• Title, Summary, Keyword: 마늘

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Physicochemical Characteristics of Red Garlic During Processing (홍마늘의 숙성 단계별 이화학적 특성)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Yoon, Hwan-Sik;Jeong, Seong-Hun;Sung, Nak-Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.898-906
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    • 2011
  • Physicochemical and physiological characteristics of red garlic were investigated in each of the four steps of its processing, and were compared with those of fresh and black garlic. With the progress in processing, the lightness value of the external and internal colors of the red garlic significantly decreased. The hardness was highest in the fresh garlic and lowest in the black garlic. During processing, the red garlic tended to become hard. The crudeprotein and ash contents were highest in the red garlic (step 4), but its moisture content was the lowest. The crudelipid content of the red garlic was lower than that of the fresh garlic. The pH of the red garlic showed little difference from that of the fresh garlic, but the black garlic was significantly, acidified. The acidity and pH contradicted each other : the black garlic had the highest acidity, and the acidity of the red garlic was within the low range. The fresh garlic had the lowest in reducing-sugar content, but such content was significantly increased in the red garlic and black garlic. Six kinds of organic acid were detected in the fresh garlic, and the same contents were also quantified in the red garlic until third step. In step 4, malic acid was not detected in the red garlic. Acetic and citric acid were only in the black garlic. S-allyl cysteine content of the red garlic was $18.05{\pm}0.53$ mg/100 g, similar to that of the black garlic ($19.43{\pm}0.50$ mg/100 g).

Study on mechanization of garlic cultivation (마늘재배 일관기계화 실용화 연구)

  • 이채식;정성근;조남홍;이영희;최덕규
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2002
  • 가. 작업별 시험결과 1) 마늘쪽 분리·선별작업 o 마늘쪽 분리기는 통마늘을 1 또는 2∼3쪽으로 분리하여 1차 선별하고, 마늘쪽 선별기는 분리된 마늘을 3단계로 선별되며 작업성능은 시간당 60접 이상을 분리 및 선별할 수 있다. o 개발된 마늘쪽 분리기와 선별기는 소형 경량이며 취급조작이 편리한 기종하고 작업성능이 높고 손상률이 적어 '01년도에 60대가 농가 보급되었으며 '02년도에는 확대 보급될 전망이다. 2) 파종작업 o 작업성능은 경운기용 파종기 2시간/10a, 승용관리기용 직립파종기는 1시간/10a으로 능률적이었으며 작업정도와 생육상태가 양호하였다. o 지역별 파종작업 체계 -난지형 마늘 파종은 직립파종을 하며 제주, 남해 등은 마늘을 파종한 후 10-11월 줄기가 자랐을 때 무공비닐을 피복하고 줄기를 유인하며, 무안은 유공비닐을 피복하고 구멍에 마늘의 1/2 또는 2/3만 묻히도록 파종하며 별도의 줄기유인 작업은 하지 않는다. 의성지역의 한지형 마늘은 트랙터로 쇄토정지후 보행관리기로 골을 내고 인력으로 마늘을 놓으면 관리기가 다음 골을 내면서 복토하는 체계이다. 3) 마늘 수확작업 -마늘 수확기는 난지형 마늘 수확에는 효과가 적으나, 한지형과 같이 깊게 파종하여 인력으로 뽑기 어려운 재배지역에서는 필요한 기종이며, 토양수분이 많으면 굴취된 마늘과 혼이 진동판에 걸려 작업상태가 불량하므로 마늘과 흙의 이송이 원활토록 진동판 형상 및 적정 진폭 구명이 요구됨 4) 마늘줄기 절단작업 -난지형 마늘은 포장에서 건조후 단기간(1-2주)내에 줄기절단을 해야하므로 기계환가 시급하나 한지형 마늘은 아직도 대부분 줄기를 자르지 않고 묶어서 판매하고 있어 기계화의 시급도는 떨어짐 5) 마늘 선별작업 -마늘선별기는 작업성능이 높고 5등급으로 균일 선별되었으며 손상도 없었으나, 기계가 크고 무거워 이동이 곤란하고 가격이 비싸므로 선별등급을 3∼4단계로 줄이고 소형 농가보급형으로 개량제작이 요구됨. 나. 마늘재배 일관기계화에 의한 노동투하시간과 비용 -종자준비부터 통마늘선별까지의 일관기계화로 투입된 주요작업의 노력은 75∼76%가 절감되고, 재배규모 3ha기준시 비용은 44-53%절감되었음.

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Antioxidant Activities of Domestic Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Stems and Garlic Bulbs according to Cooking Methods (조리법에 따른 국내산 마늘종과 마늘의 항산화 효능)

  • Chung, Ji-Young;Kim, Chang-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 2009
  • Antioxidant compounds and activities of raw and cooked (blanching, pan-frying, soy sauce pickle, Kochugang pickle) domestic garlic stems were investigated. The contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid, vitamin C, phenolic compounds and allicin in raw and cooked garlic stems were measured. Various cooking process increased significantly chlorophyll and $\beta$-carotene contents of garlic stem, but decreased vitamin C, phenolic compounds and allicin contents (p<0.05). Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from raw and cooked garlic stem such as electronic donating ability (EDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and nitrite scavenging ability (NSA) were compared. The antioxidant activities were found to have lowered in the order of raw> pan-frying> blanching> garlic stem soy sauce pickle> garlic stem Kochujang pickle. Antioxidant activities of cooked garlic stems were more than 65% of cooked garlic bulbs.

Analyses of Pungency-Related Factors of Field and Rice Paddy Garlic (마늘과 논마늘의 주요 매운맛 관련 인자의 분석)

  • Oh, Hye-Lim;Kim, Na-Yeon;Sohn, Chan-Wok;Ryu, Bo-Ram;Yoon, Jun-Hwa;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.655-660
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate pungency-related factors of field garlic (FG) and rice paddy garlic (RG) from Youncheon province. Allicin, alliin, and S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) contents were analyzed by HPLC. In addition, activities of alliinase, GTPase (${\gamma}$-glutamyltranspeptidase), and pyruvate content of garlic were measured. The moisture content of RG (65.86%) was higher than that of FG (63.34%). However, crude lipid, crude protein, crude ash, and carbohydrate contents of RG were lower than those of FG. The alliin contents of FG and RG were 8.97 and 8.22 mg/g, respectively. The allicin content of FG (2.83 mg/g) was higher than that of RG (2.22 mg/g). Further, SAC content of FG (1.74 mg/g) was higher than that of RG (0.104 mg/g). Alliinase activities of FG and RG were similar, whereas the GTPase activity of FG was higher than that of RG. These results show that the stronger pungency of FG is due to the higher amount of alliin and SAC as well as the higher activity of GTPase compared to RG.

Antioxidants Activity of Aged Red Garlic (숙성 홍마늘의 생리활성)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Jung, Woo-Jae;Ryu, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Ra-Jeong;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.775-781
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    • 2010
  • The antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from fresh, red and black garlic processed in low temperatures were compared. The chromaticity value of browning garlic was between that of fresh and black garlic. Red garlic was similar in browning intensity to fresh garlic. Also, total phenol, flavonoids, total pyruvate and thiosulfate contents were similar between fresh and black garlic. DPPH, ABTs, NO radical scavenging activity and reducing power of red garlic were significantly higher than fresh garlic, but lower than those of black garlic. $\alpha$-Glucosidase inhibitory activity in red garlic was similar to that in black garlic. Antioxidant activities of red garlic were higher than fresh garlic but lower than black garlic, and it was confirmed that antioxidant activity by production of browning material through the thermal process was the main parameter of the biological activity in the aged red garlic.

Volatile Flavor Compounds of Freeze Dried Garlic and Garlic Roasted with Oils (건조마늘과 기름에 볶은 마늘의 향기성분)

  • Seo, Hye-Min;Joo, Kwang-Jee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.332-341
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of flavor compounds of freeze-dried garlic and garlic roasted with soybean oil and sesame oil. Freeze-dried garlic and ground raw garlic roasted with oils was prepared at $180^{\circ}C$ for 5 minutes. Volatile compounds of garlic samples were obtained by Likens-Nickerson distillation/solvent extraction and identified by GC and GC/MS. Sulfur compounds, methyl allyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, diallyl disulfide, methyl allyl trisulfide and diallyl trisulfide were the major volatile in garlic flavor which was more than 98% of the total volatile compounds. The total amount of sulfur compounds in freeze-dried garlic roasted with soybean oil was decreased to 20% compare to that of garlic flavor; however, 10 pyrazines such as 2-methyl pyrazine, 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazin and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine which were not originated from both freeze-dried garlic and soybean oil were identified. They might be generated from thermal interactions of sugars and nonvolatile flavor precursors of garlic. In freeze-dried garlic roasted with sesame oil, the amount of diallyl sulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide increased whereas diallyl disulfide completely disappeared. The amount of two cyclic compounds 3,4-dihydro-3-vinyl-1,2-dithiin and 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, which were artifacts from allicin, increased in roasted garlic with sesame oil.

Analysis of Active Components of Giant Black Garlic (자이언트흑마늘의 유효성분 분석)

  • Kim, Dam;Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Yook, Hong-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1672-1681
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    • 2015
  • Garlic has been consumed for a long time as a food in Korea. Among commercial garlic products, aged black garlic is known to contain bioactive ingredients. Giant garlic is large garlic with a mild and sweet flavor. However, there have been few studies on the bioactive effects of giant garlic. This study analyzed valid substances of giant black garlic (GBG), giant fresh garlic (GFG), normal black garlic (NBG), and normal fresh garlic (NFG). Moisture content of GBG decreased in comparison with that of GFG. Ash, crude protein, crude lipid, total pyruvate, S-allylcysteine, and S-allylmercaptocysteine contents were the highest in GBG. The pH values of GBG, GFG, NBG, and NFG were 3.77, 5.97, 3.94, and 6.10, respectively. Acidity of GBG was higher than that of GFG. Total sugar content of GBG increased while reducing sugar content was the same as that of GFG. Composition of amino acids except for histidine, lysine, and arginine in GBG was higher than that of GFG, and free amino acids excluding arginine, cysteine, lysine, phosphoethanolamine, and urea were higher than those of GFG. In minerals, Cu, Fe, and Mg contents were higher than those of GFG.

Development of screw attached corn drum type garlic separator (나선부착 원추 드럼식 마늘쪽 분리기 개발)

  • 이영희;조남홍;박종률;최승묵;조광환;김재규
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2002
  • 농가보급형 마늘쪽 분리기 개발을 위하여 마늘의 품종별 기하학적 특성을 분석하고, 나선 부착 원추 드럼식 마늘쪽 분리기를 제작하여 성능시험 및 농가 현장시험한 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1)종구용 통마늘의 크기를 조사한 결과 직경은 의성, 무안, 자봉이 각각 44.3, 51.9, 60.2mm로 나타났다. 2)통마늘의 최대 압축력 및 마늘쪽의 생물체항복 강도를 시험한 결과 수평방향 최대 압축력은 의성, 무안, 자봉마늘이 각각 185.1, 145.8, 148.5N이고, 마늘쪽의 생물체 항복강도는 의성, 무안, 자봉마늘이 각각 272.4, 336.2, 413.2N/$cm^2$로 통마늘은 의성종이 단단 하나 마늘쪽은 무안이나 자봉마늘에 비해 단단하지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 3)나선부착 원추 드럼 및 경사원통식 마늘쪽 분리장치를 제작하여 성능시험한 결과 1쪽 분리율이 의성, 무안, 자봉마늘에서 각각 58.2, 64.7, 95.2%이고, 손상율은 각각 2.0, 2.4, 1.9%이었으며 작업능률은 시간당 210kg(약 60접)이었다. 4)시작기를 전남무안의 재배농가에서 현장 시험한 결과 1쪽분리율은 75.9%, 손상율은 0.8%, 파종 후 출현율이 94.3%로 농가적응성 및 실용성이 높은 것으로 판단되었다.

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Biological Activity of Browning Compounds from Processed Garlics Separated by Dialysis Membrane (투석막으로 분리한 가공마늘 갈변물질의 생리활성)

  • Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, Ra-Jeong;Ryu, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Mi-Ju;Lee, Soo-Jung;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.357-365
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to compare biological activity of browning compounds from fresh, red and black garlic. Water soluble browning compounds were separated from fresh, red and black garlic by dialysis membrane. Antioxidation and other biological activities of freeze dried inner and outer parts from garlics were compared. pH of fresh and red garlic dialysis solutions were higher in inner part of membrane, but black garlic dialysis solution showed reverse tendency. Browning intensities of all tested samples were higher in outer part of dialysis solutions. In inner part dialysis solutions, contents of total phenol compounds were the lowest in red garlic while their contents were the highest in black garlic and thereafter, were the highest in inner part of dialysis solution made from red garlic. Flavonoids content was the highest in inner part of red garlic dialysis solution. Total pyruvate content was higher in outer part of fresh and red garlic dialysis solution which showed the opposite results in black garlic. Total thiosulfate content was the highest in black garlic, red garlic and fresh garlic in order. Antioxidant activities have some similarities among garlic products. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in inner part of fresh and black garlic and outer part of red garlic. Tyrosinase inhibition activity was higher in browning compounds of red garlic than fresh and black garlic. $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibition activity of tested samples were higher in inner part of dialysis solution than outer part, and showed higher activity in red garlic than fresh garlic at low sample concentrations.

Development of a Lifting Type Garlic Harvester(1) - Design Concept and Analysis of Design Factors - (인발식 마늘수확기 개발(1) - 개념설계 및 설계인자 분석 -)

  • 장영창;노광모;박준걸
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 1999
  • 현재까지 마늘 생산의 생력기계화 작업체계는 확립되어 있지 않으며, 특히 마늘의 수확은 많은 노동력을 필요로 하여 마늘 생산비에 수확비용이 차지하는 비중은 매우 높다. 따라서 마늘 수확의 생력화를 위해 마늘수확기 개발이 시급한 실정이다. 마늘수확기의 개발을 위해 분석, 구명되어야 할 중요한 인자는 수확기의 소모동력, 작업성능, 메커니즘의 간결성과 편리성, 수확효율 및 수확후 처리 등에 관계되는 모든 인자들이 포함된다. 나아가 마늘수확기에 고려되어야 할 주요 작동부는 동력발생부, 동력전달부, 마늘수확부 및 이송부, 마늘 수확을 위한 전처리부 및 후처리부, 마늘수확기 운행에 필요한 운전부 등으로 나눌 수 있다. (중략)

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