• Title, Summary, Keyword: 무선통신방식

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DLL Design and Performance Evaluation in Indoor Wireless DS-CDMA System under the Multipath Fading Effects (실내 무선 DS-CDMA 방식에서 다중경로 페이딩 영향을 고려한 DLL 설계와 성능평가)

  • Im, Sung-Jun;Ryu, Ho-Jin;Ryu, Heung-Gyoon
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 1997
  • This paper analyzes DLL(Delay lock loop) under the multipath fading effects. The evaluated performance measures include the steady-state timing error probability density function (PDF) and the mean-time-to-lose-lock (MTLL) under multipath fading effects. The discriminator characteristic S(${\epsilon}$) is shown to be zero at the point of timing error ${\epsilon}_{0}$ that is not zero, and the MTLL decreases as the delayed signal power $g_{2}$ and delayed time ${\tau}_{d}$ increase. We approximate the steady-state timing error PDF linearly with these variables and evaluate the steady-state timing error PDF and MTLL. The severe multipath fading effects result lower MTLL, in this case we make MTLL larger by increasing the early-late discriminator offset ${\Delta}$. First, we calculate the timing error point ${\epsilon}_{0}$, and present the performance of DLL under multipath fading. The timing error PDF, MTLL and the performance of DLL with ${\Delta}$ are also investigated. And we conclude that the larger ${\Delta}$ makes a higher MTLL and a better performance of DLL under multipath fading effects.

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Reliable Multicasting with Implicit ACK and Indirect Recovery in Wireless Sensor Networks (묵시적 응답 및 간접 복구를 이용한 무선 센서 네트워크에서의 신뢰성 있는 멀티캐스팅)

  • Kim, Sung-Hoon;Yang, Hyun;Park, Chang-Yun
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.215-226
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    • 2008
  • As sensor networks are used in various and dynamic applications, the function of sink-to-sensors reliable multicasting such as for task reprogramming is newly required. NAK-based error recovery schemes have been proposed for energy efficient reliable multicasting. However, these schemes have incompleteness problems such as the last packet loss. This paper introduces an ACK-based error recovery scheme, RM2I(Reliable Multicast with Implicit ACK and Indirect Recovery). It utilizes wireless multicast advantage in which a packet may be delivered to all of its omni-directional neighbor nodes. When a sender overhears a packet which its receiver forwards to the next nodes, it may interpret it as an ACK from the receiver. We call it an Implicit ACK. In Indirect Recovery, when a node receives a packet from neighbor nodes which are not its direct upstream node, it saves and utilizes it for error recovery. Using NS-2 simulator, we have analyzed their effects. We have also compared RM2I with the NAK-based error recovery scheme. In results, RM2I shows comparable performances to the ideal NAK-based scheme, except where Implicit ACK and Indirect Recovery do not occur at the edges of the networks.

Development of Sensor Network Simulator using Machine Instruction-level Discrete-Event Simulation (기계명령어-레벨의 이산-사건 시뮬레이션을 이용한 센서 네트워크 시뮬레이터 개발)

  • Jung Yong-Doc;Kim Bang-Hyun;Kim Tae-Kyu;Kim Jong-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.769-771
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    • 2005
  • 유비쿼터스 컴퓨팅의 기반 설비인 센서 네트워크는 많은 수의 센서 노드들로 구성되며, 각 센서 노드의 하드웨어는 매우 작은 규모이다. 또한 최소한의 전력 소모를 위하여 센서 노드들은 동적으로 재구성되며, 노드들 간의 통신은 무선 네트워크를 통하여 이루어진다. 센서 네트워크는 구축 목적에 따라 네트워크 토폴로지 및 라우팅 방식이 결정되어야 하고, 이와 더불어 센서 노드의 하드웨어와 소프트웨어도 필요에 따라 다양하게 변경되어야 한다. 따라서 센서 네트워즈가 구현되기 전에 시스템 동작과 성능을 예측할 수 있고 소프트웨어 개발 환경도 제공해주는 시뮬레이터가 사용 가능하다면, 시스템 개발 기간을 크게 단축시킬 수 있을 것이다. 기존의 센서 네트워크 시뮬레이터들은 특별한 응용을 위한 특정 기반의 하드웨어와 운영체제에 국한되어 개발되었기 때문에 다양한 센서 네트워크 환경을 지원하기에는 한계가 있으며, 센서 네트워크 설계상의 주요 요소인 전력 소모량 분석이 포함되지 않았다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 특정한 응용이나 운영체제에 제한을 받지 않으면서 다양하게 센서 네트워크 환경을 설계 및 검증할 수 있고 전력 소모량 추정도 가능한 시뮬레이터를 개발하는 것을 목표로 하였다. 본 연구에서 개발한 시뮬레이터는 기계명령어-레일(machine instruction-level)의 이산-사건 시뮬레이션(discrete-event simulation) 기법을 이용함으로써 실제 센서 노드의 프로그램 실행 및 관련 동작들을 세부적으로 예측하는 데 사용될 수 있도록 하였다. 시뮬레이션의 작업부하(Workload)인 명령어 트레이스(instruction trace)로는 ATmega128L 마이크로컨트롤러용으로 크로스 컴파일된 인텔 헥스-레코드 형식(.hex) 또는 S-레코드 형식(.srec)의 파일을 사용한다.들을 해결하고자 프라이버시보호에 새로운 키 생성 방법을 통한 강력한 프로토콜을 제안 한다.하였으나 사료효율은 증진시켰으며, 후자(사양, 사료)와의 상호작용은 나타나지 않았다. 이상의 결과는 거세비육돈에서 1) androgen과 estrogen은 공히 자발적인 사료섭취와 등지방 침적을 억제하고 IGF-I 분비를 증가시키며, 2) 성선스테로이드호르몬의 이 같은 성장에 미치는 효과의 일부는 IGF-I을 통해 매개될 수도 있을을 시사한다. 약 $70 {\~} 90\%$의 phenoxyethanol이 유상에 존재하였다. 또한, 미생물에 대한 항균력도 phenoxyethanol이 수상에 많이 존재할수록 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. 따라서, 제형 내 oil tomposition을 변화시킴으로써 phenoxyethanol의 사용량을 줄일 수 있을 뿐만 아니라, 피부 투과를 감소시켜 보다 피부 자극이 적은 저자극 방부시스템 개발이 가능하리라 보여 진다. 첨가하여 제조한 curd yoghurt는 저장성과 관능적인 면에서 우수한 상품적 가치가 인정되는 새로운 기능성 신제품의 개발에 기여할 수 있을 것으로 사료되었다. 여자의 경우 0.8이상이 되어서 심혈관계 질환의 위험 범위에 속하는 수준이었다. 삼두근의 두겹 두께는 남녀 각각 $20.2\pm8.58cm,\;22.2\pm4.40mm$으로 남녀간에 유의한 차이는 없었다. 조사대상자의 식습관 상태는 전체 대상자의 $84.4\%$가 대부분이 하루 세끼 식사를 규칙적으로 하고 있었으며 식사속도는 허겁지겁 빨리 섭취하는 경우가 남자는 $31.0\%$, 여자는 $21.4\%$로 나타났고 이들을 제외한 나머지 사람들은 보통 속도 혹은 충분한 시간을 가지고 식사를 하였

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A Route Shortening Mechanism for DSR protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (이동 애드혹 네트워크에서 DSR 프로토콜을 위한 경로 축소 방법)

  • Ha, Eun-Yong
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.475-482
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    • 2007
  • Mobile nodes in ad-hoc wireless networks play roles of router as well as host. Movement of nodes causes network topology changes, which make existing routing information be modified. Therefore many routing protocols for ad-hoc networks were suggested in the literature. In this paper, we suggest an enhanced automatic route shortening method for dynamic source routing(DSR) protocol. DSR is a request/response based protocol which has low routing overhead owing to node movement. The current automatic route shortening is performed on the only nodes which belong to the source route of packets. On the contrary, our suggested method allows all neighbor nodes hearing the packet to participate in automatic route shortening. It makes all possible route shortenings be performed. So we maintain maximal shortened routes of ongoing data connections. Simulation results with ns2 show that our method pays small extra protocol overhead for ARS, but increases the ratio of successful packet transmissions and the number of ARSs performed in our mechanism is from 2 to 5 times higher than in original ARS mechanism and therefore it will improve the network-wide energy consumption in wireless ad-hoc networks.

PDA Transmission of Medical Images by CDMA (CDMA에 의한 의료영상의 PDA전송)

  • Lee, Myong-Ho;Lim, Jae-Dong;Ahn, Bung-Ju;Lee, Hwun-Jae;Lee, Sang-Bock
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to survey a development of the wireless transmission system of medical images for ubiquitous medicine. There have been many changes in medical equipments and medical record medical treatment and medical record within hospital and PACS(Picture Archiving Communication System) which is picture management system for patients can be typical cases. It is difficult to use these automated medical systems unless they are within hospital and in case of rapid image reading in the emergency cases or in absence of doctor, it is difficult to perform it immediately. The present study implemented an image transmission system using CDMA connection so that images in the server can be viewed at any time and in any place. Remote wireless diagnosis based on medical images using PDA is applicable to medical areas that require mobility, and the use of PDA can be an ideal alternative for point of care. The use of PDA enables prompt and accurate access to digital medical images, which in turn reduces medical accidents and improves the quality of medical services through high productivity and efficiency of medical practitioners' works. It also enables quick response to patients' demands and high-quality medical services and, consequently, patients' high satisfaction.

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A 45GHz $f_{T}\;and\;50GHz\;f_{max}$ SiGe BiCMOS Technology Development for Wireless Communication ICs (무선통신소자제작을 위한 45GHz $f_{T}$ 및 50GHZz $f_{max}$ SiGe BiCMOS 개발)

  • Hwang Seok-Hee;Cho Dae-Hyung;Park Kang-Wook;Yi Sang-Don;Kim Nam-Ju
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.42 no.9
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • A $0.35\mu$m SiGe BiCMOS fabrication process has been timely developed, which is aiming at wireless RF ICs development and fast growing SiGe RF market. With non-selective SiGe epilayer, SiGe HBTs in this process used trapezoidal Ge base profile for the enhanced AC performance via Ge induced bandgap niuoin. The characteristics of hFE 100, $f_{T}\;45GHz,\;F_{max}\;50GHz,\;NF_{min}\;0.8dB$ have been obtained by optimizing not only SiGe base profile but also RTA condition after emitter polysilicon deposition, which enables the SiGe technology competition against the worldwide cutting edge SiGe BiCMOS technology. In addition, the process incorporates the CMOS logic, which is fully compatible with $0.35\mu$m pure logic technology. High Q passive elements are also provided for high precision analog circuit designs, and their quality factors of W(1pF) and inductor(2nH) are 80, 12.5, respectively.

A Moving Path Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Using Relative Distance Fingerprinting (상대거리 지문 정보를 이용한 무인이송차량의 주행 경로 제어)

  • Hong, Youn Sik;Kim, Da Jung;Hong, Sang Hyun
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
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    • v.2 no.10
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    • pp.427-436
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, a method of moving path control of an automatic guided vehicle in an indoor environment through recognition of marker images using vision sensors is presented. The existing AGV moving control system using infrared-ray sensors and landmarks have faced at two critical problems. Since there are many windows in a crematorium, they are going to let in too much sunlight in the main hall which is the moving area of AGVs. Sunlight affects the correct recognition of landmarks due to refraction and/or reflection of sunlight. The second one is that a crematorium has a narrow indoor environment compared to typical industrial fields. Particularly when an AVG changes its direction to enter the designated furnace the information provided by guided sensors cannot be utilized to estimate its location because the rotating space is too narrow to get them. To resolve the occurrences of such circumstances that cannot access sensing data in a WSN environment, a relative distance from marker to an AGV will be used as fingerprinting used for location estimation. Compared to the existing fingerprinting method which uses RSS, our proposed method may result in a higher reliable estimation of location. Our experimental results show that the proposed method proves the correctness and applicability. In addition, our proposed approach will be applied to the AGV system in the crematorium so that it can transport a dead body safely from the loading place to its rightful destination.

Enhanced Energy Harvester Based on Vibration Analysis of Bicycle Riding (자전거 주행의 진동 분석에 기반한 에너지 수확 증진 기술 개발)

  • Yeo, Jung-Jin;Ryu, Mun-Ho;Kim, Jung-Ja;Yang, Yoon-Seok
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SC
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2012
  • Bicycle has a large amount of kinetic energy available for energy harvesting technology in its speedy and balanced riding movement. Systematic and realistic analysis of its dynamic property is essential to improve the efficiency of energy harvester. However, there has not been enough researches about precise measurement or analysis of bicycle dynamics on real roads. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of vibrational movement of bicycle using MEMS-based accelerometer and to develop a prototype of electromagnetic energy harvester with nonlinear behavior which is proper to the random vibrations accompanied in bicycle riding. The vibrational components have average magnitude of 1 g and turn out to be independent of riding speed. The developed prototype of energy harvester was installed on a front port of a bicycle to use this ambient vibration and generated an average electrical power of 1.5 mW which is enough to support power for most of portable sensors and short range radio-frequency communication. Further study about isolation of vibration from a rider and conversion efficiency is ongoing. The developed energy harvester is expected to be a platform technology for sustainable portable power supply for various smart IT devices and applications.

Development of a Fleet Management System for Cooperation Among Construction Equipment (건설장비 협업을 위한 플릿관리 시스템 개발)

  • Ahn, Seo-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Keun;Lee, Kwan-Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.573-586
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    • 2016
  • In construction jobs, a combination of various kinds of machinery is used to perform earthworks at a large-scale site. Individual equipments essentially cooperate with each other on task such as excavation, load, transfer and compaction. While other area have studied cooperation system, related study in domestic construction is in poor condition. In this study, construction equipment fleet management system is developed for solving this problem and find way to improving efficiency in earthworks site. The entire concept of the fleet management system, including its components and process, has been systematically outlined in this paper. An operational methodology has also been suggested, where a number of machines, such as the excavators, trucks and compactors, are chosen and further grouped into a cluster. A case study verify fleet management system's effectiveness on performing task package by comparing existing work method with methodology in this study. Fleet management system in this study is expected to curtail fuel consumption by the reduction of working time and moving distance. Furthermore, it can be anticipated to declining carbon emission effect.

A Proposal for Mobile Gallery Auction Method Using NFC-based FIDO and 2 Factor Technology and Permission-type Distributed Director Block-chain (NFC 기반 FIDO(Fast IDentity Online) 및 2 Factor 기술과 허가형 분산원장 블록체인을 이용한 모바일 갤러리 경매 방안 제안)

  • Noh, Sun-Kuk
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2019
  • Recently, studies have been conducted to improve the m-commerce process in the NFC-based mobile environment and the increase of the number of smart phones built in NFC. Since authentication is important in mobile electronic payment, FIDO(Fast IDentity Online) and 2 Factor electronic payment system are applied. In addition, block-chains using distributed raw materials have emerged as a representative technology of the fourth industry. In this study, for the mobile gallery auction of the traders using NFC embedded terminal (smartphone) in a small gallery auction in which an unspecified minority participates, password-based authentication and biometric authentication technology (fingerprint) were applied to record transaction details and ownership transfer of the auction participants in electronic payment. And, for the cost reduction and data integrity related to gallery auction, the private distributed director block chain was constructed and used. In addition, domestic and foreign cases applying block chain in the auction field were investigated and compared. In the future, the study will also study the implementation of block chain networks and smart contract and the integration of block chain and artificial intelligence to apply the proposed method.