• Title, Summary, Keyword: 마찰력

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Surface Friction Learning for Virtual Objects Using Neural Networks (신경회로망을 이용한 가상물체의 표면 마찰력 학습)

  • Kang, Ji-Min;Jang, Tae-Jeong
    • 한국HCI학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.753-759
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    • 2006
  • 햅틱인터페이스 기술을 이용하면 가상물체의 형태를 만져보고 느껴볼 수 있다. 물체마다 다른 수학적 마찰력 모델을 적용하여 실감있는 마찰력 표현도 가능하다. 그러나 각 물체에 해당하는 마찰력 모델을 선정하는 것과 적절한 마찰계수 등을 반복적 실험을 통하여 알아내는 것은 쉽지 않다. 실제 물체의 마찰력이 알려진 마찰력 모델과 다르다면 수학적 모델로 표현할 수 없는 경우도 있다. 본 논문에서는 신경회로망 학습을 이용하여 마찰력 모델의 선택이나 마찰계수 등을 정하는 과정 없이 실제 물체의 마찰력을 표현하는 방법을 제시하고 있다. 상용 햅틱인터페이스 장치인 PHANToM 2 대를 이용하여 마찰력 획득 시스템을 구성하고 고무판, 종이 등의 물체 표면에서의 속도와 물체에 작용하는 힘을 획득하여 가공한 데이터를 입력 및 출력으로 갖는 신경회로망을 통해 학습시킨 후 OpenGL로 구현한 가상물체에 적용하여 보았다. Force/Torque 센서를 사용하지 못한 일부 문제가 있었으나 예상보다 사실적인 마찰력을 표현할 수 있었다.

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A Study on the Friction Compensation of a Mobile Cart Pendulum System (이동식 수레형 도립진자의 마찰력 보상에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Mun-Che;Nakashima, Toshitaka;Hong, Suk-Kyo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2278-2280
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    • 2004
  • 이 논문은 이동식 수레형 도립진자 제어에 있어서 비선형적인 특성을 발생시키는 원인중의 하나인 마찰력을 보상하는 방법에 대하여 고찰한다. 여기에 사용된 방법은 모터에 전압을 인가하였을 때의 이동식 수레형 도립진자의 위치와 속도에 대한 데이터를 가지고, 가우시안 반복을 적용한 비선형 최소 자승법을 이용하여 마찰력을 추정하고, 모델링을 하여, 모델링 된 파라미터를 이용하여 비선형적인 특성을 최소화하는 것이다. 이 논문의 주된 결과는 수학적으로 모델링 한 마찰력이 실제의 마찰력과 유사하며, 이 마찰력을 보상함으로서, 이동식 수레형 도립진자의 제어 성능이 향상되었음을 보여준다. 따라서 이 결과는 기존의 마찰력을 무시하고, 이동식 수레형 도립진자를 제어하였을 때보다 마찰력을 보상하였을 때가 더욱 안정된 시스템이 됨을 실험적으로 확인한다.

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An Adaptive Compensator for Robot Manipulator with Unknown Frictions (미지의 마찰력을 갖는 로봇 매니퓰레이터에 대한 적응보상기)

  • Yoo, Byung-Kook;Han, Jong-Kil;Yang, Keun-Ho
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents an adaptive compensator using the fuzzy systems for robot manipulator with unknown frictions. In general, frictions are neglected or dynamic frictions are only considered in robot control theories. The proposed control method considers viscous frictions as well as dynamic frictions. Using the property that the frictions of joints are decoupled, SISO-fuzzy systems are utilized to approximate each friction. The stability of overall control system is proven and the adaptive laws are derived based on Lyapunov stability theorey. To verify the validity of the proposed control strategy, the results of computer simulations are shown for 2-link robot manipulator. The ability of approximating of the fuzzy system is also shown.

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Evaluation of frictional forces between orthodontic brackets and archwires (교정용 브라켓과 교정선 사이의 마찰력)

  • Jeong, Tae-Jong;Choie, Mok-Kyun
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.613-623
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to amount of the frictional forces with the brackets and wires, ligation methods, dry/wet, offsets, interbracket distances, velocity and to compare them each other by different conditions. This study tested 0.018'x0.025' slot sized 8 types of orthodontic bracket systems and 0.016', 0.016'x0.022' sized stainless steel, NiTi, Cu-NiTi orthodontic wires. One cuspid bracket were positioned on the slide glass and archwire was engaged into bracket and ligated with elastomeric modules. The values of frictional forces were measured with the instron universal testing machine. The results were as follows; 1. Polycrystalline ceramic bracket had the highest mean frictional forces and followed and by ceramic reinforced plastic bracket, metal bracket, plastic bracket with metal slot, monocrystalline ceramic bracket, single bracket, self-ligating bracket, friction free bracket in descending order. The self-ligating bracket showed low frictional forces in the round wires and high frictional forces in the rectangular wires. 2. Stainless steel wires had the least frictional forces and followed by NiTi, Cu-NiTi wires in descending order. Round wires had lower frictional forces then that of rectangular wires. 3. The stainless steel ligation method had significantly greater mean frictional forces them the elastomeric module ligation method. 4. Artificial saliva statistically increased the frictional forces in stainless steel wire, NiTi wire and Cu-NiTi wire. 5. There was a statistically significant difference with offset change 6. There was no statistically significant difference with interbracket distance in stainless steel wires but a significant difference in NiTi wires as the interbracket was decreased. 7 There was no statistically significant difference with velocity change. From the above findings, self-ligating bracket, stainless steel wires and the elastomeric module ligation method might be effective than any other materials to reduce the frictional forces in the orthodontic treatment and can be correlated to clinical situations seen in orthodontic patient care.

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Characteristics of Science High School Students' Understanding about friction acting on a rolling object (구르는 물체에 작용하는 마찰력에 대한 과학 영재학교 학생들의 이해의 특징)

  • Ha, Sangwoo
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.120-131
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of science gifted students' understanding of friction acting on a rolling object, and to examine the implications of teaching methods that can be derived from them. For this purpose, 48 students in grade 3 students who take advanced physics classes at the science high school for the gifted were asked to answer three questions about the friction problems. As a result, students' responses were divided into three types: rule, none-rule, and calculation. In addition, students of the rule type have difficulty in reasoning about the friction by using friction rules. We believe that students will be able to reach a deeper understanding of friction if we teach them to correctly infer the direction of friction without using friction rules, along with a strategy to emphasize relative motion in contact.

Development of Measurement System for Friction Coefficient between fabric surface and fingertip (직물표면과 손끝사이의 마찰계수 측정기술개발)

  • 권영하;권현준;박경희
    • Proceedings of the Korean Fiber Society Conference
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    • pp.404-406
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    • 2003
  • 직물의 촉각은 인간의 피부와 직물사이의 마찰력, 온도, 진동 등의 물리적, 역학적인 현상에 의해서 느끼게 된다. 그 중에서 마찰력은 질감을 결정하게 하는 가장 중요한 요소이다. 지금까지의 연구는 직물과 금속 등의 다른 물질 또는 직물과 직물사이에서 나타나는 마찰력을 측정하였으나, 본연구에서는 직접 손끝으로 문지를 때 나타나는 마찰력을 실시간으로 측정할 수 있도록 다축 로드셀등을 이용한 측정장치를 개발하였다. (중략)

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On the Critical Relative Displacement between Pile Shaft and Surrounding Soil (말뚝주변 마찰력과 한계상대변위)

  • Kim, Myoung Mo;Shin, Eun Chul;Ko, Hon Yim
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 1989
  • Model pile pull-out tests have been executed to investigate the characteristics of the critical relative displacement at which the critical pile skin resistance is mobilized. Test result shows that the critical relative displacement is neither constant nor pile size dependent, but it is the most closely related with the magnitude of the critical skin resistance. The empirical relationship between the two quantities has been established. Behavior of centrifuge physical models of skin-resistance-related problems has been investigated on a quantitative basis by a computational method. A pile downdrag problem has been employed as an example of the skin-resistance-related problems. A simple transfer function type method has been developed for the analysis of the downdrag. It is concluded from the analysis that centrifuge physical modeling of skin-resistance-related problems may lead to an erroneous result on an unconservative side, as may have been expected due to the violation of the similarity rule by the quantity of the critical relative displacement.

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Evaluation of Skin Friction to Large Size Pneumatic Caissons (대형 뉴매틱케이슨의 주면마찰력 산정)

  • 홍원표;여규권;김태형
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.15-27
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    • 2004
  • In this study, skin friction evaluation methods developed f3r deep foundation system were investigated and a method that can properly evaluate the skin friction of large size pneumatic caisson was proposed. Especially, based on Hong Won-Pyo's method, new technique (Kn parameter method) was suggested for estimation of the skin friction. The $\lambda$ method used widely to pile foundation was also investigated fur the applicability of estimation of the skin friction of large size pneumatic caisson. To do this, the data measured from the pneumatic caissons installed as a substructure of main tower in the suspension bridge part of Youngjong Grand Bridge were utilized. The data show that the skin friction is proportional to the rate of sinking, and the skin friction distribution with depth is similar to parabolic type rather straight line, which is a type generally observed in pile foundation. The skin frictions predicted by the Kn and $\lambda$ methods were plotted with the measured data for comparisons. It is cleary shown that the skin frictions estimated by the proposed Kn parameter method are well matched with the measured data. That is, for the large size pneumatic caisson having wide base, the new technique developed from Hong Won-Pyo's method is more suitable for estimation of the skin friction rather than the $\lambda$ method.

Formulation of Friction Forces in LM Ball Guides (LM 볼가이드의 마찰력 정식화)

  • Oh, Kwang-Je;Khim, Gyungho;Park, Chun-Hong;Chung, Sung-Chong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2016
  • Linear motion (LM) ball guides with rolling contact are core units of feed-drive systems. They are widely applied for precision machinery such as machine tools, semiconductor fabrication machines and robots. However, the friction force induced from LM ball guides generates heat, which deteriorates positioning accuracy and incurs changes of stiffness and preload. To accurately analyze the effects and apply the results to precision machine design, mathematical modeling of the friction force is required. In this paper, accurate formulation of the friction force due to rolling, viscous, and slip frictions is conducted for LM ball guides. To verify the reliability of the developed friction model, experiments are performed under various assembly, load and velocity conditions. Effects of frictional components are analyzed through the formulated friction model.

Evaluation of friction of esthetic brackets according to different bracket-wire angulations (심미 브라켓의 종류와 브라켓-호선 각도에 따른 마찰 저항에 대한 연구)

  • Je, Young-Ji;Chang, Minn-Hii;Lim, Yong-Kyu;Lee, Dong-Yul
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the friction that occurs during the sliding movement of the archwire through esthetic brackets is differently affected by bracket materials, slot designs, and tip angulations of the archwire. Methods: Eight types of brackets with 0.018 inch slots (composite: Brillant (BR); composite with metal slot: Spirit MB (SP); ceramic: Inspire (IN), Signature (SI), Cristaline V (CR); ceramic with metal slot: Clarity (CL), Luxi II (LU); and metal bracket: Integra (IT)), and placed into groups of 20 brackets in each group, were tested in artificial saliva with 0.018 inch stainless steel wire. The wire tip angulations were given as 0, 4 and 8 degrees. Results: CR group significantly showed the lowest frictional force with all wire tip angulations of 0,4, and 8 degrees. IN significantly showed the highest frictional force (p < 0.001). BR (polyoxymethylene) had significantly less frictional force than SP (polycarbonate) (p < 0.001) and showed no significant difference between metal brackets. Friction was increased as the wire tip angulations were increased, but no notches were observed on any parts of the archwire. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, esthetic brackets are superior or similar to 55 brackets from a frictional point of view.