• Title, Summary, Keyword: 동적 콘 관입기

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Development of Advanced Dynamic Cone Penetration Test Apparatus and Its Application Performance Evaluation (개량식 동적 콘 관입시험기의 개발 및 적용성 평가)

  • Kim, Uk-Gie;Zhuang, Li;Lee, Kwang-Wu
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.119-131
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    • 2014
  • For quick and accurate ground investigation in wide construction site being not easy to access, advanced dynamic cone penetration test equipment was developed based on widely used equipment abroad. Advantages of existing equipment of portability and simple testing method were reflected in the new developed equipment. Meanwhile, by extending connection of lower rod, penetration depth is raised to 6m from 1 m of the existing equipment. Moreover, by assembly of hammer (2+3+3kg) and cone (3 types) etc., it is possible to perform test under the same conditions with those by German and Japan dynamic cone penetration test equipment (Tsukuba, PWRI and SH types). Auxiliary equipment was applied to make sure of perpendicularity as penetration depth increases. Applicability of the new developed equipment was evaluated through tests on various fields and its reliability was verified.

Evaluation of Active Layer Depth using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (동적 콘 관입기를 이용한 활동층 심도평가)

  • Hong, Won-Taek;Kang, Seonghun;Park, Keunbo;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2016
  • An active layer distributed on surface of an extreme cold region causes a frost heave by repeating the freezing and thawing according to the seasonal temperature change. Since the height of frost heave is greatly affected by the thickness of active layer, an accurate evaluation of the thickness of active layer is necessary for the safe design and construction of the infrastructure in the extreme cold region. In this study, dynamic cone penetrometer, which is miniaturized in-situ penetration device, is applied for the evaluation of active layer depth distribution. As the application tests, two dynamic cone penetration tests were conducted on the study sites located in Solomon and Alaska. In addition, ground temperature variations were obtained. As the results of the application tests, the depth of interface between the active layer and the permafrost was evaluated from the difference in dynamic cone penetration indexes of the active layer and the permafrost, and a layer was detected around the interface considered as an ice lens layer. Also, the interface depths between the above zero and the below zero temperature determined from the ground temperature variations correspond with the interface depths evaluated from the dynamic cone penetration tests. This study demonstrates that the dynamic cone penetrometer may be a useful tool for the evaluation of the active layer in the extreme cold region.

Shear Wave Velocity Estimation of Railway Roadbed Using Dynamic Cone Penetration Index (동적 콘 관입지수를 이용한 철도노반의 전단파속도 추정)

  • Hong, Won-Taek;Byun, Yong-Hoon;Choi, Chan Yong;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2015
  • Elastic behavior of the railway roadbed which supports the repeating dynamic loads of the train is mainly affected by the shear modulus of the upper roadbed. Therefore, shear wave velocity estimation of the uniformly compacted roadbed can be used to estimate the elastic behavior of the railway roadbed. The objective of this study is to suggest the relationship between the dynamic cone penetration index (DCPI) and the shear wave velocity ($V_s$) of the upper roadbed in order to estimate the shear wave velocity by using the dynamic cone penetration test (DCPT). To ensure the reliability of the relationship, the dynamic cone penetration test and the measurement of the shear wave velocity are conducted on the constructed upper roadbed. As a method for measurement of the shear wave velocity, cross hole is used and then the dynamic cone penetration test is performed at a center point between the source and the receiver of the cross hole. As a result of the correlation of the dynamic cone penetration index and the shear wave velocity at the same depths, the shear wave velocity is estimated as a form of involution of the dynamic cone penetration index with a determinant coefficient above 0.8. The result of this study can be used to estimate both the shear wave velocity and the strength of the railway roadbed using the dynamic cone penetrometer.

A Mechanical Properties According to the Compaction Degree on Weathered Granite Soil Using Lightweight Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (경량 동적콘관입시험기를 이용한 화강풍화토의 다짐도에 따른 역학특성)

  • Kim, Yeon-Il;Kim, Jin-Young;Shim, Jae-Rok;Choi, Jin;Kang, Kwon-Soo;Baek, Won-Jin;Lee, Kang-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the applicability of the lightweight dynamic cone penetrometer in the domestic slope site was investigated using the weathered granite soil sampled form the Namwon slope site. And then, the lightweight dynamic cone penetration tests according to the change in the degree of compaction and water content were performed and it was analyzed with the correlations between the degree of compaction, the void ratio, the degree of saturation and the value of cone resistance. From the laboratory test results, the cone penetration resistance was rapidly increased in the dry side of the optimum moisture content, and it was largely decreased in the wet side of the optimum moisture content. Moreover, when the degree of compaction and the degree of saturation are large, the cone resistance is increased linearly. And a high correlativity was shown between water content, void ratio, the degree of saturation and the cone resistance. From these results, it is judged that the lightweight dynamic cone penetrometer can be applied to the investigation on the site slope.

Development and Application of Cone Penetrometer with Impact Penetration Rod for Evaluation of Track Substructure (철도궤도 하부구조물 평가를 위한 타격식 관입 롯드가 체결된 콘 관입기의 개발 및 적용)

  • Hong, Wontaek;Byun, Yonghoon;Kim, Sangyeob;Choi, Chanyong;Lee, Jongsub
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2015
  • To minimize the cost of maintenance, repair and over-design of track substructure, an accurate evaluation of strength and stiffness of the track substructure is necessary. In this study, a cone penetrometer with impact penetration rod (CPI) is developed for the evaluation of track substructure. For applicability test, the chamber and field tests were performed. As the experimental results of the CPI, dynamic cone penetration endex (DCPI), cone tip resistance ($q_c$), friction resistance ($f_s$) and friction ratio (Fr) were obtained. In the chamber test, the experimental results show reasonable values for the simulated track substructure. In the field test, the CPI clearly detects the interface between the ballast and the subgrade. Also, discontinuous layers are detected in the subgrade. It is expected that the developed CPI may be an effective tool for the evaluation of track substructure by evaluating the ballast layer by dynamic penetration and the subgrade by static penetration of the inner rod.

Study on Shear Strength Using a Portable Dynamic Cone Penetration Test and Relationship between N-Nc (소형동적콘관입시험을 이용한 전단강도 산정 및 N-Nc 상관관계 연구)

  • Kim, Hyukho;Lim, Heuidae
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.145-157
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    • 2017
  • Because of Recent intensive rainfall, nationally landslides and slope failure phenomenon has been frequently occur. Providing proposed-measures to the natural disasters that occur in these localities and the slope, must be derived ground of strength parameters(shear strength) as a design input data. However, it is such as extra deforestation and a lot of economic costs in order to make the access to the current area and the slopes ground survey is required. Thus, by small dynamic cone penetration test machine using the human to carry in the field, it is possible to easily measure the characteristics and strength constant of the ground of more than one region. In this study through researching analysis of the domestic and foreign small dynamic cone penetration test method, it has proposed a cone material and test methods suitable for the country. Cone penetration test Nc in the field has comparated with analysis of the value and the standard penetration test N value. And, in addition to this, direct shear test and borehole shear test were performed by depth, bedrock, and soil type and passing #200 and the correlation of the Nc value. In particular, in the present study, for the sandy soil that has distict distribute in mountain, it is proposed relation of shear strength corresponding to the Nc value (cohesion and internal friction angle) in order to calculate such effective ground shear strength.

A Pilot Study of Inhole Type CPTu from Model Tests (실내모형실험을 통한 인홀형 탄성파콘 시험의 적용성 분석)

  • Jang, In-Sung;Jung, Min-Jae;Kwon, O-Soon;Mok, Young-Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.28 no.2C
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2008
  • Seismic piezocone penetration tests (SCPTu) can be used to obtain dynamic properties of soils as well as cone resistance and penetration pore pressure. However, the SCPTu system can be hardly utilized in marine soils because it is difficult to install the source apparatus which generates the shear wave in offshore site. The authors developed an inhole type piezocone penetration test (CPTu) equipment which both source and receiver composed of bender elements were installed inside the rod located behind the cone. Therefore, it can be applicable to even an offshore site without any additional source apparatus. The objective of this paper is to investigate the practical application of inhole type CPTu by performing laboratory model tests using kaolinite as soft clay. The shear wave velocities of kaolinite soil were measured with time, and the effects of soil disturbance due to the installation of source and receiver were also examined for various distance between source and receiver.

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Comparison of Elastic Moduli of Subgrade Soils Using Plate Loading Test, Soil Stiffness Gauge and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (평판재하시험, 흙강성측정기 및 동적콘관입시험기를 이용한 노상토의 탄성계수 비교)

  • Kim, Kyu-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2015
  • This paper describes the correlation and relationship between elastic moduli measured by three stiffness measurement methods with different mechanical characteristics to evaluate the compaction characteristics of subgrade soils. The Soil Stiffness Gauge (SSG) with very small strain (${\approx}0.001%$) ranges, static Plate Loading Test (PLT) with mid-level strain (${\approx}0.01{\sim}0.1%$) ranges, and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) using penetration resistance were implemented to measure the elastic modulus. To use the elastic modulus measured by different measurement methods with a wide range of strain in practice, it is required to identify the correlation and relationship of measured values in advance. The comparison results of the measured elastic moduli ($E_{SSG}$, $E_{PLT}$, $E_{DCP}$) using the three measurement methods for domestic and overseas subgrade soils under various conditions indicate that the evaluated elastic modulus relies on the types of soils and the level of stress condition. The correlation analysis of the measured elastic moduli except the data of cement treated soils indicates that the static elastic modulus ($E_{PLT}$) is evaluated as about 60 to 80% of the dynamic elastic modulus ($E_{SSG}$). Unusual soils such as cement treated soils are required to be corrected by the stress correction during the correlation analysis with typical soils, because these types of soils are sensitive to the stress condition when measuring the static elastic modulus ($E_{PLT}$) of soils. In addition, when considering the use of DCP data for the evaluation of the elastic modulus ($E_{DCP}$), the measured data of the elastic modulus less than 200 MPa show more reliable correlation.

Stiffness Characterization of Subgrade using Crosshole-Type Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (크로스홀 형태의 동적 콘 관입기를 이용한 노반의 강성특성 평가)

  • Hong, Won-Taek;Choi, Chan Yong;Lim, Yujin;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2018
  • In order to support the load of the train with enough stiffness, a study on an effective method for the characterization of the stiffness of the compacted subgrade is required. In this study, the crosshole-type dynamic cone penetrometer (CDCP) is used for the stiffness characterization of the subgrade along the depth. For the application of the CDCP test, three points of compacted subgrades are selected as the study sites. For the study sites, CDCP test, in-situ density test, and light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) test are conducted. As the results of CDCP tests, shear wave velocity profiles are obtained by using the travel times and the travel distances of the shear waves along the depth. In addition, maximum shear modulus ($G_{max}$) profiles are estimated by using the density of the subgrades and the shear wave velocity profiles. The averaged maximum shear moduli at each testing point are highly correlated with the dynamic deflection moduli ($E_{vd}$) determined by LFWD tests. Therefore, a reliable stiffness characterization of the subgrade can be conducted by using CDCP tests. In addition, because CDCP characterizes the stiffness of the subgrade along the depth rather than a representative value, CDCP test may be effectively used for the stiffness characterization of the subgrade.

Model Tests for the Applicability of various Testing Devices for Measuring Degree of Compaction (여러 가지 다짐평가 장비의 적용성에 대한 모형 시험)

  • Back, In-Chul;Yoo, Wan-Kyu;Kim, Byoung-Il;Kim, Ju-Hyong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.1152-1158
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    • 2007
  • Although various fast and simple, testing devices have been developed in many countries such as the U.S, Japan, and European countries, these testing devices are not commonly used in Korea. In this study, compaction fur the field density test was carried out with a hand-guided vibrating roller. The results of the field density test were compared with those of the new testing devices such as the geogauge, soil impact hammer(CASPFOL), light falling weight deflectometer(LFWD), dynamic cone penetration(DCP). Regression analyses were conducted with the data from new testing devices. The analysis results showed that the correlation coefficients were high in the range of $70{\sim}95%$.

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