• Title, Summary, Keyword: 물질의 성질

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The Efficiency and Performance of Porous Film Containing Freshness Maintenance Ingredients (신선도 유지성분을 포함한 다공성 필름의 성능과 효능)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Yee;Lee, Eun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.810-816
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    • 2009
  • To identify effective food packaging compounds that could significantly affect the freshness of stored food, the efficiency and performance of porous polypropylene film containing mustard oil as a freshness maintenance ingredient was studied by GC-MS analysis and storage testing of bread. AITC (allyl-isothiocyanate)-emitting properties of films impregnated with mustard oil were evaluated by GC-MS. AITC was extracted from mustard oil, and used as a vapor as an effective antimicrobial agent. Films were prepared under four different conditions (the film types were abbreviated 25SF1, 25SF2, 50LF, and IAF) and the amounts of AITC inside vinyl packs constructed using the four films were measured. The results showed that the 25SF2 film (width 25 mm, length 20 cm) yielded a greater amount of AITC than did the 50LF film (width 50 mm, length 20 cm). We confirmed that the amount of gas emission showed better between layer and layer of the film side than the internal film. In storage testing using various films at $35^{\circ}C$ for 25 days, 25SF2 film provided excellent preservation of bread compared with 50LF film. This was in line with the fact that 25SF2 film yielded the highest amount of AITC. Emission capacities AITC of 2 cm film were measured using bottles various volumes (43 mL, 500 mL, 1000 mL) and both closed and open systems. The AITC content of the film in 43 mL bottle was much higher than that yielded by other films in the closed system, and AITC was rapidly emitted, with relatively low residual gas emission after 4 days in an open system. Mustard oil is a useful freshness maintenance ingredient hence, analysis of AITC emission kinetics from various films were helpful to develop films with optimal antimicrobial effects, and will allow application of such films in food packaging systems.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MAXILLARY CENTRAL INCISORS RESTORED WITH VARIOUS POST-AND-CORE APPLICATIONS (여러가지 post-and-core로 수복된 상악 중절치의 유한요소법적 연구)

  • Seo, Min-Seock;Shon, Won-Jun;Lee, Woo-Cheol;Yoo, Hyun-Mi;Cho, Byeong-Hoon;Baek, Seung-Ho
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.324-332
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rigidity of post core systems on stress distribution by the theoretical technique, finite element stress-analysis method. Three-dimensional finite element models simulating an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with a zirconia ceramic crown were prepared and 1.5 mm ferrule height was provided. Each model contained cortical bone, trabecular bone, periodontal ligament, 4 mm apical root canal filling, and post-and-core. Six combinations of three parallel type post (zirconia ceramic, glass fiber, and stainless steel) and two core (Paracore and Tetric ceram) materials were evaluated, respectively. A 50 N static occlusal load was applied to the palatal surface of the crown with a $60^{\circ}$angle to the long axis of the tooth. The differences in stress transfer characteristics of the models were analyzed. von Mises stresses were chosen for presentation of results and maximum displacement and hydrostatic pressure were also calculated. An increase of the elastic modulus of the post material increased the stress, but shifted the maximum stress location from the dentin surface to the post material. Buccal side of cervical region (junction of core and crown) of the glass fiber post restored tooth was subjected to the highest stress concentration. Maximum von Mises stress in the remaining radicular tooth structure for low elastic modulus resin core (29.21 MPa) was slightly higher than that for high elastic modulus resin core (29.14 MPa) in case of glass fiber post. Maximum displacement of glass fiber post restored tooth was higher than that of zirconia ceramic or stainless steel post restored tooth.

Correlation between Glycemic Index and in vitro Starch Hydrolysis of Cereals (곡류의 혈당지수와 전분 가수분해율과의 상관관계)

  • Lee, Jung-Sun;Shin, Hyun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1229-1235
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    • 1998
  • To see the correlation between the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis and the glycemic index, an in vitro digestion was carried out by incubating the cereal samples for 2 hours with ${\alpha}-amylase$ in dialysis tubing. Also the levels of blood glucose were measured over 2 hours after feeding healthy volunteers with 50 g carbohydrate portions. Hydrolysis area, hydrolysis index (HI) and the dialysate content of carbohydrate throughout the digestion time for barley was significantly below those for other cereals (p<0.05), and unpolished glutinous rice was significantly above (p<0.05). The GI-glucose of barley $(57%{\pm}7)$ to glucose as standard was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of other cereals whereas the GI-glucose of glutinous rice $(110%{\pm}8)$ was significantly higher (p<0.05) than other cereals. The GI-rice values to rice as standard were $122%{\pm}4$ for glutinous sorghum, $116%{\pm}13$ for job's tear, $115%{\pm}13$ for glutinous millet, $106%{\pm}6$ for unpolished glutinous rice, $102%{\pm}7$ for glutinous rice, $100%{\pm}0$ for rice, $90%{\pm}12$ for unpolished rice, $85%{\pm}6$ for foxtail millet, $79%{\pm}5$ for buckwheat and $63%{\pm}6$ for barley. The GI-rice was significantly correlated to hydrolysis area and HI (r=0.75, p<0.01). It suggests that the in vitro starch hydrolysis offers good potential to predict the in vivo glycemic response of starch foods.

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Effects of Dietary Silkworm Droppings on Quality Characteristics of Pork Loin (잠분(蠶糞) 급여가 돈육의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Jeong-Ill;Lee Jung-Dong;Ha Young-Joo;Jung Jae-Doo;Lee Jin-Woo;Lee Jae-Ryung;Kwack Suk-chun;Kim Doo-Hwan;Do Chang-Hee
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.175-188
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    • 2005
  • This study investigated the effects of silkworm droppings (SWD) added diet feeding on quality characteristics of pork loin meat Pigs were divided into 7 treatment groups (10 pigs/group) and subjected to one of seven treatment diets $(0,\;1\%,\;2\%\;and\; 3\%\;SWD\;for\;4 weeks,\;1\%\;2\%\;3\%$ SWD for 8 weeks, SWD diets; total fed diets) before slaughter. Pork loin were collected from the animals (110kg body weight) slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. Pork loin meat were packaged aerobically and then stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 2, 5, 8, or 12 days. Samples were analyzed for general composition, texture characteristics and physico-chemical properties. pH value was not significantly different between the control and SWD treatment groups. pH of control and SWD treatment groups were increased as the storage period passed General composition, cooking loss and texture was not significantly different between the control and SWD treatment groups. WHC of SWD treatment group was higher than that of control group. WHC of control and SWD treatment groups were significantly decreased as the storage period passed (p<0.05). Meat and fat color (CIE $L^{\ast}$, $a^{\ast}$, $b^{\ast}$) were no significant differences between the control and SWD treatment groups. $L^{\ast}$ and $b^{\ast}$ value of meat color were decreased as the storage period passed There was a not significantly difference in shear force value among control and SWD treatment groups. Shear force value was decreased significantly during storage in all treatment groups. In all results, dietary SWD-supplementation was not affected in general components, texture characteristics and physico-chemical properties. It is suggested that dietary SWD-supplementation could produce of high quality pork.

Decomposition of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Gamma Ray Irradiation (감마선 조사에 의한 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)의 분해)

  • Lee, Byung-Jin;Lee, Myun-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a gamma irradiation to decompose 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene(TNT) in an aqueous solution. The decomposition reaction of TNT by gamma irradiation was a pseudo first-order kinetic over the applied initial concentrations($25{\sim}100mg/L$). The dose constant was strongly dependent on the initial TNT concentration. The removal of TNT was more efficient at pH below 3 and at pH above 11 than at neutral pH(pH 5-9). The required irradiation dose to remove over 99% of TNT was 40, 80 and 10 kGy, individually at pH 2, 7 and 13. The dose constant was increased by 1.6 fold and over 15.6 fold at pH 2 and 13, respectively, when compared with that at pH 7 When irradiation dose of 200 kGy was applied, the removal efficiencies of TOC were 91, 46 and 53% at pH 2, 7 and 13, respectively. Ammonia and nitrate were detected as the main nitrogen byproducts of TNT and glyoxalic acid and oxalic acid were detected as organic byproducts. The results showed that a gamma irradiation was an attractive method for the decomposition of TNT in an aqueous solution. However, regarding the application of high energy radiation for the TNT decomposition and mineralization, an application of an acidic pH below 3 to the solution before irradiation should be considered.

A Study on the Effect of Water Soluble Extractive upon Physical Properties of Wood (수용성(水溶性) 추출물(抽出物)이 목재(木材)의 물리적(物理的) 성질(性質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Shim, Chong-Supp
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.13-44
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    • 1982
  • 1. Since long time ago, it has been talked about that soaking wood into water for a long time would be profitable for the decreasing of defects such as checking, cupping and bow due to the undue-shrinking and swelling. There are, however, no any actual data providing this fact definitly, although there are some guesses that water soluble extractives might effect on this problem. On the other hand, this is a few work which has been done about the effect of water soluble extractives upon the some physical properties of wood and that it might be related to the above mentioned problem. If man does account for that whether soaking wood into water for a long time would be profitable for the decreasing of defects due to the undue-shrinking and swelling in comparison with unsoaking wood or not, it may bring a great contribution on the reasonable uses of wood. To account for the effect of water soluble extractives upon physical properties of wood, this study has been made at the wood technology laboratory, School of Forestry, Yale university, under competent guidance of Dr. F. F. Wangaard, with the following three different species which had been provided at the same laboratory. 1. Pinus strobus 2. Quercus borealis 3. Hymenaea courbaril 2. The physical properties investigated in this study are as follows. a. Equilibrium moisture content at different relative humidity conditions. b. Shrinkage value from gre condition to different relative humidity conditions and oven dry condition. c. Swelling value from oven dry condition to different relative humidity conditions. d. Specific gravity 3. In order to investigate the effect of water soluble extractives upon physical properties of wood, the experiment has been carried out with two differently treated specimens, that is, one has been treated into water and the other into sugar solution, and with controlled specimens. 4. The quantity of water soluble extractives of each species and the group of chemical compounds in the extracted liquid from each species have shown in Table 36. Between species, there is some difference in quantity of extractives and group of chemical compounds. 5. In the case of equilibrium moisture contents at different relative humidity condition, (a) Except the desorption case at 80% R. H. C. (Relative Humidity Condition), there is a definite line between untreated specimens and treated specimens that is, untreated specimens hold water more than treated specimens at the same R.H.C. (b) The specimens treated into sugar solution have shown almost the same tendency in results compared with the untreated specimens. (c) Between species, there is no any definite relation in equilibrium moisture content each other, however E. M. C. in heartwood of pine is lesser than in sapwood. This might cause from the difference of wood anatomical structure. 6. In the case of shrinkage, (a) The shrinkage value of the treated specimen into water is more than that of the untreated specimens, except anyone case of heartwood of pine at 80% R. H. C. (b) The shrinkage value of treated specimens in the sugar solution is less than that of the others and has almost the same tendency to the untreated specimens. It would mean that the penetration of some sugar into the wood can decrease the shrinkage value of wood. (c) Between species, the shrinkage value of heartwood of pine is less than sapwood of the same, shrinkage value of oak is the largest, Hymenaea is lesser than oak and more than pine. (d) Directional difference of shrinkage value through all species can also see as other all kind of species previously tested. (e) There is a definite relation in between the difference of shrinkage value of treated and untreated specimens and amount of extractives, that is, increasing extractives gives increasing the difference of shrinkage value between treated and untreated specimens. 7. In the case of swelling, (a) The swelling value of treated specimens is greater than that of the untreated specimens through all cases. (b) In comparison with the tangential direction and radial direction, the swelling value of tangential direction is larger than that of radial direction in the same species. (c) Between species, the largest one in swelling values is oak and the smallest pine heartwood, there are also a tendency that species which shrink more swell also more and, on the contrary, species which shrink lesser swell also lesser than the others. 8. In the case of specific gravity, (a) The specific gravity of the treated specimens is larger than that of untreated specimens. This reversed value between treated and untreated specimens has been resulted from the volume of specimen of oven dry condition. (b) Between species, there are differences, that is, the specific gravity of Hymenaea is the largest one and the sapwood of pine is the smallest. 9. Through this investigation, it has been concluded that soaking wood into plain water before use without any special consideration may bring more hastful results than unsoaking for use of wood. However soaking wood into the some specially provided solutions such as salt water or inorganic matter may be dissolved in it, can be profitable for the decreasing shrinkage and swelling, checking, shaking and bow etc. if soaking wood into plain water might bring the decreasing defects, it might come from even shrinking and swelling through all dimension.

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Removal of Red Tide Organisms -2. Flocculation of Red Tide Organisms by Using Loess- (적조생물의 구제 -2. 황토에 의한 적조생물의 응집제거-)

  • KIM Sung-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical characteristics of coagulation reaction between loess and red tide organisms (RTO) and its feasibility, in developing a technology for the removal of RTO bloom in coastal sea. The physicochemical characteristics of loess were examined for a particle size distribution, surface characteristics by scanning electron microscope, zeta potential, and alkalinity and pH variations in sea water. Two kinds of RTO that were used in this study, Cylindrothen closterium and Skeietonema costatum, were sampled in Masan bay and were cultured in laboratory. Coagulation experiments were conducted using various concentrations of loess, RTO, and a jar tester. The supernatant and RTO culture solution were analyzed for pH, alkalinity, RTO cell number. A negative zeta potential of loess increased with increasing pH at $10^(-3)M$ NaCl solution and had -71.3 mV at pH 9.36. Loess had a positive zeta potential of +1,8 mV at pH 1.98, which resulted in a characteristic of material having an amphoteric surface charge. In NaCl and $CaCl_2$, solutions, loess had a decreasing negative zeta potential with increasing $Na^+\;and\;Ca^(+2)$ ion concentration and then didn't result in a charge reversal due to not occurring specific adsorption for $Na^+$ ion while resulted in a charge reversal due to occurring specific adsorption for $Ca^(+2)$ ion. In sea water, loess and RTO showed the similar zeta potential values of -112,1 and -9.2 mV, respectively and sea sand powder showed the highest zeta potential value of -25.7 mV in the clays. EDLs (electrical double-layers) of loess and RTO were extremely compressed due to high concentration of salts included in sea water, As a result, there didn't almost exist EDL repulsive force between loess and RTO approaching each other and then LVDW (London-yan der Waals) attractive force was always larger than EDL repulsive force to easily form a floe. Removal rates of RTO exponentially increased with increasing a loess concentration. The removal rates steeply increased until $800 mg/l$ of loess, and reached $100{\%}$ at 6,400 mg/l of loess. Removal rates of RTO exponentially increased with increasing a G-value. This indicated that mixing (i.e., collision among particles) was very important for a coagulation reaction. Loess showed the highest RTO removal rates in the clays.

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A Study on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sawdustboards combined with Polypropylene Chip and Oriented Thread (폴리프로필렌사(絲)칩과 배향사(配向絲)를 결체(結締)한 톱밥보드의 물리적(物理的) 및 기계적(機械的) 성질(性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Suh, Jin-Suk;Lee, Phil-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.1-41
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    • 1988
  • For the purpose of utilizing the sawdust having poor combining properties as board raw material and resulting in dimensional instability of board, polypropylene chip (abbreviated below as PP chip) or oriented PP thread was combined with sawdust particle from white meranti(Shorea sp.). The PP chip was prepared from PP thread in length of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm for conventional blending application. Thereafter, the PP chip cut as above was combined with the sawdust particle by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% on the weight basis of board. Oriented PP threads were aligned with spacing of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5cm along transverse direction of board. The physical and mechanical properties on one, two and three layer boards manufactured with the above combining conditions were investigated. The conclusions obtained at this study were summarized as follows: 1. In thickness swelling, all one layer boards combined with PP chips showed lower values than control sawdustboard, and gradually clear decreasing tendendy with the increase of PP chip composition. Two layer board showed higher swelling value than one layer board, but the majority of boards lower values than control sawdustboard. All three layer boards showed lower swelling values than control sawdustboard. 2. In the PP chip and oriented thread combining board, the swelling values of boards combining 0.5cm spacing oriented thread with 1.0 or 1.5cm long PP chip in 12 and 15% by board weight were much lower than the lowest of one or three layer. 3. In specific gravity of 0.51, modulus of rupture of one layer board combined with 3% PP chip showed higher value than control sawdustboard. However, moduli of rupture of the boards with every PP chip composition did not exceed 80kgf/cm2, the low limit value of type 100 board, Korean Industrial Standard KS F 3104 Particleboards. Moduli of rupture of 6%, 1.5cm-long and 3% PP chip combined boards in specific gravity of 0.63 as well as PP chip combined board in specific gravity of 0.72 exceeded 80kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F 3104. Two layer boards combined with every PI' chip composition showed lower values than control sawdustboard and one layer board. Three layer boards combined with.1.5cm long PP chip in 3, 6 and 9% combination level showed higher values than control sawdustboard, and exceeded 80kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F 3104. 4. In modulus of rupture of PP thread oriented sawdustboard, 0.5cm spacing oriented board showed the highest value, and 1.0 and 1.5cm spacing oriented boards lower values than the 0.5cm. However, all PP thread oriented sawdustboards showed higher values than control saw-dustboard. 5. Moduli of rupture in the majority of PP chip and oriented thread combining boards were higher than 80kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F 3104. Moduli of rupture in the boards combining longer PP chip with narrower 0.5cm spacing oriented thread showed high values. In accordance with the spacing increase of oriented thread, moduli of rupture in the PP chip and oriented thread combining boards showed increasing tendency compared with oriented sawdustboard. 6. Moduli of elasticity in one, two and three layer boards were lower than those of control sawdustboard, however, moduli of elasticity of oriented sawdustboards with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5cm spacing increased 20, 18 and 10% compared with control sawdustboard, respectively. 7. Moduli of elasticity in the majority of PP chip and oriented thread combining boards in 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5cm oriented spacing showed much higher values than control sawdustboard. On the whole, moduli of elasticity in the oriented boards combined with 9% or less combination level and 0.5cm or more length of PP chip showed higher values than oriented sawdustboard. The increasing effect on modulus of elasticity was shown by the PP chip composition in oriented board with narrow spacing. 8. Internal bond strengths of all one layer PP chip combined boards showed lower values than control sawdust board, however, the PP chip combined boards in specific gravity of 0.63 and 0.72 exceeded 1.5kgf/$cm^2$, the low limit value of type 100 board and 3kgf/$cm^2$, type 200 board on KS F 3104, respectively. And also most of all two, three layer-and oriented boards exceeded 3kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F. 9. In general, screw holding strength of one layer board combined with PP chip showed lower value than control sawdustboard, however, that of two or three layer board combined with PP chip did no decreased tendency, and even screw holding strength with the increase of PP chip composition. In the PP chip and oriented PP thread combining boards, most of the boards showed higher values than control sawdustboard in 9% or less PP chip composition.

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Composting Method and Physicochemical Characteristics of By-products from Home Garden Plants and Small Herbivore Feces (옥수수 부산물과 토끼 분변의 이화학적 성분특성 및 퇴비 제조조건)

  • Kim, Dae-Gyun;Kim, Jin-Young;Lee, Won-Suk;Kim, Hye-Hyeong;Seo, Myung-Whoon;Park, In-Tae;Hyun, Junge;Yoo, Gayoung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.695-703
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to suggest a sustainable farming practice forresource recycling in vegetable gardens of North Korea. In North Korea, farmers are allowed to own private vegetable gardens less than $100m^2$. However, usage of fertilizers in private vegetable gardens is very limited due to economic sanctions by UN security council. If North and South Korea initiated the cooperative action in the near future, agricultural sector would be the highest priority cooperation area. Considering the current North Korean situation in agriculture, we would like to suggest a method for producing organic fertilizer manure. For raw materials for producing manure, we selected corn byproduct, which is the most abundant material, and rabbits' feces, which are easily obtained from individual private farms in North Korea. As we cannot get corn byproducts and rabbits' feces from North Korea, we prepared samples of corn byproducts and rabbits; feces from many places in South Korea. After statistical analysis of variance, there was no significant difference in the T-N contents of corn byproducts from Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Chungnam, Chungbuk, Jeollabuk and Gyeongsangnam-dos, which indicates that the fertilizing quality of corn byproducts does not vary significantly in the spatial scale of South. Korea. In this sense, if we use corn samples from Gyeonggi province, they would not be very different from those of North Korean regions. Physicochemical properties of rabbits' feces were different between those eating feed grains and those eating plants only. Hence, we used rabbits' feces of the rabbits from Yeonchun area, which were fed by plants only. Using three different mixing ratios of corn byproducts and rabbits' feces, composting was conducted for 60 days. The mixing ratio of 1:1 produced the manure with % T-N of 1.98% and OM/N ratio of 31.7 after 30 days of composting, which is comparable to the quality of commercial manure.

Characteristics of Water Distribution and Transport Depending on Soil Evolution in the Different Forest Stands (상이(相異)한 임분(林分)의 토층분화(土層分化)에 따른 수분분포(水分分布)와 이동특성(移動特性))

  • Jin, Hyun-O;Chung, Doug-Young;Son, Yowhan;Joo, Yeong-Teuk;Oh, Jong-Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.89 no.1
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    • pp.24-32
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    • 2000
  • We investigated the patterns of soil horizon evolution and its water distribution on three different forest stands covered with Larix leptolepis, Pinus koraiensis, and Qercus mongolica on the Experimental Forest of Kyunghee University, located in Kwangju, Kyunggi-Do. Compared to the properties of depths of O and A horizons evolved on the Pinus koraiensis stand, the depths of O and A horizons on the forest stands of Larix leptolepis and Qercus mongolica were shallower, indicating that the soil horizon were deeply influenced by geographical characteristics, its erosive and sedimentary distinction, vegetation cover and its population density. And the bulk densities of the sites selected were lower in the high slope gradient than that in the lower slope gradient at the same depth of soil profile. Therefore, the changes of the soil bulk densities were closely related to the soil organic matter and the vertical transport of soil particle throughout soil depths. On the other hand, the bulk density and organic matter content in soil can influence the water transport phenomena, resulting in decrease of the hydraulic conductivity as the increase in the bulk density, while the organic matter can not affect the hydraulic conductivity on the soil surface layer. For a rainfall infiltration characteristics from a lysimeter experiment established on the stand of Larix leptolepis, the bulk density and slope gradient strongly influenced the vertical transport of water, as well as the lateral movement of rainfall. Conclusively, the characteristics of water movement and distribution in the forest stand can be determined not by the geographical factor such as slope gradient but also by the bulk density and organic matter content remained in soils.

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