• Title, Summary, Keyword: 물질의 성질

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A Philological Comparative Study on HwanWoong of Samgukyusa and YanDi-ShenNong (『삼국유사(三國遺事)』의 환웅(桓雄)과 염제신농(炎帝神農)과 기록학적 비교고찰)

  • Yoon, Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.57-79
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    • 2001
  • [Go-Choseon], the first volume of Samgukyusa, is composed of two parts, the part of myth and that of history. There are very similar divinities between Hwanwoong in the myth of Dangun and YanDi-ShenNong of China: the solar divinity essential for survival of mankind and agriculture, the agriculture divinity said to have taught fanning, the medicine divinity said to have taught the characteristics of herbs and how to prevent diseases, the cultural hero who delivered civilization, and son on. During the transition from the age of myth to the age of history, the roles of gods had changed from the creation of the world to civilization and rule. The roles of Hwanwoong and YanDi-ShenNong were civilization and it was related with their divinities. Hence, regardless of a little difference, the myth of Hwanwoong and that of YanDi-ShenNong were created at the same stage of spiritual and material civilizations of Korea and China. This paper looks at the essence of [Wiseo] and the age of Hwanwoong through historical records. In my opinion, [Wiseo] is not a chinese history' book. The record, "According to [Wiseo] there had been Dangun-Wanggum 2,000 years ago" indicates the time [Wiseo] was written. 'Wi' means Wlman-choseon. Going back about 2,000 years from Wiman-choseon, the historical dates of the establishment of [Go-Choseon] almost dovetails to the age of King 'lao. So, there is a possibility that [Wiseo] is a history book of Wiman-Choseon dynasty which was written to prove the legitimacy of the dynasty by showing it succeeded to the Dangilll-Choseon dynasty. The sentences, "governed the country for 1,500 years" and "conferred Gija the position of king of Choseon" are very important records showing the age of the establishment of Dangun-Choseon. Gija came to Choseon in B.C 1122 when Yin replaced Zhou in the Choinese Continent. From the fact that Dangun had governed Choseon, we could reason out that Go-Choseon was established in B.C. 2622 that is much eariler than the era of king Yao, and that corresponds 'With the era of HuangDi(B.C 2698-2358). Hence, the era of Hwanwoong, the father-god of Dangun, might be later than B.G 3000 which conforms to the era of YanDi-ShenNong(B.C 3218-2600). Therefore, this paper contends lhat Hwanwoong and YanDi-ShenNong played the role of civilization in the same era [Go-Choseon], the first volume of Samgukusa is philologically very valuable material for research on the origin of Korean nation and its ancient history.

Effects of Pretreatment and Chemical Additives on Wood Cement Board Qualities from Larix leptolepis Grown in Korea (한국(韓國) 낙엽송재(落葉松材)의 목질(木質)세멘트판(板) 재질(材質)에 미치는 전처리(前處理) 및 첨가제(添加劑) 효과(效果))

  • Park, Jong Young;Lee, Hwa Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.250-259
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    • 1982
  • The Larch was known unsuitable species for the wood cement board owing to its some inhibitory substances. Therefore this research was carried out to evaluate the effect of pretreatments and chemical additives on the properties of woodflake cement board from Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) grown in Korea. In order to improve the board qualities, the woodflakes were treated by cold water or dilute NaOH solutions(0.1, 0.5, and 2.0%), and also some chemicals($CaCl_2$, $Al_2Cl_3$ and $Na_2SiO_4$) added to the wood cement mixture. The results obtained are summarized as follow; 1. The wood cement boards from the woodflake treated with 0.1% NaOH showed remarkable higher bending strengths and internal bonding strengths than those from the flake pretreated with cold water. 2. The bending strengths showed over $60kg/cm^2$, i.e. the standard strength of JIS A-5417, with pretreatments of NaOH over 0.1% and additive of $CaCl_2$ 3.0%. The maximum strengths showed at about 0.5 of every additives. 3. Addition of $CaCl_2$ and $Al_2Cl_3$, in the case of pretreated wood with NaOH above 0.1%, had effects on increasing the internal bonding strengths of sample boards. 4. The thickness swellings became decreasing along with the increasing NaOH pretreatment concentntration. 5. The equilibrium conditions of the sample boards pretreated with NaOH over 0.1% and added with $Al_2Cl_3$ and $CaCl_2$ were maintained at 9.0~10.5% moisture contents. 6. The specific gravity of the samples showed close relationships with strength properties.

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Effect of Rice Straw Heated in Water or 0.25N-NaClO$_2$ on the Nutrient Utilization of Diets in Chicks (증류수 혹은 0.25N NaClO$_2$에서 가열한 볏짚의 가금에서의 영양소이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 고태송;김해수;김성규;라채영
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1985
  • In order to observe an effect of the components of rice straw on the utilization of nutrient in chicks, the rice straw of 100g were digested in 800$m\ell$ of distilled water or 0.25N NaClO$_2$ at 135 C and in the pressure of 3.2kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ by autoclave during 30, 60 and 120 minutes (water or NaClO$_2$-30, 60 and 120- RS). The contents of neutral detergent fiber(NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin were analysed in the washed and dried rice straw meal. Hatched single comb white Leghorn male chicks were fed with a commercial chick mash for the first 10 days and five kinds of experimetal diets for the next 8 days which contained 17.0% of wheat bran (basal), cellulose(cotton meal), nontreated RS, water-30-RS and NaClO$_2$ 30-RS, respectively. The water-30, 60 and 120-RS baa leased 9.7, 12.1 and 13.3% of dry matter, respectively, while NaClO$_2$-30-RS had similar contents of dry matter loss with those of water-30-RS, and NaClO$_2$-60 and 120-RS had tossed 1.5 times of dry matter comparing with those of water-60 and 120-RS, respectively. And the dry matter loss of the water-RS or NaClO$_2$-RS was mainly originated front the extractable cell contents and hemicellulose of the non-treated RS. Birds fed water-30-RS diets had higher body weight gain and lower feed conversion than those of birds fed non-treated and NaClO$_2$-30-RS diets during 8 days of experimental feeding. Also nitrogen balance and retention rate of birds fed water -30-RS was higher comparing with those of birds non-treated and NaClO$_2$-30-RS. And digestibility of crude fat had been shown a highering trend in birds water-30-RS. The rate of metabolizable energy (MEn) to gross energy (GE) of birds fed non-treated RS, water-30-RS and NaClO$_2$30-RS diets were 71.9, 72.9 and 70.4%, respectively, and energy intake per metaboic body size (kg 0.75) were reached to 307.3, 296.2 and 291.4 kcal per day, respectively. And daily protein retention per kg 0.75 were 1.647, 1.969 and 1.560g, respectively. Then 30.56kcal of MEn required for 1 g of protein retention in birds fed water-30-RS, which was lower thu 36.90 and 37.56 kcal of birds fed non-treated and NaClO$_2$-30- RS, respectively. The results seems to indicate that non-treated rice straw had a substance or characters which affect the energy unilization or protein retention of diets and which will be eliminated by boiling in water.

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Petrogenesis of Plutonic Rocks in the Andong Batholith (안동저반 심성암류의 암석성인)

  • 황상구;장윤득;이윤종
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.3_4
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    • pp.200-213
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    • 2002
  • The Andong granitoid batholith represents five temporally distinct episodes (phases) of igneous activity. The batholith represents a plutonic complex of five pulsatively emplaced distinct intrusive multiphases. The petrochemical data show that the plutons fall into calc-alkaline series except for the Yean pluton, and plot within the diaenostic range for I-type origin and continental arc orogenic tectonic setting. Each pluton reveals systematic compositional variations of major and trace elements with $SiO_2$ or MgO, but different variation trends for some elements and considerably different REE patterns. Thus discontinuous, inconsistent variations in the elements indicate that the five plutons can not be explained by simple fractional crystallization from the same primary magma, but were intruded and solidified from the independent magmas of chemically heterogeneous origin. In the Andong, Dosan and Pungsan plutons, high values of molar CaO/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ) combined with low $Al_2$$O_3$/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ) and $K_2$O$Na_2$O ratios suggest a magma originated by dehydration melting of a metabasaltic to metatonalitic protolith. Whereas the Imha pluton show similar values of CaO/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ), but significantly higher ratios of $Al_2$$O_3$/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ) and $K_2$O$Na_2$O implying to a metagreywacke protolith.

Effects of External $Ca^{2+}$ ana the Inhibition of Na-pump on the Vanadate-induced Contraction in the Isolated Human and Rat Uterine Smooth Muscle (사람 및 흰쥐의 자궁근에서 Vanadate에 의한 수축에 미치는 외부 Calcium 및 Na-pump억제의 영향)

  • Jung, Jin-Sub;Han, Bok-Ki;Woo, Jae-Suk;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.125-137
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    • 1984
  • The effects of external $Ca^{2+}$ ana the inhibition of Na-pump on vanadate-induced contraction in isolated human and rat uterine smooth muscle were studied and the following results were observed. 1) Vanadate induced contraction in rat uterine muscle and showed maximal contraction at concentration of $5{\times}10^{-4}$M, and the contractile response to vanadate was more sensitive in human than rat uterine muscle. 2) Vanadate-induced contraction was not completely inhibited by $Ca^{2+}$ removal from PSS and the response to $Ca^{2+}$ removal was more sensitive in human than rat uterine muscle. 3) Vanadate-induced contraction decreased with increasing concentration of verapamil, but even in the presence of $3{\times}10^{-5}M$ verapamil which inhibited 100 K-induced contraction completely. about 40% of maximal contraction remained, and its amplitude was similar to that of contraction in $Ca^{2+}$-free solution. 4) Vanadate-induced contraction was increased by the inhibition of Na-pump and this increase also could be observed in the presence of $3{\times}10^{-5}M$ verapamil. 5) After pretreatment with $Ca^{2+}$-free PSS containing ouabain Vanadate-induced contraction was not increased, but the contractile response of these tissues to the addition of external $Ca^{2+}$ was remarkably increased in the presence of vanadate. 6) $3{\times}10^{-5}$M verapamil inhibited vanadate-induced $Ca^{45}$ influx completely, but after pretreatment with ouabain vanadate could induce remarkable $Ca^{45}$ influx even in the presence of verapmil. 7) With increasing the time of pretreatment with ouabain or $K^+$-free solution, the degree of increase in contraction by vanadate was more remarkable. 8) $10^{-4}M$ papaverine stowed a considerable inhibition of the increase in the vanadate-induced contraction by pretreatment with ouabain. 9) Acetylcholine-induced contraction increased with lengthening the duration of Na-pump inhibition even in the presence of verapamil. Considering above results it seems that the uterine muscle of human is more sensitive to vanadate than that of rat, and both internal and external $Ca^{2+}$ is utilized in vanadate·induced contraction. In the case of Na-pump inhibition several smooth muscle contracting agents seems to induce $Ca^{2+}$ influx which is not inhibited by verapamil. This $Ca^{2+}$ influx seems to be inhibited by papaverine and to be associated with membrane potential, although its precise characteristics is not certain.

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Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Sulgidduk (Rice Cake) Added with Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Powder (치아시드 분말을 첨가한 설기떡의 품질 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • O, Hyeonbin;Choi, Byung Bum;Kim, Young-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2017
  • Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) originated from Central America is a highly nutritious food containing large amounts of linolenic acid, dietary fiber, and protein. This study investigated the quality properties and antioxidant activities of Sulgidduk prepared with chia seed powder as a functional material. Freeze-dried chia seed powder was replaced with 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7% of rice flour. The addition of chia seed powder did not affect water content, whereas the pH value of the chia seed group decreased as compared to the control. For color measurements, a and b values increased as the amount of chia seed powder increased, whereas L value decreased. Hardness and chewiness of Sulgidduk with chia seed powder were lower than those of the control, whereas springiness of the chia seed group was higher than that of the control. Cohesiveness was not significantly different in all samples. According to retrogradation analysis based on changes in hardness during storage, it was confirmed that addition of chia seed powder inhibited aging of Sulgidduk. Retrogradation of CSP5 was the slowest. Consumer acceptability analysis did not show significant differences in all samples. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents tended to significantly increase as chia seed content increased. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of Sulgidduk were also elevated due to addition of chia seeds. From the results, addition of chia seed softened texture, inhibited aging, and enhanced antioxidant activities of Sulgidduk. It is concluded that addition of 5% chia seed powder, which showed high effectiveness for aging, is the most suitable for commercialization.

Selection and Cultural Characteristics of Whole Chicken Feather-Degrading Bacterium, Bacillus sp. SMMJ-2 (Whole Chicken Feather-Degrading Keratinolytic Protease 생산균주의 분리 및 특성)

  • Park Sung-Min;Jung Hyuck-Jun;Yu Tae-Shick
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2006
  • Feather, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is almost pure keratin, which is not easily degradable by common professes. Four strains, SMMJ-2, FL-3, NO-4 and RM-12 were isolated from soil for production of extracellular keratinolytic protease. They were identified as Bacillus sp. based on their morphological and physiological characteristics. They shown high protease activity on 5.0% skim milk agar medium and produced a substrate like mucoid on keratin agar medium. Bacillus sp. SMMJ-2 had a faster production time for producing keratinolytic protease than other strains. This strain did not completely degrade whole chicken feather for five days in basal medium but completely degraded whole chicken feather when supplied with nitrogen source for 40hours in keratinolytic producing medium ($0.7%\;K_{2}HPO_{4},\;0.2%\;KH_{2}PO_{4},\;0.1%$ fructose, 1.2% whole chicken feather, $0.01%\;Na_{2}CO_3$, pH 7.0). When supplied with chicken feather as nitrogen source, keratinolytic protease activity was 89 units/ml/min. When soybean meal was used as nitrogen source, the keratinolytic protease production reached a maximum of 106 units/ml/min after 48 hours under $30^{\circ}C$, 180 agitation. To isolate the keratinolytic protease, the culture filtrate was precipitated with $(NH_4)_{2}SO_4$ and acetone. The recovery rate of keratinolytic protease was about 96% after treatment with 50% acetone. The enzyme was stable in the range of $30{\sim}50^{\circ}C$ and pH $6.0{\sim}12.0$.

Rapid Detection of Radioactive Strontium in Water Samples Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)를 이용한 방사성 스트론튬 오염물질에 대한 신속한 모니터링 기술)

  • Park, Jin-young;Kim, Hyun-a;Park, Kihong;Kim, Kyoung-woong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.341-352
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    • 2017
  • Along with Cs-137 (half-life: 30.17 years), Sr-90 (half-life: 28.8 years) is one of the most important environmental monitoring radioactive elements. Rapid and easy monitoring method for Sr-90 using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been studied. Strontium belongs to a bivalent alkaline earth metal such as calcium and has similar electron arrangement and size. Due to these similar chemical properties, it can easily enter into the human body through the food chain via water, soil, and crops when leaked into the environment. In addition, it is immersed into the bone at the case of human influx and causes the toxicity for a long time (biological half-life: about 50 years). It is a very reductive and related with the specific reaction that makes wet analysis difficult. In particular, radioactive strontium should be monitored by nuclear power plants but it is very difficult to be analysed from high-cost problems as well as low accuracy of analysis due to complicated analysis procedures, expensive analysis equipment, and a pretreatment process of using massive chemicals. Therefore, we introduce the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis method that analyzes the elements in the sample using the inherent spectrum by generating plasma on the sample using pulse energy, and it can be analyzed in a few seconds without preprocessing. A variety of analytical plates for samples were developed to improve the analytical sensitivity by optimizing the laser, wavelength, and time resolution. This can be effectively applied to real-time monitoring of radioactive wastewater discharged from a nuclear power plant, and furthermore, it can be applied as an emergency monitoring means such as possible future accidents at a nuclear power plants.

In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Potentilla supina in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells (개소시랑개비 추출물의 RAW264.7대식세포에서 in vitro 항염효과)

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Kim, Hyun-Sam;Kim, Byoumg-Jin;Yu, Hong-Seob;Chang, Dong-Chil;Jin, Yong-Ik;Yoo, Dong-Lim;Choi, Jong-Keun;Park, Hee-Jhun;Lee, Seung-Bin;Lee, Kyung-Tea;Park, Soo-Jin
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.76-81
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    • 2017
  • Potentilla supina (Rosaceae) has traditionally been used to treat disorders of hemostasis, dysentery, malaria, bloody discharge and arthritis, and it has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, validity of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of P. supina using the ethanolic extract of P. supina and its sub-fractions. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of P. supina, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) in RAW 264.7 cells. Our results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, iNOS and $PGE_2$ production in RAW 264.7 cells. This result showed that ethyl acetate fraction of P. supina is expected to be a good candidate for development into a source of anti-inflammatory agents.

Effect of Green Tea on Tissue Distribution and Deposition of 14C-Benzo[a]pyrene in Rats (흰쥐에서 녹차의 섭취가 14C-Benzo[a]pyrene의 조직 분배 및 잔류에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ju-Yeon;Noh, Sang-K.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.818-823
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    • 2011
  • Recently, we showed that green tea extract (GTE) markedly lowers the intestinal absorption of $^{14}C$-benzo[a]pyrene ($^{14}C$-BaP) and enhances its secretion into the biliary route, suggesting a protective role for GTE against body burden. These findings indicate that green tea could be used as an effective dietary means against the toxicity of BaP. The present study, therefore, was designed to investigate if green tea intake could affect the tissue distribution and deposition of $^{14}C$-BaP in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a nutritionally adequate AIN-93G diet and deionized water. At ~340 g of weight, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with 27.4 kBq of [4-$^{14}C$]-BaP and 5.0 mg of BaP dissolved in $300\;{\mu}L$ of olive oil and then assigned randomly to the following two groups: one group (GTE) of rats was fed the AIN-93G diet with GTE via drinking water at approx. 4.7 mg of catechins/d, whereas the other was fed the same diet but without GTE (control). At 4 wk of dietary treatment with GTE, animals were euthanized and heart, liver, brain, spleen, kidney, retroperitoneal fat, testis, and epididymal fat were collected, weighed, and analyzed for tissue $^{14}C$-BaP. Both the control and GTE groups continuously gained weight throughout the study, but there was no significant difference between the groups. No significant differences were observed in the weights of heart, liver, brain, spleen, kidney, retroperitoneal fat, testis, and epididymal fat. However, the radioactivities of $^{14}C$-BaP, expressed in dpm/g, were significantly lower in the heart, liver, brain, spleen, and epididymal fat of rats receiving GTE as compared to their respective controls. These data indicate that green tea intake markedly lowers tissue accumulation of $^{14}C$-BaP. Taken together, these findings suggest that the decreased tissue levels of BaP by GTE intake may be associated with lowered intestinal absorption of BaP and its enhanced secretion into the bile.