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Optimal Seismic Rehabilitation of Structures Using Probabilistic Seismic Demand Model (확률적 지진요구모델을 이용한 구조물의 최적 내진보강)

  • Park, Joo-Nam;Choi, Eun-Soo
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2008
  • The seismic performance of a structure designed without consideration of seismic loading can be effectively enhanced through seismic rehabilitation. The appropriate level of rehabilitation should be determined based on the decision criteria that minimize the anticipated earthquake-related losses. To estimate the anticipated losses, seismic risk analysis should be performed considering the probabilistic characteristics of the hazard and the structural damage. This study presents the decision procedure in which the probabilistic seismic demand model is utilized for the effective estimation and minimization of the total seismic losses through seismic rehabilitation. The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the structural damage for a specified time period are established in a closed form, and are combined with the loss functions to derive the expected seismic loss. The procedure presented in this study could be effectively used for making decisions on the seismic rehabilitation of structural systems.

An analysis study for reasonable installation of tunnel fire safety facility (터널 방재설비의 합리적 설치를 위한 분석적 연구)

  • Park, Jin-Ouk;Yoo, Yong-Ho;Park, Byoung-Jik
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.243-248
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    • 2015
  • Domestic road and railroad construction have been increasingly growing and for reasons of mitigating traffic congestion, urban plan and refurbishment project, deeper and longer tunnels have been built. The event of fire is the most fatal accident in a tunnel, and it can be very disastrous with a high possibility. In this study, QRA (Quantitative Risk Analysis) which is one of quantitative risk analysis approaches was applied to tunnel fire safety design and the evaluation of QRA cases and the cost comparison of QRA methods were carried out. In addition analysis of risk reduction effect of tunnel fire safety system was conducted using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and the priority of major factors that could mitigate the risk in tunnel fire was presented. As a result, significant cost reduction effect could be obtained by incorporating QRA and it is expected to design fire safety system rationally. The priority of fire safety system based on risk mitigation effect by fire safety system considering the cost is in order of water pipe, emergency lighting, evacuation passage and smoke control system.

Development of Landslide-Risk Prediction Model thorough Database Construction (데이터베이스 구축을 통한 산사태 위험도 예측식 개발)

  • Lee, Seung-Woo;Kim, Gi-Hong;Yune, Chan-Young;Ryu, Han-Joong;Hong, Seong-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2012
  • Recently, landslide disasters caused by severe rain storms and typhoons have been frequently reported. Due to the geomorphologic characteristics of Korea, considerable portion of urban area and infrastructures such as road and railway have been constructed near mountains. These infrastructures may encounter the risk of landslide and debris flow. It is important to evaluate the highly risky locations of landslide and to prepare measures for the protection of landslide in the process of construction planning. In this study, a landslide-risk prediction equation is proposed based on the statistical analysis of 423 landslide data set obtained from field surveys, disaster reports on national road, and digital maps of landslide area. Each dataset includes geomorphologic characteristics, soil properties, rainfall information, forest properties and hazard history. The comparison between the result of proposed equation and actual occurrence of landslide shows 92 percent in the accuracy of classification. Since the input for the equation can be provided within short period and low cost, and the results of equation can be easily incorporated with hazard map, the proposed equation can be effectively utilized in the analysis of landslide-risk for large mountainous area.

Analysis on Intersection Traffic Signal Locations Change and Characteristics of Dilemma Zone (교차로 신호기 위치 조정과 딜레마존 특성 분석)

  • Lim, Sam Jin;Lee, Young-Ihn;Kim, Kyung Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.3-13
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    • 2013
  • This paper reviews the characteristics of dilemma zone by analysing the influence exerted by actual location of intersection traffic signal on behaviour of drivers approaching signalized intersection in urban area. The analysis of approach speed was based upon a 'before and after' comparison, measured at three sites where the locations of traffic signals were changed. The study demonstrated that, when traffic signal changed to yellow, the scales of dilemma zone were narrowed in case of stopping cars by moving up the starting point of the dilemma zone due to lowered spot speed. On the other hand, in case of passing cars, the end points of dilemma zone were moved further out to the rear due to increased spot speed. Therefore, changing traffic signal locations could make an impact to increase intersection safety through reducing the scales of dilemma zone. This study also found that, in cases involving vehicles with similar approach speeds, spot speeds could be differentiated following the change of signal locations due to the fact that there can be greater differences in both braking point and deceleration rate. Thus, when considering the appropriate measuring of dilemma zone, 'spot speed' rather than 'approach speed' appeared to be more appropriate criterion.

An Experimental Study on Flow Characteristics Around Culvert According to Blocked Area (차단면적 변화에 따른 암거주변 흐름특성 실험연구)

  • Kim, Sung Joong;Yeo, Hong Koo;Kang, Jun Gu;Jung, Do Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.467-467
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    • 2016
  • 암거는 일반적으로 용수나 배수용의 수로가 도로, 철도, 제방 등의 아래에 매설 된 수로를 지칭한다. 이러한 암거는 산업발전으로 사회기반시설의 신설 및 확충, 재정비 등으로 많이 활용되고 있다. 최근 들어 기후로 인한 재해가 급증하면서 이러한 시설물에 대한 안정성 및 관리에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있는 것이 현실이다. 특히 소하천은 집수면적 및 유로연장이 짧고 하상경사가 급하기 때문에 홍수에 취약하다. 즉, 빨라진 유속으로 인해 구조물 주변의 세굴에 의한 유실, 토사유출로 인한 하상퇴적, 부유물로 인한 차단으로 인해 통수에 지장을 받아 피해가 발생하게 된다. 이러한 암거시설물 피해는 2차 피해로 이어질 수 있으며 사회기반시설 파괴로 도시기능이 마비되고 인근 주변지역에 침수로 인한 재산 및 인명피해까지 발생시킬 수 있는 피해 잠재능력을 보유하고 있다. 그러나 피해에 대한 예방대책은 유지관리를 통해 지속적으로 관리하는 것이 대부분의 지침 등에 소개된 내용들이다. 본 연구에서는 암거를 대상으로 암거의 폐색으로 인해 암거주변에서 변화되는 흐름특성을 축소모형을 통해 검토하고자 하였다. 암거 축소모형실험은 1.5m 폭을 갖는 직선수로에서 수행하였으며, 암거모형은 도로암거표준도(2008)를 참조하여 $3m{\times}3m$ 수로암거를 대상으로 1/10 축소모형을 제작하였다. 암거유입부 퇴적으로 인한 암거의 차단률(차단면적/암거단면적)은 차단이 발생하지 않는 0% 조건에서부터 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% 조건에 대해 실험을 수행하였다. 실험결과 차단에 따른 암거 상류단의 수위는 차단이 없는 암거의 경우에 비해 차단율이 높아질수록 암거유입부 수위는 20.4% ~ 82.7% 상승하는 것으로 나타났다. 암거의 차단률이 40% 이상일 경우 높아진 수위로 인해 암거통로의 윗상면부까지 다다르고 있으며 50%일 경우 암거를 통과하는 흐름이 자유수면흐름이 아닌 오리피스 흐름이 발생하는 것으로 나타났다. 암거유입부 차단으로 인한 암거주변의 최대유속은 암거 직하류부에서 주로 발생하여 암거 유출부에서의 최대유속은 차단율이 증가할수록 선형적으로 증가하는 것으로 나타났으며 암거 유출부에서의 유속은 차단전의 조건(0%) 대비 4.2% ~ 35.5% 까지 상승하는 것으로 나타났다. 이와 같은 결과를 토대로 고려하였을 때 대부분 산지부에서 설치되는 암거의 경우 유속이 불가피하게 증가하게 됨으로 유속에 따른 유속조절방안(차단 및 우회시설) 및 세굴대책을 세워야 할 것으로 판단된다.

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Applications of Improved Low-Flow Mortar Type Grouting Method for Road Safety and Constructability in Dangerous Steep Slopes (급경사지 붕괴 위험지역의 도로 안전 및 시공성을 고려한 개선된 저유동 몰탈형 그라우팅공법 적용성 분석)

  • Choi, Gisung;Kim, Seokhyun;Kim, Nakseok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.409-415
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    • 2020
  • Low-flow mortar injection method grouting technology was selected and the traffic area was preserved as much as possible in order to secure safety for road traffic when the outflow and subsidence of landfill occurred due to ground-water, and etc. In particular, the current existing method was newly improved since there are risks of damage such as hydraulic fracturing at the lower part of the road, spilling of soil particles on steep slopes, and bumps on the road due to excessive injection pressure during construction. This study was carried out at the site of reinforcement work on the road as a maintenance work for the danger zone for collapse of the steep slope of the 00 hill, which was ordered from the 00 city 00 province. The improved low-flow mortar type grouting method adopted a new automated grouting management system and especially, it composites the method for grouting conditions decision by high-pressure pre-grouting test and injection technology by AGS-controlled and studied about grouting effect analysis by using new technology. By applying the improved low-flow mortar type grouting method, it was possible to lay the groundwork for road maintenance work such as the prevention of subsidence of old roads, uneven subsidence of buildings and civil engineering structures, and of soil leakage of ground-water spills. Furthermore, the possibility of application on future grouting work not only for just construction that prevents subsidence of old roads but also for various buildings and civil engineering structures such as railroads, subways, bridges, underground structures, and boulder stone and limestone areas was confirmed.

An Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Yong-in City (용인시 생태발자국 지수의 분석과 고찰 - 음식, 건조환경, 산림, 에너지 부문을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Ji Young;Kim, Jin-Oh
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the change of environmental capacity in Yong-in City, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea through calculation of ecological footprint indices and analysis of their changes, and to suggest implications for urban development and planning. In this study, we analyzed ecological footprints of 1993, 2003, and 2013 to understand the patterns of land use changes and development in Yong-in City. We also compared the GIS land cover maps and ecological footprint indices to figure out land cover changes associated with resource consumption in Yong-in City. As a result, we found the following three lessons. First, the ecological footprint indices of Yong-in City are 3.20(gha) in 1993, 6.50(gha) in 2003, and 11.15(gha) in 2013. This implies that the ecological footprint of Yong-in City is much larger than 1.80(gha), the globally required ecological footprint per capita and 3.56(gha), the average ecological footprint of South Korea. Second, the forest ecological footprint of Yong-in City was calculated as the largest, followed by the ecological footprints of energy, food, and built environment. In particular, the forest ecological footprint was the most rapidly increased from 0.002(gha) in 1993 to 7.32(gha) in 2013, followed by energy ecological footprint from 0.87(gha) to 2.38(gha). This implies that the provision and consumption of timber are seriously unbalanced, and energy consumption is unsustainable because of the rapid increase of residential and commercial land development in the city. Third, our analysis of the rapid increase of forest ecological footprint indicates that the disturbed forest areas are concentrated in the increased built environment areas. We also observed that the increase of energy ecological footprint indices was caused largely by the increase of the commercial and road areas. This implies that Yong-in City should minimize forest disturbance and expand green areas for future in the city. In addition, this may provide a reasonable ground that the city should reduce the use of fossil fuels and facilitate the use of renewable energy.

A Study on the Relationship between Stress and Climacteric Symptoms of Midlife Men (중년기 남성의 스트레스와 갱년기 증상)

  • Chung, Yeon-Kang;Lee, Jae-On;Han, Kyung-Lim
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.513-522
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    • 2002
  • This study investigated stress and the extent of climacteric symptoms in mid-life men, and examined their relationship in order to better understand the stress and climacteric symptom experiences of mid-life men, and thereby attempted to offer basic materials for the development of a health improvement program that may help increase the quality of life of mid-life men. Three hundred mid-life men whose ages were between 40 and 59 and resided in the Seoul area were subjects of this study. The data were analyzed with the SAS PC program using descriptive statistics to analyze subjects' general characteristics and variables of stress and the extent of climacteric symptoms of the subjects. The relationship between stress and climacteric symptoms were examined by the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and stress and the extent of climacteric symptoms in relation to the general characteristics were analyzed by T-test and ANOVA. The study conclusions are as follows: 1. Subjects general characteristics The average, age of the subjects was 46 and 47.0% of them reported ages between 40 and 45. Of the subjects, 98% were married. In marriage satisfaction, those who were generally satisfied with their married life comprised 62.0% of the subjects. In terms of level of education, 95.7% were educated above the high school level. In occupational background, 59.7% had occupations related to technologies. As for religion, 42.7% had no religion. In number of children, 67.3% had 2 children. In residential status, 79,3% were living in their own homes. In terms of living arrangements, 87.7% of the subjects were living in the form of nuclear families. 2. Stress and the extent of climacteric symptoms The level of stress was scored as $2.94{\pm}0.74$, and considering that the overall examination score is $27.16{\pm}1.32$, the subjects' stress level was not viewed as particularly high. The average score of the extent of climacteric symptoms was $35.37{\pm}0.27$. The extent of sub-domains of climacteric symptoms included skeleton symptoms ($39.37{\pm}2.81$), joint pain ($39.16{\pm}3.66$), vasomotor symptoms ($35.39{\pm}3.01$), other symptoms ($36.99{\pm}3.02$), psychological symptoms ($34.68{\pm}3.01$), urogenic symptoms ($35.03{\pm}3.27$), and cardiovascular symptoms ($33.70{\pm}2.78$). 3. General characteristics in relation to the stress level The subjects' general characteristics that were significantly related to the level of stress were marriage status (F=4.38, p=.001), marriage satisfaction (F=4.56, p=.001), educational background (F=2.68, p=.012), and age (F=2.48, p=.033). 4. General characteristics in relation to the level of climacteric symptoms The subjects' general characteristics that were significantly related to the level of climacteric symptoms were educational background (F=3.26, p=.007), age (F=2.58, p=.027), marriage status (F=2.62, p=.025), and marriage satisfaction (F=2.78. p=.032). 5. The correlation between stress and climacteric symptoms The subjects' level of stress and climacteric symptoms were significantly related to each other (r=0.578, p=0.000). The subjects' level of stress was correlated with sub-domains of the climacteric symptoms including psychological symptoms (r=0.579, p=0.000), joint pain (r=0.479, p=0.000), skeleton symptoms (r=0.477, p=0.000), other symptoms (r=0.467, p=0.000), vasomotor symptoms (r=0.4615, p=0.000), cardiovascular symptoms (r=0.458, p=0.000), urogenic symptoms (r=0.401. p=0.000). In summary, the climacteric symptoms suffered by mid-life men are positively correlated with their level of stress. In addition, the climacteric symptoms were affected by the level of stress.

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Origin-Destination Estimation Based on Cellular Phone's Base Station (휴대폰 기지국 정보를 이용한 O/D 추정기법 연구)

  • Kim, Si-Gon;Yu, Byeong-Seok;Gang, Seung-Pil
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 2005
  • An Origin-Destination (O/D) is considered as one of the important information in route choices and trip assignments. A household interview survey is deemed to be the traditional and the most widely used method in making sample O/D and its conversion to the total O/D. Some researchers have studied to estimate dynamic O/D from the relationship between link volumes and trip assignment model. Nowadays, owing to the recent rapid spread of cellular phones. Location information of the cellular phone through the Base Station(BS) is considered as an alternative to O/D estimation. In this study, the methodology of generating BS-based O/D and the methodology of converting this O/D into an administrative district-based O/D are proposed. The information of GPS positions and cellular BS positions have acquired by establishing GPS equipment and cellular phone on taxies in Cheongju. Three weeks data are collected and used in estimating O/D by matching them on a digital map. Scatter diagram and sample correlation coefficients are used to investigate the similarity of the GPS-based O/D pattern among weeks, among days, and among times in day. The results show that there are few significant differences among weeks. But there is a difference in O/C pattern between weekday and weekend. Furthermore, there is a difference between morning peak and afternoon peak. Two methodologies are proposed to convert BS-based O/D into an administrative district-based O/D. The first one is to use the distribution pattern of GPS coordinates, the other is to use the coverage area of the BSs. To validate such converted O/D, GPS O/D is used as a true value. The statical analyses through scatter diagram, MAE and RMSE shows that there is few significant defference of pattern between the estimated BS-based O/D and GPS O/D. In the case of using only cellular information, the methodology using coverage area of the BSs is recommended for estimating O/D.

Development of Traffic Accident frequency Prediction Model by Administrative zone - A Case of Seoul (소규모 지역단위 교통사고예측모형 개발 - 서울시 행정동을 대상으로)

  • Hong, Ji Yeon;Lee, Soo Beom;Kim, Jeong Hyun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.1297-1308
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    • 2015
  • In Korea, the local traffic safety master plan has been established and implemented according to the Traffic Safety Act. Each local government is required to establish a customized traffic safety policy and share roles for improvement of traffic safety and this means that local governments lead and promote effective local traffic safety policies fit for local circumstances in substance. For implementing efficient traffic safety policies, which accord with many-sided characteristics of local governments, the prediction of community-based traffic accidents, which considers local characteristics and the analysis of accident influence factors must be preceded, but there is a shortage of research on this. Most of existing studies on the community-based traffic accident prediction used social and economic variables related to accident exposure environments in countries or cities due to the limit of collected data. For this reason, there was a limit in applying the developed models to the actual reduction of traffic accidents. Thus, this study developed a local traffic accident prediction model, based on smaller regional units, administrative districts, which were not omitted in existing studies and suggested a method to reflect traffic safety facility and policy variables that traffic safety policy makers can control, in addition to social and economic variables related to accident exposure environments, in the model and apply them to the development of local traffic safety policies. The model development result showed that in terms of accident exposure environments, road extension, gross floor area of buildings, the ratio of bus lane installation and the number of crossroads and crosswalks had a positive relation with accidents and the ratio of crosswalk sign installation, the number of speed bumps and the results of clampdown by police force had a negative relation with accidents.