• Title, Summary, Keyword: 등가 트러스요소

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Static and Free Vibration Analyses of Hybrid Girders by the Equivalent Beam Theory (등가보 이론을 이용한 복합 거더의 정적 및 자유진동 해석)

  • Choi, In-Sik;Ye, In-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.600-606
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    • 2007
  • 3D finite element analyses of a corrugated steel web girder and a steel truss web girder are conducted to investigate the static and dynamic behaviour of the hybrid girders. And the analyses results are compared with those by the equivalent beam theory. The equivalent theory is a theory that all section properties of a truss structure are replaced by section properties of a beam including a shear coefficient. When applying the equivalent beam theory, the shear coefficient of the corrugated steel web girder is estimated as the area ratio of flange section to web section and that of the steel truss web girder is calculated by the equation proposed by Abdel. Static deflections and natural frequencies by 3D finite element analyses and those by the equivalent beam theory are in good agreement.

Structural Analysis of the Aluminum Extrusion Plate with Truss-Core (트러스 코어 헝상을 갖는 알루미늄 압출재의 구조 해석)

  • 장창두;이병삼;하윤석;김호경;송하철;문형석
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2003
  • The sandwich plate has been widely used as an efficient structural member because it has high strength-to-weight and high stiffness-to-weight ratios. To properly design the aluminum extrusion plate , it is necessary to analyze structural behaviors of the extrusions, however, the aluminum extrusions have been rarely studied until now. In the optimization process through numerous iterative calculations, finite element analysis of the sandwich plate with hollow core section requires a considerable amount of computation time and cost. In this paper, the aluminum extrusion plate with truss-core is transformed into an equivalent homogeneous orthotropic plate with appropriate elastic constants. The procedure to evaluate accurate equivalent elastic constants is also established. Using these elastic constants, simple theoretical formulas of the stresses and deflection are proposed in case of the simply-supported orthotropic thick plate under uniform pressure. Through the comparison with the results by commercial FEM code(ANSYS), it is verified that the proposed simpified formula has a good efficiency and accuracy.

Analysis of Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members under Monotonic Loading (단조하중을 받는 철근콘크리트 휨부재의 처짐해석)

  • Byun, Keun Joo;Kim, Young Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 1991
  • This paper concentrates on the analysis of deflection of the reinforced concrete flexural members under monotonic loading. Concrete is treated as an orthotropic nonlinear material. The concept of equivalent strain and crack strain are used to establish independent stress-strain relationships in the directions of orthotropy. Steel is modeled as an elstoplastic material, and von Mises failure criterion is applied. The finite element computer program for the nonlinear analysis of the deflection of RC flexural members under monotonic loading is developed. The accuracy and reliability of the numerical procedure is demonstrated by the FEM analysis and experiments of the under reinforced concrete beams over the entire loading range up to failure.

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Evaluation of Limit Strength for Steel Cable-Stayed Bridgesusing Various Cable Elements (다양한 케이블 요소를 이용한 강사장교의 극한강도 평가)

  • Song, Weon-Keun;Rhee, Jong Woo
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2006
  • This paper deals with the influence of behavior of a variety of cable elements on the limit strength of steel cable-stayed bridges. The softening plastic-hinge model, which is represented in this study for the limit strength evaluation of the example bridge, considers both geometric and material nonlinearites. Geometric nonlinearity of beam-column members are accounted by using stability function, and material nonlinearity - by using CRC tangent modulus and parabolic function. Cable sag effect is considered for cable members. The result of this study shows that the limit strength of the example bridge using the equivalent of elasticity for truss straight elements is smaller than those using the cable or the catenary elements.

Analytical Study of Geometric Nonlinear Behavior of Cable-stayed Bridges (사장교의 기하학적 비선형 거동의 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Seungjun;Lee, Kee Sei;Kim, Kyung Sik;Kang, Young Jong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.1A
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2010
  • This paper presents an investigation on the geometric nonlinear behavior of cable-stayed bridges using geometric nonlinear finite element analysis method. The girder and mast in cable-stayed bridges show the combined axial load and bending moment interaction due to horizontal and vertical forces of inclined cable. So these members are considered as beam-column member. In this study, the nonlinear finite element analysis method is used to resolve the geometric nonlinear behavior of cable-stayed bridges in consideration of beam-column effect, large displacement effect (known as P-${\delta}$ effect) and cable sag effect. To analyze a cable-stayed bridge model, nonlinear 6-degree of freedom frame element and nonlinear 3-degree of freedom equivalent truss element is used. To resolve the geometric nonlinear behavior for various live load cases, the initial shape analysis is performed for considering dead load before live load analysis. Then the geometric nonlinear analysis for each live load case is performed. The deformed shapes of each model, load-displacement curves of each point and load-tensile force curves for each cable are presented for quantitative study of geometric nonlinear behavior of cable-stayed bridges.

Effect of Geometric Shapes on Stability of Steel Cable-stayed Bridges (기하형상에 따른 강사장교의 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seung-Jun;Han, Seung-Ryong;Kim, Jong-Min;Cho, Sun-Kyu;Kang, Young-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.13-27
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    • 2011
  • This paper presents an investigation of the structural stability of cable-stayed bridges, using geometric nonlinear finite-element analysis and considering various geometric nonlinearities, such as the sag effect of the cables, the beam-column effect of the girder and mast, and the large displacement effect. In this analytic research, a nonlinear frame element and a nonlinear equivalent truss element were used to model the girder, mast, and cable member. The live-load cases that were considered in this research were assumed based on the traffic loads. To perform reasonable analytic research, initial shape analyses in the dead-load case were performed before live-load analysis. In this study, the geometric nonlinear responses of the cable-stayed bridges with different cable arrangement types were compared. After that, parametric studies on the characteristics of the structural stability in critical live-load cases were performed considering various geometric parameters, such as the cable arrangement type, the stiffness ratios of the girder and mast, the area of the cables, and the number of cables. Through this parametric study, the effect of geometric shapes on the structural stability of cable-stayed bridges was investigated.

Continuum Modeling and dynamic Analysis of Platelike Truss Structures (평판형 트러스구조물의 연속체 모델링 및 동적해석)

  • 이우식;김종윤
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.1021-1029
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    • 1992
  • A rational and straightforward method is introduced for developing continuum models of large platelike periodic lattice structures based on energy equivalence. The procedure for developing continuum plate models involves the use of existing well-defined finite element matrices for the easy calculation of strain and kinetic energies of a repeating cell, from which the reduced stiffness and mass matrices are obtained in terms of continuum degrees- of-freedom defined in this paper. The equivalent continuum plate properties are obtained from the direct comparison of the reduced matrices for continuum plate with those for lattice plate. The advantages of the present continuum method are that it may be applied to arbitrary lattice configurations and may give most diverse equivalent continuum plate properties including all kinds of coupling, while other methods may give only limited structural properties. To evaluate the continuum method developed in this paper, free vibration analyses for both of continuum and lattice plates are conducted. Numerical results show that the present continuum method gives very reliable structural and dynamic properties compared to other well-recognized methods.

Equivalent Plastic Hinge Length Model for Flexure-Governed RC Shear Walls (휨 항복형 철근콘크리트 전단벽의 등가소성힌지길이 모델)

  • Mun, Ju-Hyun;Yang, Keun-Hyeok
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2014
  • The present study proposes a simple equation to straightforwardly determine the potential plastic hinge length in boundary element of reinforced concrete shear walls. From the idealized curvature distribution along the shear wall length, a basic formula was derived as a function of yielding moment, maximum moment, and additional moment owing to diagonal tensile crack. Yielding moment and maximum moment capacities of shear wall were calculated on the basis of compatability of strain and equilibrium equation of internal forces. The development of a diagonal tensile crack at web was examined from the shear transfer capacity of concrete specified in ACI 318-11 provision and then the additional moment was calculated using the truss mechanism along the crack proposed by Park and Paulay. The moment capacities were simplified from an extensive parametric study; as a result, the equivalent plastic hinge length of shear walls could be formulated using indices of longitudinal tensile reinforcement at the boundary element, vertical reinforcement at web, and applied axial load. The proposed equation predicted accurately the measured plastic hinge length, providing that the mean and standard deviation of ratios between predictions and experiments are 1.019 and 0.102, respectively.

Analytical Study of Ultimate Behavior of Steel Cable-stayed Bridges (완성계 강사장교의 극한 거동의 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Seungjun;Im, Seok-Been;Lee, Kee-Sei;Kang, Young-Jong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.32 no.2A
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    • pp.85-95
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    • 2012
  • This paper presents an investigation on the ultimate behavior of steel cable-stayed bridges using nonlinear finite element analysis method. Cable-stayed bridges exhibit various geometric nonlinearities as well as material nonlinearities, so rational nonlinear finite element analysis should be performed for investigation of the ultimate behavior. In this study, ultimate behavior of steel cable-stayed bridges was studied using rational ultimate analysis method. Nonlinear equivalent truss element and nonlinear frame element were used for modeling the cable, girder and mast. Moreover, refined plastic hinge method was adopted for considering the material nonlinearity of steel members. In this study, the 2-step analysis method was used. Before live load analysis, initial shape analysis was performed in order to consider the dead load condition. For investigation of the ultimate behavior of steel cable-stayed bridges, analysis models which span length is 920.0 m were used. Radiating type and fan type were considered as the cable-arrangement types. With various quantitative evidences such as load-displacement curves, deformed shapes, locations of the yield point or region, bending moment distribution and so on, the ultimate behavior of steel cable-stayed bridges was investigated and described in this paper.

Evaluation of Cable Impact Factor by Moving Vehicle Load Analysis in Steel Composite Cable-Stayed Bridges (차량 이동하중 해석에 의한 강합성 사장교 케이블의 충격계수 평가)

  • Park, Yong-Myung;Park, Jae-Bong;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Choi, Byung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.199-210
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    • 2011
  • The cables in cable-stayed bridges are under high stress and are very sensitive to vibration due to their small section areas compared with other members. Therefore, it is reasonable to evaluate the cable impact factor by taking into account the dynamic effect due to moving-vehicle motion. In this study, the cable impact factors were evaluated via moving-vehicle-load analysis, considering the design parameters, i.e., vehicle weight, cable model, road surface roughness, vehicle speed, longitudinal distance between vehicles. For this purpose, two steel composite cable-stayed bridges with 230- and 540-m main spans were selected. The results of the analysis were then compared with those of the influence line method that is currently being used in design practice. The road surface roughness was randomly generated based on ISO 8608, and the convergence of impact factors according to the number of generated road surfaces was evaluated to improve the reliability of the results. A9-d.o.f. tractor-trailer vehicle was used, and the vehicle motion was derived from Lagrange's equation. 3D finite element models for the selected cable-stayed bridges were constructed with truss elements having equivalent moduli for the cables, and with beam elements for the girders and the pylons. The direct integration method was used for the analysis of the bridge-vehicle interaction, and the analysis was conducted iteratively until the displacement error rate of the bridge was within the specified tolerance. It was acknowledged that the influence line method, which cannot consider the dynamic effect due to moving-vehicle motion, could underestimate the impact factors of the end-cables at the side spans, unlike moving-vehicle-load analysis.