among them, 13 kinds belong to the Chinese origin. A total of 9 Kinds of Ganjang(soybean solution fermented by mold), such as Soojang(30), Cheongjang(23), Gamjang(8), and Ganjang(3) are found in the general documents. In the cookbooks, 12 kinds of Jang, as Cheongjang(10), Cheonrijang(4), Ganjang(3), and etc., are listed. There were 9 kinds of Gochoojang(red pepper-soybean paste), such as Chojang(12), Gochojang(3), and etc., are listed in the general documents, and 9 kinds as Gochojang(7), Manchojang(7), rapid Manchojang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks. In addition, 16 Kinds of Yookjang(fermented soybean-meat paste) as Haejang(15), Hyejang(11), Yookjang(11), and etc., are found in the documents, and 22 kinds as Nanjang(9), Gejang(6), Yookjang(5), Shoigogijang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks. Eighteen Kinds of Shi(soybean paste fermented by bacteria) as Yeomshi(40), Shi(35), Shijang(6), and etc., are recorded in the documents, and 19 kinds as Jeonkookjang(6), Shi(4), Sooshijang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks, and among them 11 kinds belong to the Chinese origin. Six kinds of Jipjang(aqueous soybean paste) as Jipjang(7), Uoopjang(4), Pojang (2), Jangzoop(2) are recorded in the documents, and 15 kinds as Jipjang(9), Zoopjeo(7), and Hajeoljipjang(5) are in the cookbooks. Soybean paste, or solution for relieving hunger is not recorded in the documents. However, the Chosun court, for the purpose of relieving famine-stricken people, used general Jang. Such 21 Jang to relieve the famine-stricken people as Pojang(7), rapid Jang(6), and Sasamgilgyeongjang(4) are listed in the cookbook. Geonjang(dried soybean paste), Nanjang (egg-soybean paste), Doojang(soybean paste), Maljang(random soybean paste), Myeonjang(wheate-soybean paste), Sodoojang (red bean-soybean paste), Yookjang(soybean-meat paste) and Jang(soybean paste) are recorded in the documents, as well as in the cookbooks. Chinese-original Jang and Shi are recorded in the cookbooks, with no list in the general documents. Therefore, it seems that it didn't pass down to the general public.

Data Mining and Construction of Database Concerning Effects of Vitis Genus (산머루 관련 정보수집 및 데이터베이스의 구축)

  • Kim, Min-A;Jo, Yun-Ju;Shin, Jee-Young;Shin, Min-Kyu;Bae, Hyun-Su;Hong, Moo-Chang;Kim, Yang-Seok
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.551-556
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    • 2012
  • The database for the oriental medicine had been existed in documentation in past times and it has been developed to the database type for random accesses in the information society. However, the aspects of the database are not so diversified and the database for the bio herbal material exists in widened type dictionary style. It is a situation that the database which handles the in-depth raw herbal medicines is not sufficient in its quantity and quality. Korean wild grape is a deciduous plant categorized into the Vitaceae and it was found experimentally that it has various medical effects. It is one of the medical materials with higher potentiality of academic study and commercialization recently because it has a bigger possibility to be applied into diverse industrial fields including the medical product for health, food and beauty. We constituted the cooperative system among the Muju cluster business group for Korean mountain wild grapes, Physiology Laboratory in Kyung Hee University Oriental Medicine and Medical Classics Laboratory in Kyung Hee University Oriental Medicine with a view to focusing on such potentiality and a database for Korean wild grapes was made a touchstone for establishing the in-depth database for the single bio medical materials. First of all, the literatures based on the North East Asia in ancient times had been categorized into the classical literature (Korean literature published by government organization, Korean classical literature, Chinese classical literature and classical literature fro Korean and Chinese oriental medicine) and modern literature (Modern literature for oriental medicine, modern literature for domestic and foreign herbal medicine) to cover the eastern and western research records and writings related to Korean wild grapes and the text-mining work has been performed through the cooperation system with the Medical Classics Laboratory in Kyung Hee University Oriental Medicine. First of all, the data for the experiment and theory for Korean wild grape were collected for the Medline database controlled by the Parliament Library of USA to arrange the domestic and foreign theses with topic for Korean wild grapes and the network hyperlink function and down load function were mounted for self-thesis searching function and active view based on the collected data. The thesis searching function provides various auxiliary functions and the searching is available according to the diverse searching/queries such as the name of sub species of Korean wild grape, the logical intersection index for the active ingredients, efficacy and elements. It was constituted for the researchers who design the Korean wild grape study to design of easier experiment. In addition, the data related to the patents for Korean wild grape which were collected from European Patent Office in response to the commercialization possibility and the system available for searching and view was established in the same viewpoint. Perl was used for the query programming and MS-SQL for database establishment and management in the designing of this database. Currently, the data is available for free use and the address is as follows. http://163.180.41.43:8011/index.html

Current status of Brassica A genome analysis (Brassica A genome의 최근 연구 동향)

  • Choi, Su-Ryun;Kwon, Soo-Jin
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.33-48
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    • 2012
  • As a scientific curiosity to understand the structure and the function of crops and experimental efforts to apply it to plant breeding, genetic maps have been constructed in various crops. Especially, in the case of Brassica crop, genetic mapping has been accelerated since genetic information of model plant $Arabidopsis$ was available. As a result, the whole $B.$ $rapa$ genome (A genome) sequencing has recently been done. The genome sequences offer opportunities to develop molecular markers for genetic analysis in $Brassica$ crops. RFLP markers are widely used as the basis for genetic map construction, but detection system is inefficiency. The technical efficiency and analysis speed of the PCR-based markers become more preferable for many form of $Brassica$ genome study. The massive sequence informative markers such as SSR, SNP and InDels are also available to increase the density of markers for high-resolution genetic analysis. The high density maps are invaluable resources for QTLs analysis, marker assisted selection (MAS), map-based cloning and comparative analysis within $Brassica$ as well as related crop species. Additionally, the advents of new technology, next-generation technique, have served as a momentum for molecular breeding. Here we summarize genetic and genomic resources and suggest their applications for the molecular breeding in $Brassica$ crop.

Identification of Lettuce Germplasms and Commercial Cultivars Using SSR Markers Developed from EST (EST로부터 개발된 SSR 마커를 이용한 상추 유전자원 및 유통품종의 식별)

  • Hong, Jee-Hwa;Kwon, Yong-Sham;Choi, Keun-Jin;Mishra, Raghvendra Kumar;Kim, Doo Hwan
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.772-781
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from expressed sequence tags (EST) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and identify 9 germplasms from 3 wild species of lettuce and 61 commercial cultivars using the developed EST-SSR markers. A total of 81,330 lettuce ESTs from NCBI databases were used to search for SSR and 4,229 SSR loci were identified. The highest proportion (59.12%, 2500) was represented by trinucleotide, followed by dinucleotide (29.70%, 1256) and hexanucleotide (6.62%, 280) among SSR repeat motifs. Totally 474 EST-SSR primers were developed from EST and a random set of 267 primers was used to assess the genetic diversity among 9 germplasms and 61 cultivars. Out of 267 primers, 47 EST-SSR markers showed polymorphism between 7 cultivars. Twenty-six EST-SSR markers among 47 EST-SSR markers showed high polymorphism, reproducibility, and band clearance. The relationship between 26 markers genotypes and 70 accessions was analyzed. Totally 127 polymorphic amplified fragments were obtained by 26 EST-SSR markers and two to nine SSR alleles were detected for each locus with an average of 4.88 alleles per locus. Average polymorphism information content was 0.542, ranging from 0.269 to 0.768. Genetic distance of clusters ranged from 0.05 to 0.94 between 70 accessions and dendrogram at a similarity of 0.34 gave 7 main clusters. Analysis of genetic diversity revealed by these 26 EST-SSR markers showed that the 9 germplasms and 61 commercial cultivars were discriminated by marker genotypes. These newly developed EST-SSR markers will be useful for cultivar identification and distinctness, uniformity and stability test of lettuce.