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A Study on the Location and Landscaping Characteristics of Yonghogugok of Jiri Mountain Illuminated by Old Literatures and Letters Carved on the Rocks (고문헌과 바위글씨로 조명한 지리산 용호구곡(龍湖九曲)의 입지 및 경관특성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kahng, Byung-Seon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.154-167
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    • 2014
  • The results of this study conducted to identify the substance, regional characteristics or landscaping of Namwon Yonghogugok, which is the only valley of Jiri Mountain, based on Kim Samun's 'Yonghokugok-Gyeongseungannae(龍湖九曲景勝案內)', 'Yongseongji(龍城誌)' and position, meaning of letters carved and projection technique by ArcGIS10.0 on the rocks are as below. The feature landscapes of the canyon of Yonghogugok, which is an incised meander and one of the Eight beautiful scenery of Namwon, ponds, cliffs and rocks generated with metamorphic rocks and granites weathered by rapids torrents. As a result of measuring the GPS coordinates of the letters carved on the rocks, excluding the 3 Gok Hakseoam and the distances based on the origin and destination of the letters carved on the rocks using the API(Application Programming Interface) function of Daum map, the total distance of Yonghogugok was 3.5km and the average distance between the each Gok was 436.5m. It is assumed that Yonghogugok was designated by Sarim(士林) of the Kiho School(畿湖學派) related to Wondong Hyangyak(元洞鄕約) which is the main agent of Yonghojeongsa(龍湖精舍), the forerunner of Yonghoseowon(龍湖書院), between the late Joseon Dynasty and the early Japanese colonial era, in 1927. Its grounds are the existence of Yonghoyeongdang mentioned on 'Yonghojeongsilgi'(龍湖亭實記), records of 'Haeunyugo(荷隱遺稿)', 'Yonghopumje(龍湖品題)' of Bulshindang(佛神堂), 'Yonghojeongsadonggu Gapjachun(龍湖精舍洞口 甲子春)' letters carved on the rocks and 'Yonghogugok-Shipyeong(龍湖九曲十詠)' posted on Mokgandang of Yonghoseowon. Comprehensively considering the numerous poetry society lists carved on the stone wall of Punghodae(風乎臺), the Sixth Gok Yuseondae, its stone mortar, 'Bangjangjeildongcheon(方丈第一洞天)' of Bulshindang and Gyoryongdam(交龍潭), the Yonghoseokmun(龍湖石門) letters carved on the rocks, Yeogungseok adjacent to the First Gok and Fengshui facilities, centered on Yonghoseowon and Yonghojeong, Yonghogugok can be understood as a unique valley culture formed with the thoughts of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and Fengshui. 'Yonghogugok-Gyeongseungannae' provides very useful information to understand the place name, called by locals and landscaping aspects of Yonghogugok in the late Joseon Dynasty. In addition, the meaning of "Nine dragons" and even though 12 chu(湫: pond) of Yonghogugok Yongchudong including Bulyeongchu, Guryongchu, Isuchu, Goieumchu and Daeyachu are mentioned on Yongseongji, a part of them cannot be confirmed now. Various place names and facilities relevant to Guryong adjacent to Yonghogugok are the core of the place identity. In addition, the accurate location identification and the delivery of the landscaping significance of the 12 ponds is expected to provide landscaping attractiveness of Yonghogugok and become very useful contents for landscaping storytelling and a keyword of storyboard.

Reconsideration on the Place Name of the Scenic Site No.1 「Myeongju Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang」 (명승 제1호 「명주 청학동 소금강」에 대한 지명 재고(再考))

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2014
  • As part of reconsideration on naming of the scenic site No.1 "Myeongju Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang," this study attempts to identify whether there is any mistake with reference to place naming of Korea's No.1 scenic site and if so, to correct the problem by examining the origin of the name and its transition progress through analysis and interpretation of old maps, ancient documents such as traditional geographic books, Yusangi(遊山記) and Letters Carved on the Rocks. The findings of this study are as follows: In traditional geographic books, a term of 'Mt. Cheonghak(靑鶴山)' was first found from "SinjungDonggookyeojisungram(新增東國輿地勝覽)" and after a place name, 'Sogumgang(小金剛)' first appeared in "Yeojidoseo(輿地圖書)" in the middle of the 17th century, it was reproduced in "Jungsuimyeongji(增修臨瀛誌)", which was published in the early 20th century. However, as a result of analyzing old maps, the place name, Sogumgang cannot be found in any local or national map except place names such as Cheonghak-dong, Mt. Cheonghak and Temple Cheonghak. Even though 'Biseonam,' 'Cheonyudong,' 'Gyeongdam' and 'Mt. Cheonghak' appear in Yulgok's "Yucheonghaksangi(遊靑鶴山記)", any part in which 'Sogumgang' was referred is not found. Later, Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang seemed to had been called 'Mt. Cheonghak' or 'Cheonghak-dong(靑鶴洞)' for more than three centuries as seen in Lee Sun-il's "Godamilgo(孤潭逸稿)", Heo Geun's farewell records, Heo Mok's "Cheonghak-dong Guryongyeongi(靑鶴洞九龍淵記)", Yoon Sun-geo(尹宣擧)'s "Padongilgi(巴東日記)" and Lee Won-jo's letters and a poem composed by Gang Jae-hang in the middle of the 18th century is the only record in which the place name, 'Sogumgang' is shown. Meanwhile, 'Sogumgang' carved on Inung Rock(二能巖) in front of Temple Gumgang is presumed to be carved by Inunggyeoone(二能契員) in the 1870s or in 1930s, considering the size of each character, calligraphy, overall layout, wear extent and records in Jiriji. Therefore, no evidence can be found to say that each character of 'Sogumgang' was written by Yulgok because 'Sogumgang' has strong evidences of the origin of its place name. To sum up the findings stated above, since Yulgok's "Yucheonghaksangi", this place seems to have been referred as 'Mt. Cheonghak Cheonghak-dong' and as it is confirmed that the place name, 'Sogumgang' first appeared in "Ohyeongosijo(五言古時調)" of "Ibjaeseonsangyugo(立齋先生遺稿)" and "Yeojidoseo" in the middle of the 18th century, it can be inferred that the place name, Sogumgang had been partly mingled as an another name of Mt. Cheonghak. Therefore, even though it is difficult to say the existing place name has a significant problem, it is thought that it will be better to name 'Mt. Cheonghak Cheonghak-dong' rather than 'Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang' in order to stress on this place's traditional identity as a scenic site related to Yulgok. In addition, as confirmed in this study process, it is said that each character of place names, 'Mt. Cheonghak' and 'Gyeongdam(鏡潭)' and name 'Yoon Sun-geo' carved in Rock Sikdang stated in Yoon Sun-geo's "Padongilgi" in 1964 is a pledge showing the influence of "Yucheonghaksangi" as an ancient travel literature as well as a mark of the Giho school scholars' respect and spirit to honor Yulgok.

The Evolution of Cyber Singer Viewed from the Coevolution of Man and Machine (인간과 기계의 공진화적 관점에서 바라본 사이버가수의 진화과정)

  • Kim, Dae-Woo
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.261-295
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    • 2015
  • Cyber singer appeared in the late 1990s has disappeared briefly appeared. although a few attempts in the 2000s, it did not show significant successes. cyber singer was born thanks to the technical development of the IT industry and the emergence of an idol training system in the music industry. It was developed by Vocaloid 'Seeyou' starting from 'Adam'. cyber singer that differenatiated typical digital characters in a cartoon or game may be subject to idolize to the music as a medium. They also feature forming a plurality of fandom. therefore, such attempts and repeated failures, this could be considered a fashion, but it flew content creation and ongoing attempts to take advantage of the new media, such as Vocaloid can see that there are expectations for a true Cyber-born singer. Early-Cyber singer is made only resemble human appearance, but 'Sciart' and 'Seeyou' has been evolving to becoming more like the human capabilities. in this paper, stylized cyber singer had disappeared in the past in the process of developing the technology to evolve into own artificial life does not end in failure cases, gradually led to a change in public perceptions of the image look looking machine was an attempt in that sense. With the direction of the evolution of the mechanical function to obtain a human, fun and human exchanges and mutual feelings. And it is equipped with an artificial life form that evolved with it only in appearance and function. in order to support this logic, I refer to the study of the coevolution of man and machine at every Bruce Mazlish. And, I have analyzed the evolution of cyber singer Bruce research from the perspective of the development process since the late 1990s, the planning of the eight singers who have appeared and design of the cyber character and important voices to be evaluated as a singer (vocal). The machine has been evolving coevolution with humans. cyber singer ambivalent development targets are recognized, but strive to become the new artificial creatures of horror idea of human desire and death continues. therefore, the new Cyber-organisms are likely to be the same style as 'Seeyou'. because, cartoon forms and whirring voice may not be in the form of a signifier is the real human desires, but this is because the contemporary public's desire to be desired and the technical development of this type can be created at the point where the cross-signifier.

Analyses on Sound Effects for Soundscape Design of Healing Garden at Psychiatric Hospitals - Focused Psychological and Physiological Effects - (정신병원 치유정원의 음경관 디자인을 위한 소리효과 분석 - 심리적 및 생리적 효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Ahn, Deug-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.82-95
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    • 2015
  • This study is intended to obtain a guideline for creating a therapeutic garden soundscape in a psychiatric hospital by analyzing the psychological and physiological effects of auditory components on mental patients. The subjects were 27 inpatients at a psychiatric institute located in Jeollabuk-do. They were recommended by their doctors and had been diagnosed with mild cases of schizophrenia. The survey was carried out in October 2011. With regard to the study, the subjects listened to single sounds(the sound of flowing water, birdsong, wind chimes and music) and 4 sounds composed of some of these, and then Electroencephalography(EEG) and psychological effects were measured. The moving water sound was perceived as pleasing and revitalizing and the birdsong as sonorous and delightful. When designing a healing garden in a psychiatric hospital, the vitality of sound should be considered. In comparison to other single sounds, water sounds were highly preferred and had greater effects on psychological vitality. Music sounds had a significant effect on enhancing tranquility while water sounds affected on both psychological vitality and tranquillity. When comparing single sounds with combined sounds, single sounds such as running water for vitality and music for tranquility had a greater psychological effect than combined sounds. In terms of combined sound preferences, the combination of water and bird sounds had higher preference rates. Generally, combined sounds including water tended to have higher preference rates. The physiological effects of single sounds showed that music had a greater therapeutic effect than natural sounds such as water sounds and birdsong in promoting tranquility. As for combined sounds adopted to enhance physiological tranquility, it is most appropriate to combine music and birdsong or music and water sounds. However, a single music sound is more effective than combined sounds. Overall, analyses of both psychological and physiological reactions showed music and water sounds to be most calming while water sounds promoted the greatest vitality.

The treatment of an edentulous patient with DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM Denture (CAD/CAM Denture를 이용한 완전 무치악 환자 수복 증례)

  • Park, Joon-Ho;Cho, In-Ho;Shin, Soo-Yeon;Choi, Yu-Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2015
  • Nowadays, CAD/CAM is broadly used in dentistry for inlays, crowns, implant abutments and its spectrum is expanding to complete dentures. Utilizing CAD/CAM to fabricate complete dentures is expected to decrease chair time and the number of visits, thus decreasing total fabrication time, expenses and errors caused during fabrication processes. One of the systems using CAD/CAM, DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM denture (DENTCA Inc. Los Angeles, USA) scans edentulous impressions, designs dentures digitally, fabricates try-in dentures by 3D printing and converts them into final dentures. Patients can wear final dentures after only 2 - 3 visits with satisfying adaptation. This case report introduces a 71-year-old male patient who visited to consult remaking of existing old dentures. Residual teeth with bad prognosis and root remnants were extracted and the patient used reformed existing mandibular denture for 2 months. And then DENTCA system started. One-step border molding was done using conventional tray of adequate size provided by DENTCA system and wash impression was taken. Gothic arch tracing was completed based on the vertical dimension of existing dentures. Both maxillary and mandibular trays were placed to the resultant centric relation and bite registration was taken. Then DENTCA scanned the bite registration, arranged the teeth, completed the festooning and fabricated the try-in dentures by 3D printing. The try-in dentures were positioned, occlusal plane and occlusal relations were evaluated. The try-in dentures were converted to final dentures. To create bilateral balanced occlusion, occlusal adjustment was done after clinical remounting using facebow transfer. The result was satisfactory and it was confirmed by patient and operator.

IPA Study of Landscape Potentiality of Agricultural and Fishery Heritages - A Focus on Cheongsando - (농어업유산의 경관 잠재력 파악을 위한 IPA 연구 - 청산도를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Dong-Chan;Choi, Woo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.76-88
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to derive landscape characteristic elements of agricultural and fishery heritage and to classify landscape characteristic elements of Cheongsando designated as Korean agricultural and fishery heritage No.1 as well as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS). Additionally, this study was conducted to suggest priority for conservation and management of Cheongsando by grasping differences between factors which visitors deem as important and satisfying. To implement this study, the literature review was written, an on-site survey to derive landscape characteristic elements of Cheongsando and a survey on importance and satisfaction of landscape characteristic elements of Cheongsando were conducted, and reliability analysis, descriptive statistical analysis and IPA analysis were performed using SPSS 20.0. The results are as follows: The analysis showed the factors requiring persistent efforts in the first quadrant are the rape flower garden, the sea, green barley field, flat stone paddy field, breakwater and lighthouse, abalone farms, stone houses, thatched houses, a coastal road, the slow road, Stonewall Walkway of Seongseo Village, and residents' agricultural behaviors. The analysis showed the factors needing intensive management strategies in the second quadrant are the surrounding mountain area, dock, Docheong Harbor, vessels, fish market, Doksari stone wall, garish-roofed farm villages, excursion school to a slow island, pension and cafe, bus stop, shade trees, Raw Fish Street, the beach and the filming site. Analysis indicated that the factors needing management control in the third quadrant are the pine grove, the beach, tidal mudflat, the garlic fields, vinyl greenhouses, grain drying yard, sea mustard drying yard, heritage center, Choboon, Dangri exorcism, the market place, residents' fishery behaviors, residents' industrial behaviors, residents' ordinary behaviors, visitors' behaviors that visiting the dock, visitors' behaviors that walking the slow road, visitors' behaviors that eating and shopping for specialties, visitors' behaviors that experiencing agriculture and fishery. Excessive effort factors in the fourth quadrant were not derived.

The Implication and Recognition of International Garden Exposition Suncheon Bay Korea 2013 on Blogs (블로그(Blog)를 통해 본 2013순천만국제정원박람회에 대한 인식)

  • Jang, Min-Ji;Choi, Jung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.60-75
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to look for useful implications in its next application or similar planning by assessing visitors' recognition of International Garden Exposition Suncheon Bay Korea 2013. To do this, blogs acknowledged as powerful communication media in modern information society were used. After searching for blogs related to International Garden Exposition Suncheon Bay Korea in the portal site ranked first in the domestic market share, this study classified 300 cases. This study was able to grasp the consciousness as bloggers gave descriptions of information and impressions and experiences of spaces without making any adjustments. The survey results are as follows: First, Dutch gardens were the most preferred, followed by Korean gardens, Chinese gardens and French gardens; in general, visitors were not satisfied with the national gardens. Inquiry is needed into the method of determining diverse cultural identity rather than a sample garden type through blogs delivering regret regarding the world gardens. Second, the survey results showed that the level of awareness of designers' gardens was low. This study judges that more emphasis should be placed on their roles as places speaking for the original purpose of the garden exposition which introduces gardening art and design through experimental design. Third, it was understood that many bloggers were deeply impressed by ephemeral landscapes like the change in landscape consequent on the elapse of time, distinctive atmosphere, and detailed-landscapes. These aspects are important landscape elements, and those elements should be addressed with weight in a subsequent study. Fourth, the most impressive places are 'Suncheon Lake Garden' and 'Bridge of Dreams', which are establishing themselves as icons of International Garden Exposition Suncheon Bay Korea 2013. However, relatively, public attitude towards the world gardens and designers' gardens are weak. Fifth, bloggers were providing a variety of information like transportation, events schedules, ticket purchasing & prices, discount information, etc. Ticket price was commented on the most, and most of the bloggers thought ticket prices were 'expensive'. This study understands such a phenomenon as a result of the general population's non-establishment of the perception that it's proper to view gardens at visitors' own expense. Generally, bloggers expressed satisfaction with International Garden Exposition Suncheon Bay Korea 2013, but with criticism as well. Their criticism included disappointing matters, to be improved upon and wishes without any distortion, providing meaningful implications deserving reference for similar cases. In this context, a blogger could be called a citizen-reviewer while a blog could be referred to as 'a field of informal discourse' for the public. As a research method of this study, blogs are difficult to interpret as they are subjective and personal, and have limited data analysis through their quantifications; however, blogs as methods of recognition survey are channels for varied, concrete and detailed awareness which are hard to grasp through a questionnaire survey or interviews. This study judges that such an aspect of a blog could be a useful means of grasping and reflecting upon visitors' attitude in future studies.

A Study on Expressing 3D Animation by Visual Direction : focused on 〈 How to train your dragon 〉 (시각적 연출에 의한 3D 입체 애니메이션 표현 연구: 〈드래곤 길들이기〉를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jung-Hyun
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.1-30
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of animation is to give interesting stories to an audience through motion. To achieve the purpose, over the past century since its inception, animation has adopted many kinds of technologies, and thus developed diverse narrative methods and visual expression techniques. In addition, with the advancement of expression techniques, all elements making up animation have gradually been systemized, and at the same time, have helped express the worlds beyond the reality. As a result, people have faced the era when an audience can watch everything imaginated by an animation director on a big screen. These days, more efforts have been made in order for the audience to feel much more than enjoy pictures moving in a frame. In other words, the purpose of the animation is changing from the passive viewing of animation to feeling and sensing stuffs through the animation. In the center of the changing process is 3D technology which gives new interesting to an audience. Sometime ago, a 3D animation movie was produced in Korea. But it did not bring out box-office profits, for it failed to give satisfaction to an audience who expected high perfection and beauty being able to be rivalled to those of international 3D animation movies. The failure is attributable to the fact that the domestic 3D animation production industry is merely in the early stage, and has not sufficient human resources, technology, and experiences in producing 3D animation films. Moreover, the problem is that most studies on 3D focus on the technologies related to reenactment, but that few studies on the images, which an audience directly faces, have been conducted. Under the domestic circumstance, the study on stereoscopic image screen of , a 3D stereoscopic animation film which was released in 2010 and has been seen as the best successful 3D stereoscopic animation, is worthwhile. Thus this thesis conducted theoretical consideration and case analysis focusing on the visual direction that creates the pictures to deliver abundant three dimensional effect so that it can be used as a basic data when producing high quality-domestic 3D animation and training professional labor forces. In the result, it was found that the 3D animation was not a new area, but the area which has been expanded and changed by applying the characteristics of 3D image based on the principles of the existing media aesthetics. This study might be helpful to establish the foundation of the theoretical studies necessary for producing 3D animation contents for realizing the sense of reality.

Media Work as Creative Labor?: Toward Critical Inquiry of Media Work with Critical Cultural Economy (창의적 일로서의 미디어 노동?: 미디어 노동의 문화경제 분석을 위한 시론)

  • Seo, Dong-Jin
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.57
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    • pp.33-48
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    • 2012
  • Over the last decades, the issue of work or labor has played a critical role in prevailing discourses to represent the changed economic reality. Aesthetic labor, cultural work, network labor, team-work and alike, have played a dazzling role to represent the emerging economic order, employing the word of labor. Certainly, it is not less than a part of a wide range of shifts in order to make capital work with more effect by making up a workable and governable subject. In this article, I try to examine shifts around the media work which has contributed to expand the new discourse of 'labor.' I will say that it is quite crucial for accounting for the reality of media work to shed light on moves to represent media work, and, among others, one to transform the subjectivity involved in it among others. Furthermore, it would be necessary to take a close look at the subjectivity of media work and its modification to deal with and eliminate the precariousness of media work. Saying about media work without paying any attention to heterogenous and various practices to compose a media work, one is forced to regard media work as the matter of economic and legal interests. In addition, it would bring about that the cultural political concerns of media work will be detached from critical sight of the media cultural studies. Referring to major studies around media work in critical media studies, cultural studies and political economy of communication, this article will briefly look into the arrangement of contentions around subjectivity of media work in South Korea. And it will try to suggest what cultural-political strategy we need to investigate, fighting against the hegemonic power to generate and regulate media work and its workers in precarious conditions. It does not intend to search the media work and its complicated realities in detail in South Korea. I wish that it would make a preliminary step to propose and elaborate the critical analysis of media work and its form of subjectivities.

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An analysis of examination items for secondary Home Economics teaching certification - Focusing on evaluation content elements of Home Economics - (중등 "가정" 교사 임용시험 문항 분석 - 평가 영역별 평가 내용 요소를 기준으로 -)

  • Jung, Sang-Hee;Park, Mi-Jeong;Chae, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.135-154
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the trends of HE exam questions through analyzing the examination items for secondary Home Economics(HE) teaching certification from 2002 to 2011. The results of the study were as follows: First, regarding the analysis on pedagogy of HE course, it accounted for 30.9% of the total questions, and recently, it increased to 35%. Regarding the ratio of questions by each evaluation element, 'practice of teaching and learning methods for HE course'(33.2%) had the highest ratio, and 'essence of the education of HE'(3.2%) had the lowest ratio. Second, regarding the analysis on eating habits, it amounted to 17.5% of the total questions, and recently reached 15%. With regard to the ratio of each evaluation element, 'cooking theory and practice'(26.1%) had the highest ratio, and 'culture of eating habits'(3.7%) had the lowest ratio. Third, regarding the analysis on clothing habits, it accounted 15% of the total questions, and recently reached 12.5%. With regard to the ratio of each evaluation element, 'clothing management'(25.1%) and 'production of clothing and living necessaries'(25.1%) had the highest ratio, and 'selection of clothing and self-expression'(3.0%) had the lowest ratio. Fourth, regarding the analysis on housing life, it accounted for 11% of the total questions, and recently reaches 12.5%. With regard to each evaluation element, 'the understanding of housing life culture'(22.5%) had the highest ratio, and 'the understanding of housing interior design'(10.7%) had the lowest ratio. Fifth, regarding the analysis on daily life as a consumer, it accounted for 12.4%, and recently reaches 12.5%. With regard to the ratio of each evaluation element 'management of domestic resources'(34%) had the highest ratio, and 'planning of entire life and domestic welfare'(0%) had the zero ratio. Sixth, regarding the analysis on family life, it accounted for 13.3% of the total questions, and recently reaches 12.5%. With regard to the ratio of each evaluation element, 'the understanding of family and the changes in family'(23.8%) had the highest ratio, and 'marriage and the development of family'(2%) had the lowest ratio.

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