• Title, Summary, Keyword: 모형실험

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Temperature-dependent Development Model of the Striped Fruit Fly, Bactrocera scutellata (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) (호박꽃과실파리 온도 발육모형)

  • Jeon, Sung-Wook;Cho, Myoung-Rae;Kim, Yang-Pyo;Lee, Sang-Guei;Kim, So-Hyung;Yu, Jin;Lee, Jong-Jin;Hwang, Chang-Yeon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.373-378
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    • 2011
  • The striped fruit fly, Bactrocera scutellata, damages pumpkin and other cucurbitaceous plants. The developmental period of each stage was measured at seven constant temperatures (15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, and $33{\pm}1.0^{\circ}C$). The developmental time of eggs ranged from 4.2 days at $15^{\circ}C$ to 0.9 days at $33^{\circ}C$. The developmental period of larvae was 4.2 days at $15^{\circ}C$, and slowed in temperatures above $27^{\circ}C$. The developmental period of pupa was 21.5 days at $15^{\circ}C$ and 7.6 days at $33^{\circ}C$. The mortality of eggs was 17.1% at $15^{\circ}C$ and 22.9% at $33^{\circ}C$, Larval mortalities (1st, 2nd, 3rd) were 24.1, 27.3 and 18.2%, respectively, at $15^{\circ}C$, Pupal mortalities were 18.2% at $15^{\circ}C$ and 23.1% at $33^{\circ}C$. The relationship between developmental rate and temperature fit both a linear model and a nonlinear model. The lower threshold temperatures of eggs, larvae, and pupae were 12.5, 10.7, and $6.3^{\circ}C$, respectively, and threshold temperature of the total immature period was $8.5^{\circ}C$. The thermal constants required to complete the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 33.2, 118.3, and 181.2 DD, respectively. The distribution of each development stages was described by a 3-parameter Weibull function.

Analysis of Sinjido Marine Ecosystem in 1994 using a Trophic Flow Model (영양흐름모형을 이용한 1994년 신지도 해양생태계 해석)

  • Kang, Yun-Ho
    • The Sea
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.180-195
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    • 2011
  • A balanced trophic model for Sinjido marine ecosystem was constructed using ECOPATH model and data obtained 1994 in the region. The model integrates available information on biomass and food spectrum, and analyses ecosystem properties, dynamics of the main species populations and the key trophic pathways of the system, and then compares these results with those of other marine environments. The model comprises 17 groups of benthic algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, gastropoda, polychaeta, bivalvia, echinodermata, crustacean, cephalopoda, goby, flatfish, rays and skates, croaker, blenny, conger, flatheads, and detritus. The model shows trophic levels of 1.0~4.0 from primary producers and detritus to top predator as flathead group. The model estimates total biomass(B) of 0.1 $kgWW/m^2$, total net primary production(PP) of 1.6 $kgWW/m^2/yr$, total system throughput(TST) of 3.4 $kgWW/m^2/yr$ and TST's components of consumption 7%, exports 43%, respiratory flows 4% and flows into detritus 46%. The model also calculates PP/TR of 0.012, PP/B of 0.015, omnivory index(OI) of 0.12, Fin's cycling index(FCI) of 0.7%, Fin's mean path length(MPL) of2.11, ascendancy(A) of 4.1 $kgWW/m^2/yr$ bits, development capacity(C) of 8.2 $kgWW/m^2/yr$ bits and A/C of 51%. In particular this study focuses the analysis of mixed trophic impacts and describes the indirect impact of a groupb upon another through mediating one based on 4 types. A large proportion of total export in TST means higher exchange rate in the study region than in semi enclosed basins, which seems by strong tidal currents along the channels between islands, called Sinjido, Choyakdo and Saengildo. Among ecosystem theory and cycling indices, B, TST, PP/TR, FCI, MPL and OI are shown low, indicating the system is not fully mature according to Odum's theory. Additionally, high A/C reveals the maximum capacity of the region is small. To sum up, the study region has high exports of trophic flow and low capacity to develop, and reaches a development stage in the moment. This is a pilot research applied to the Sinjido in terms of trophic flow and food web system such that it may be helpful for comparison and management of the ecosystem in the future.

Application and Development of Teaching-Learning Plan for 'Sustainable Residence Created with Neighbor' ('이웃과 더불어 만드는 지속가능한 주거생활' 교수.학습 과정안 개발 및 적용)

  • Park, Mi-Ra;Cho, Jae-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a teaching-learning process plan for sustainable residing creating with neighbors and to apply it to the housing section of Technology-Home Economics according to the 2007 Revised Curriculum. Teachinglearning method solving practical problems was used for the teaching-learning process plans of 6-session lessons according to the ADDIE model. In the development stage, 17 activity materials and 15 teaching learning materials (6 reading texts, 6 moving pictures, 2 internet and 1 image materials) were developed. for the 6-session lessons, based on the stages of solving practical problems. The plans applied to the 3 classes of 8, 9, and 10th grade of the H. junior and senior high school in Myun district in Kyungbook during Sept. 1st to 14th, 2009. The results showed that students actively participated when the contents and materials were related to their own experience. The 6-session lessons about sustainable residing creating with neighbors was significantly increased the sense of community between before and after. Each of the 4 stages of the teachinglearning method solving practical problems were highly participated by the students. The satisfaction with the contents and methods of the 6-session lessons were evaluated over medium to somewhat higher levels. The practical activities to solve the community space and programs were got positive comments. Problem solving process and presentation and discussion were needed to learn more. Those results might support that the teachinglearning process plan this research developed. would be appropriate to the lessons for sustainable residing creating with neighbors.

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Tumorigenesis after Injection of Lung Cancer Cell Line (SW-900 G IV) into the Pleural Cavity of Nude Mice (누드마우스의 흉강에 폐암세포주의 주입에 의한 종양형성과 HER2/neu와 TGF-${\beta}_1$의 발현)

  • Park, Eok-Sung;Kim, Song-Myung;Kim, Jong-In
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.588-595
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    • 2010
  • Background: Base on types of tumor, the types of expressed tumor is diverse and the difference in its expression rate is even more various. Due to such reasons an animal model is absolutely needed for a clinical research of lung cancer. The author attempted oncogenesis by cultivating a cell line of non-small cell carcinoma and then injecting it inside thoracic cavities of nude mice. The author conducted quantitative analyses of HER2/neu tumor gene - an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) related to lung cancer, and TGF-${\beta}_1$, which acts as a resistance to cell growth inhibition and malignant degeneration. In order to investigate achievability of the oncogenesis, histological changes and the expression of cancer gene in case of orthotopic lung cancer is necessary. Material and Method: Among 20 immunity-free male BALB/c, five nude mice were selected as the control group and rest as the experimental group. Their weights ranged from 20 to 25 gm (Orient, Japan). After injection of lung cancer line (SW900 G IV) into the pleural cavity of nude mice, They were raised at aseptic room for 8 weeks. HER2/neu was quantitatively analyzed by separating serum from gathered blood via chemiluminiscent immunoassay (CLIA), and immunosandwitch method was applied to quantitatively analyze TGF-${\beta}_1$. SPSS statistical program (SPSS Version 10.0, USA) was implemented for statistical analysis. Student T test was done, and cases in which p-value is less than 0.05 were considered significant. Result: Even after lung cancer was formed in the normal control group or after intentionally injected lung cancer cell line, no amplification of HER2/neu gene showed reaction. However, the exact quantity of TGF-${\beta}_1$ was $28,490{\pm}8,549pg/mL$, and the quantity in the group injected with lung cancer cell was $42,362{\pm}14,449pg/mL$, meaning 1.48 times highly Significant (p<0.483). It proved that HER2/neu gene TGF-${\beta}_1$ had no meaningful interconnection. Conclusion: TGF-${\beta}_1$ gene expressed approximately 1.48 times amplification in comparison to the control group. The amplification of TGF-${\beta}_1$ meant somatic recuperation inhibition mechanism due to carcinogenesis in nude mice was definitely working. It may be implemented as a quantitative analysis that allows early detection of lung cancer in human body.

Development and Application of Issue-Centered Teaching.Learning Process Plan for Environment-Friendly Housing Education (환경친화적 주생활 교육을 위한 쟁점중심 교수.학습 과정안 개발 및 적용)

  • Park, Hee-Jeong;Cho, Jae-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.45-64
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to develope issue-centered teaching learning process plan for environment-friendly housing education and to apply it to the housing section of Technology Home Economics in a middle school. PRO-CON cooperative group model was used for the teaching learning process plans of 2-session lessons according to the ADDIE model. In the development stage, 7 activity materials and 20 teaching learning materials (4 reading texts, 12 pictures and photos, & 5 moving pictures) were developed for 2-session lessons. The plans applied to the 7 classes, 222 students, in the third grade of the G middle school in Gyeonggi-do during July 10th-17th, 2008. The results showed that the final pro-con was influenced by the rationals of juries' pro-con of each team and the representative's discussion besides one's environmental perspective. The intention to implement environment-friendly housing activities was significantly increased between before and after the lessons. The contents, methods, goals, and process of the 2-session lessons were evaluated over medium to somewhat higher levels. Those evaluations except methods and general satisfaction with the lessons were differed by sex, students' and their families' interests in environments but not by the type of housing. These results might support that pro-con cooperative group model of controversial issues on parking lot would be appropriate to environment-friendly housing lessons and could apply to broad issues on housing and various schools in other areas.

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Filtering Rate with Effect of Water Temperature and Size of Two Farming Ascidians Styela clava and S. plicata, and a Farming Mussel Mytilus edulis (수온과 개체크기에 따른 양식산 미더덕, 흰멍게, 진주담치의 여수율)

  • KIM Yong Sool;Moon Tae Seok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.272-277
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    • 1998
  • Filtering rates of two farming ascidians Styela clava and S. plicata, and of a farming mussel Mytilus edulis were experimentally investigated with reference to effects of water temperature and size. Absorptiometric determinations of filtering rates were carried out in a closed system with experimental animals being decreased indicate dyes neutral red. Optical density (OD) of 440 nm in path length 22 mm cell used as the indication of food particles absorption was appeared directly in proportion with the concentration of neutral red dyes. The filtering rate F is calculated by Kim's equation $F\;=\;V(1-e^{-z})$, where V is the water volume ($\ell$) in the experimental jar, and Z is the decreasing coefficient of OD as meaning of instantaneous removal speed as In $C_t\;=\;In\;C_{o}-Z{\cdot}t$, in this formula $C_t$ is OD at the time t. Filtering rate of S. clava increased as exponential function with increasing temperature while not over critical limit, and the critical temperature for filtering rate was assumed to be between $28^{\circ}C$ and $29^{\circ}C$. In case of S. plicata, the critical temperature was to be below $13^{\circ}C$, and through the temperature range $15\~25^{\circ}C$ appeared a little difference in level even though with significant. M. edulis was not appear any significant effects by water temperature less than $29^{\circ}C$. The model formula derived from the results is as below, where F is filtering rate (${\ell}/hr/animal$), T is water temperature ($^{\circ}C$), and DW is dry meat weight (g) of experimental animal. $$S.\;Clava;\;F\;=\;e xp\;(0.119\;T-4.540)\;(DW)^{0.6745},\;T<29^{\circ}C$$) $$S.\;plicata;\;F\;=\;e xp\;(A_t)\;(DW)^{0.5675},\;(13^{\circ}C $$[A_t =-8.56+0.6805\;T-0.0153\;T^2]$$ $$M.\;edulis;\;F\;=\;0.3844\;(DW)^{0.4952},\;<29^{\circ}C$$)

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Flow Resistance and Modeling Rule of Fishing Nets 4. Flow Resistance of Trawl Nets (그물어구의 유수저항과 모형수칙 4. 트롤그물의 유수저항)

  • KIM Dae-An
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.691-699
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    • 1997
  • In order to find out the properties in flow resistance of trawlR=1.5R=1.5\;S\;v^{1.8}\;S\;v^{1.8} nets and the exact expression for the resistance R (kg) under the water flow of velocity v(m/sec), the experimental data on R obtained by other, investigators were pigeonholed into the form of $R=kSv^2$, where $k(kg{\cdot}sec^2/m^4)$ was the resistance coefficient and $S(m^2)$ the wall area of nets, and then k was analyzed by the resistance formular obtained in the previous paper. The analyzation produced the coefficient k expressed as $$k=4.5(\frac{S_n}{S_m})^{1.2}v^{-0.2}$$ in case of bottom trawl nets and as $$k=5.1\lambda^{-0.1}(\frac{S_n}{S_m})^{1.2}v^{-0.2}$$ in midwater trawl nets, where $S_m(m^2)$ was the cross-sectional area of net mouths, $S_n(m^2)$ the area of nets projected to the plane perpendicular to the water flow and $\lambda$ the representitive size of nettings given by ${\pi}d^2/2/sin2\varphi$ (d : twine diameter, 2l: mesh size, $2\varphi$ : angle between two adjacent bars). The value of $S_n/S_m$ could be calculated from the cone-shaped bag nets equal in S with the trawl nets. In the ordinary trawl nets generalized in the method of design, however, the flow resistance R (kg) could be expressed as $$R=1.5\;S\;v^{1.8}$$ in bottom trawl nets and $$R=0.7\;S\;v^{1.8}$$ in midwater trawl nets.

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Analysis of Lower Somatotype on Adult Women and Appearance Analysis of Flare Skirts by using the Image Processing (성인 여성의 하반신 체형분석과 염상처리를 이용한 플레어 스커트의 외관분석)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Hong, Jeong-Min
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.252-258
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    • 1999
  • The aims of this study is to classify the lower somatotype of adult women and appearance analysis on the shape of flare skirts by using the image processing. Also We have made skirts in order to analyze the various types of appearance of flare skirts by using the image processing. The subjects for our wear test lower somatotype, who were controlled in their waist, abdomen and hip shapes. The flare skirts used for wear test were 112 types(combinated 14 fabric type and 8 lower somatotype). The effect of lower somatotype on the shape of flare skirts was determined by the horizontally hem line section shape and the silhouette of flare skirts with image processing. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and Turkey, Duncan multiple range test. The results obtained are summarized as follows: It is shown that the fabric weight elongation differs in fabrics properties, in direction of textures. The shape horizontal section of flare skirt hem line has differed with the number of nodes, wave-height of nodes and breadth of silhouette by fabrics properties and lower somatotype. It is noticed that the breadth of flare skirts by the silhouette has high correlation with the drape ability of fabrics and lower somatotype. Results for our flare skirts show changes in amplitude and mean with fabrics, somatotype. Therefore we can say that gray-level histograms are correlated with changes in appearance, differences in drape spacing and related fabric properties and their somatotype.

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Comparison of shaping ability between single length technique and crown-down technique using Mtwo rotary file (Mtwo 전동 파일을 사용한 single length technique과 crown-down technique의 근관성형 효율 비교)

  • Lim, Yoo-Kyoung;Park, Jeong-Kil;Hur, Bock;Kim, Hyeon-Cheol
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.385-396
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    • 2007
  • The aims of this study were to compare the shaping effect and safety between single length technique recommended by manufacturer and crown-down technique using Mtwo rotary file and to present a modified method in use of Mtwo file. Sixty simulated root canal resin blocks were used. The canals were divided into three groups according to instrument and the manner of using methods. Each group had 20 specimens. Group MT was instrumented with single length technique of Mtwo, group MC was instrumented with crown-down technique of Mtwo and group PT was instrumented with crown-down technique of ProTaper. All of the rotary files used in this study were operated by an electric motor. The scanned canal images of before and after preparation were superimposed. These superimposed images were evaluated at apical 1 to 8 mm levels Angle changes were calculated. The preparation time, weight loss, instrument failure and binding, canal aberrations, and centering ratio were measured. Statistical analysis of the three experimental groups was performed with ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests for post-hoc comparison and Fisher's exact test was done for the frequency comparison. In total preparation time, group MT and group MC were less than group PT. In the aberrations, group MT had more elbows than those of group MC and group PT. The binding of group MC was least and group MT was less than group PT (P < 0.05). Under the condition of this study, crown-down technique using Mtwo rotary file is better and safer method than single length technique recommended by the manufacturer.

Evaluation of Skin Dose and Image Quality on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (콘빔CT 촬영 시 mAs의 변화에 따른 피부선량과 영상 품질에 관한 평가)

  • Ahn, Jong-Ho;Hong, Chae-Seon;Kim, Jin-Man;Jang, Jun-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Cone-beam CT using linear accelerator attached to on-board imager is a image guided therapy equipment. Because it is to check the patient's set-up error, correction, organ and target movement. but imaging dose should be cause of the secondary cancer when taking a image. The aim of this study is investigation of appropriate cone beam CT scan mode to compare and estimate the image quality and skin dose. Materials and Methods: Measurement by Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD-100, Harshaw) with using the Rando phantom are placed on each eight sites in seperately H&N, thoracic, abdominal section. each 4 methods of scan modes of are measured the for skin dose in three time. Subsequently, obtained average value. Following image quality QA protocol of equipment manufacturers using the catphan 504 phantom, image quality of each scan mode is compared and analyzed. Results: The results of the measured skin dose are described in here. The skin dose of Head & Neck are measured mode A: 8.96 cGy, mode B: 4.59 cGy, mode C: 3.46 cGy mode D: 1.76 cGy and thoracic mode A: 9.42 cGy, mode B: 4.58 cGy, mode C: 3.65 cGy, mode D: 1.85 cGy, and abdominal mode A: 9.97 cGy, mode B: 5.12 cGy, mode C: 4.03 cGy, mode D: 2.21 cGy. Approximately, dose of mode B are reduced 50%, mode C are reduced 60%, mode D are reduced 80% a point of reference dose of mode A. the results of analyzed HU reproducibility, low contrast resolution, spatial resolution (high contrast resolution), HU uniformity in evaluation item of image quality are within the tolerance value by recommended equipment manufacturer in all scan mode. Conclusion: Maintaining the image quality as well as reducing the image dose are very important in cone beam CT. In the result of this study, we are considered when to take mode A when interested in soft tissue. And we are considered to take mode D when interested in bone scan and we are considered to take mode B, C when standard scan. Increasing secondary cancer risk due to cone beam CT scan should be reduced by low mAs technique.

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