• Title, Summary, Keyword: 물질의 성질

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A Study for Crystal Growth Inhibition of Ettringite by Solution Synthesis Experiment (용액합성실험에 의한 에트린자이트 결정성장억제 연구)

  • Lee, Hyo-Min;Hwang, Jin-Yeon;Oh, Ji-Ho
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2010
  • Ettringite $(Ca_6[Al(OH)_6]_2(SO_4)_3{\cdot}26H_2O)$ is a sulfate mineral that shows a complicate property in concrete. It is often called as "a cancer of concrete" because secondary ettringite formation in hardened concrete often cause expansion and cracking of concrete due to its expansive crystal structure. In the present study, we tested the possibility for crystal growth inhibition of secondary ettringite by crystallization inhibitors that are commercially used for scaling inhibitors in Korea. For the test, we developed a method of ettringite solution synthesis. Three types of crystallization inhibitors were selected and examined the effects On ettringite growth inhibition. The experimental results of ettringite solution synthesis indicated that ettringite was successfully synthesized under condition that the mass balance between calcium hydroxide saturated solution and aluminum sulfate solution was attained. Monosulfate and semisulfate were synthesized when the ratio of $Ca^{2+}$ ions to ${SO_4}^{2+}$ ions was increased. The induction time of ettringite crystallization was less than 2 min. and crystallization was almost completed within an hour. The experimental results of ettringite crystallization inhibition showed that organic PBCT (2-Phosphonobutane-1,2,4-Tricarboxylic Acid) and inorganic SHMP (Sodium Hexametaphosphate) were relatively less effective on ettringite crystallization inhibition under experimental conditions. However, organic HEDP (1-Hydoxyethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid) effectively prevented ettringite growth with producing amorphous gel phase materials up to inhibitor concentration 0.1 vol.% of aluminum sulfate solution.

Synthesis of Artificial Zeolite from Fly Ash for Preparing Nursery Bed Soils and the Effects on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage (석탄회(石炭灰)를 이용한 육묘(育苗) 상토용(床土用) 인공(人工) 제올라이트의 제조와 배추 생육에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Kim, Yong-Woong;Lee, Hyun-Hee;Yoon, Chung-Han;Shin, Bang-Sup;Kim, Kwang-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.95-106
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    • 1998
  • To reduce the environmental contamination and to utilize fly ash massively produced from the coal power plant every year, we synthesized the artificial zeolite using fly ash treated with alkaline, and then analyzed the mineralogical and morphological properties by X-ray, IR, and SEM. The amount of $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ adsorbed by the fly ash and the artificial zeolite were determined with reaction time, amount of adsorbate used, ion concentrations. The results obtained from the pot experiments packed with the top soil, amended with granulated artificial zeolite which was made by treatment of 4% polyvinylalcohol, showed that CEC of the artificial zeolite was $257.7cmol^+kg^{-1}$, that was almost 36 times greater than that of fly ash. The ratio of $SiO_2/Al_2O_3$ decreased but the amount of Na increased. The physico-chemical properties analyzed by X-ray, IT, and SEM represented that the artificial zeolite synthesized had a similar morphological structure to that of the natural zeolite. The structures of the artificial zeolite had a significantly enlarged surface having a lot of pores, while the fly ash looked like spherical smooth shape with having not pores on the surface. Thus, the artificial zeolite was successfully synthesized. The results of adsorption isotherms of fly ash and artificial zeolite showed that the amount of $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ adsorbed increased as the equilibrium concentration increased, while $NH_4{^+}$ was strongly adsorbed on the surface of fly ash and artificial zeolite than that of $K^+$. The most distinctive growth of Chinese cabbage was found from the top soil(NPK + soils + 20% of granulated artificial zeolite + 5% of compost). Therefore, we concluded that one of the most effective methods to effectively recycle a fly ash was to make the artificial zeolite as we did in this experiment.

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Long-term Evaluation of Muscle Quality of the Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Fed with Extruded Pellet (배합사료로 장기간 사육된 넙치의 육질평가)

  • Kim, Kang-Woong;Kang, Yong-Jin;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Choi, Se-Min;Lee, Jong-Yun;MoonLee, Hae-Young;Bai, Sung-Chul C.
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the muscle quality of the olive flounder fed on extruded pellet (EP) diets compared with a raw fish moist pellet (MP) diet for olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus in a commercial scale for a year. The sensory and physical qualities and palatable compounds were compared for evaluation of muscle quality in fish. Four diets were formulated for this experiment: two experimental EP diets (EP 1 and 2), one commercial EP diet (CEP) and MP diet. Crude lipid of fish fed EP1 and EP2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of fish fed CEP, but not significantly different from that of fish fed MP (P>0.05). In the palatable compounds, the free amino acids composition were much alike in that of all the diets. Proline, glycine and alanine from fish fed diet EPs were the most abundant compound among amino acid compositions. There was little difference in the free amino acid compositions of all flounder from localities and the growing conditions between wild and cultured fishes. Taurine of fish fed EP1 was dominantly high over that of fish fed EP2, CEP and MP. In all nucleotides and their related compounds, ATP and IMP from fish fed EP diets were higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed MP. In the sensory score, overall-acceptability of fish fed EP2 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of fish fed EP1, CEP and MP. Hardness of physical properties from fish fed EP2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed CEP (P<0.01). These results strongly suggest that diets EP could be developed to replace MP diet for the grow-out stage of olive flounder without adverse effect on growth performance.

Crystallization and Magnetic Properties of Iron Doped La-Ba-Mn-O (Fe이 치환된 LaBaMnO계 산화물의 중성자 회절 및 Messbauer분광학연구)

  • Choi, Kang-Ryong;Kim, Sam-Jin;Shim, In-Bo;Kim, Chul-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2004
  • The iron doped colossal magnetoresistance materials with La-Ba-Mn-O perovskites structure have been synthesized by chemical reaction of sol-gel methods. Their crystallographic and magnetic properties have been studied with x-ray diffraction, VSM, RBS, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and magnetoresistance measurements. The crystal structure of the La$\_$0.67/Ba$\_$0.33/Mn$\_$0.99/Fe$\_$0.01/ $O_3$ at room temperature was determined to be orthorhombic of Pnma. The lattice parameters a$\_$0/ and c$\_$0/ increased gradually, but b$\_$0/ deceased with increase of iron substitution. The magnetization and coercivity deceased, also the Curie temperature decreased from 360 K as x increased from 0.00 to 0.05. Magnetoresistence measurements were carried out, and the maximum MR ($\Delta$$\rho$/$\rho$(0)) was observed at 281 K, about 9.5 % in 10 kOe. The temperature of maximum resistance (R$\_$MAX/) decreased with increasing substitution of Fe ions and a semiconductor-metal transition temperature (T$\_$SC-M/) decreased too. This phenomena show that ferromagnetic transition temperature decreased by substituting Fe for Mn ions, it decreases double exchange interaction. This result accords with magnetic structure of neutron diffraction. Mossbauer spectra of La$\_$0.67/Ba$\_$0.33/Mn$\_$0.99/Fe$\_$0.01/ $O_3$were taken at various temperatures ranging from 15 to 350 K. With lowering temperature of the sample, two magnetic phases were increased and finally it showed the two sharp sextets of spectra at 15 K. The isomer shift at all temperature range is about 0.3 mm/s relative to Fe metal, which means that both Fe ions are Fe$\^$3+/ states.Fe$\^$3+/ states.

Effect of Feeding Lactobacillus reuteri to Laying Hens on Laying Performance, Availability and Intestinal Microflora (Lactobacillus reuteri의 급여가 산란계의 생산성, 영양소 이용율 및 장내 미생물 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim S. H.;Park S. Y.;Lee S. J.;Ryu K. S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2004
  • A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the influence of feeding Lactobacillus reuteri culture (LR) on productive performance, intestinal microflora and availability in laying hens. Four hundred and eighty, Isa-Brown layers, 49 weeks of age, were fed diets supplemented with LR at the level of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, and $0.4\%$ of the diets for eight weeks. Egg production and egg weight were measured daily. Feed intake was weighed every two weeks. Egg quality was measured three times at the start, mid-term, and end of the experiment. Intestinal microflora were examined for Lactobacillus spp., E. coli and Salmonella at the end of the experiment. Overall egg production was the highest in $0.2\%$ LR (P<0.05), but that of $0.1\%$ or $0.4\%$ LR treatments did not significantly differ from that of control. Egg weight was significantly higher in LR feeding group than the control (P<0.05). Daily egg mass was significantly higher in $0.2\%$ and $0.4\%$ LR treatments compared to the control and $0.1\%$ LR (P<0.05). The number of jumbo and extra large eggs were increased in LR supplemented groups, especially in $0.1\%$ LR. Feed intake of layers fed LR supplemented diets tended to be lower than the control. However, feed conversion ratio significantly improved in LR supplemented groups (P<0.05). Availability of dry matter and crude protein improved significantly in $0.4\%$ LR treatment (P<0.05). But, those of ether extract and crude ash were not significantly different among treatments. Eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness were not significantly influenced by LR supplementation, and Haugh unit and yolk index were also similar to the control. Total number of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum and cecum fed LR supplemented diets were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in intestinal E. coli and Salmonella in all treatments. Therefore, it is concluded that dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus reuteri culture can improve the laying performance, feed efficiency and intestinal Lactobacillus.

Measurement of Specific Radioactivity for Clearance of Waste Contaminated with Re-186 for Medical Application (의료용 Re-186 오염폐기물의 규제해제를 위한 방사능측정)

  • Kim, Chang-Bum;Lee, Sang-Kyung;Jang, Seong-Joo;Kim, Jung-Min
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.633-638
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    • 2017
  • The amount of radioactive waste has been rapidly increased with development of radiation treatment in medical field. Recently, it has been a common practice to use I-131 for thyroid cancer, F-18 for PET/CT and Tc-99m for diagnosis of nuclear medicine. All the wastes concerned have been disposed of by means of the self-disposal method, for example incineration, after storage enough to decay less than clearance level. IAEA proposed criteria for clearance level of waste which depends on the individual ($10{\mu}Sv/y$) and collective dose (1 man-Sv/y), and concentration of each nuclide (IAEA Safety Series No 111-P-1.1, 1992 and IAEA RS-G-1.7, 2004). In this study, specific radioactivity of radioactive waste contaminated with Re-186 was measured to confirm whether it meets the clearance level. Re-186 has long half life of 3.8 days relatively and emits beta and gamma radiation, therefore it can be applied in treatment and imaging purposes. The specific radioactivity of contaminated gloves weared by radiation workers was measured by MCA(Multi-channel Analyzer) which was calibrated by reference materials in accordance with the measuring procedure. As a result, comparison evaluation of decay storage period between the half-life which was calculated by attenuation curve based on real measurement and physical half-life was considered, and it is showed that the physical half-life is longer than induced half-life. Therefore, the storage period of radioactive waste for self-disposal may be curtailed in case of application of induced half-life. The result of this study will be proposed as ISO standard.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Peel Extracts in Color-fleshed Potatoes (컬러감자외피 추출물의 항염활성)

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Jeong, Jin-Cheol;Kwon, Oh-Keun;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Su-Jeong;Soh, Hwang-Bae;Lee, Jong-Nam;Lee, Kyung-Tea;Park, Hee-Jhun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.533-538
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    • 2013
  • Potatoes were first introduced outside the Andes region four centuries ago, and have become an integral part of much of the world's food. Potatoes were first introduced into Europe in the 16th century and Korea in the early 19th century. In the nutritional aspects, potatoes contain abundant vitamins and minerals, as well as an assortment of phytochemicals such as carotenoids and natural phenols. Chlorogenic acid constitutes up to 90% of potato natural phenols. Due to the high content of potato functional compounds, it has known that potatoes are effective in the prevention of various human diseases. Recently, color-fleshed potatoes 'Hongyoung' and 'Jayoung' were developed by RDA, and it has reported that they have high content of anthocyanin. Additionally they show higher radical scavenging activity compared to white or yellow fleshed potatoes. So it will be expected that the consumption of color-fleshed potatoes grandually increase by pre-peeled potatoes and color potato chips. This study was conducted to enhance the peel of color-fleshed potatoes utilization and to determine the biological activity of peel of color-fleshed potatoes extract. The anti-inflammatory effects on ethanol extract and its solvent fraction were also evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activities of $CHCl_3$ fraction was evaluated for inhibitory activities against lipopolysacchride(LPS) induced nitric oxide(NO) and prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) and cyclo oxygenase-2(COX-2) protein expressions in RAW264.7 cell lines. The fraction inhibitory activity for both tests with $IC_{50}$ values showed in the ranges of $25{\sim}50{\mu}g/ml$. This result revealed that $CHCl_3$ fraction of Jayoung's peel is expected to be good candidate for development into source of anti-inflammatory agent.

Inhibitory effects of extracts from Smilacina japonica on lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW264.7 대식세포에서 풀솜대 추출물의 nitric oxide 및 prostaglandin E2생성 저해효과)

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Seo, Jong-Taek;Kim, Yul-Ho;Kim, Ki-Deog;Yoo, Dong-Lim;Lee, Jong-Nam;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Su-Jeong;Sohn, Hwang-Bae;Kim, Hyun-Sam;Kim, Bo-Sung;Lee, Kyung-Tea;Park, Hee-Jhun
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2014
  • Smilacina japonica is a localized common rhizomatous flowering plant, This plant is often used in Korean traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for migrain, diplegia, physical impurity, blood circulation, abscess and contusion. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, validity of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of S. japonica using the ethanolic extract and its subfractions. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) on RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that hexane fraction significantly inhibited the LPS induced NO and $PGE_2$ production in the cells. The hexane fractions inhibitory activity for NO tests with $IC_{50}$ values showed in $53.3{\mu}g/ml$ and $PGE_2$ tests with $IC_{50}$ values showed at $32.5{\mu}g/ml$. Theseis result suggest a potential role of hexane fraction from S. japonica as source of anti-inflammatory agent.

Dehumidification and Temperature Control for Green Houses using Lithium Bromide Solution and Cooling Coil (리튬브로마이드(LiBr) 용액의 흡습성질과 냉각코일을 이용한 온실 습도 및 온도 제어)

  • Lee, Sang Yeol;Lee, Chung Geon;Euh, Seung Hee;Oh, Kwang Cheol;Oh, Jae Heun;Kim, Dea Hyun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.337-341
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    • 2014
  • Due to the nature of the ambient air temperature in summer in korea, the growth of crops in greenhouse normally requires cooling and dehumidification. Even though various cooling and dehumidification methods have been presented, there are many obstacles to figure out in practical application such as excessive energy use, cost, and performance. To overcome this problem, the lab scale experiments using lithium bromide(LiBr) solution and cooling coil for dehumidification and cooling in greenhouses were performed. In this study, preliminary experiment of dehumidification and cooling for the greenhouse was done using LiBr solution as the dehumidifying materials, and cooling coil separately and then combined system was tested as well. Hot and humid air was dehumidified from 85% to 70% by passing through a pad soaked with LiBr, and cooled from 308K to 299K through the cooling coil. computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) analysis and analytical solution were done for the change of air temperature by heat transfer. Simulation results showed that the final air temperature was calculated 299.7K and 299.9K respectively with the deviation of 0.7K comparing the experimental value having good agreement. From this result, LiBr solution with cooling coil system could be applicable in the greenhouse.

The Anti-angiogenic Potential of a Phellodendron amurense Hot Water Extract in Vitro and ex Vivo (in Vitro와 ex vivo에서 황백 온수추출물의 신생혈관 억제효과)

  • Kim, Eok-Cheon;Kim, Seo Ho;Bae, Kiho;Kim, Han Sung;Gelinsky, Michael;Kim, Tack-Joong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.693-702
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    • 2015
  • Blocking new blood-vessel formation (angiogenesis) is now recognized as a useful approach to the therapeutic treatment of many solid tumors. The best validated approach to date is to target the vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF) pathway, a key regulator of angiogenesis. Many natural products and extracts that contain a variety of chemopreventive compounds have been shown to suppress the development of malignancies through their anti-angiogenic properties. Phellodendron amurense, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine, has been shown to possess antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties, among others. The present study investigated the effects of P. amurense hot-water extract (PAHWE) on angiogenesis, a key process in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. To investigate PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties, this study’s authors performed an analysis of angiogenesis and endothelial-cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as zymogram assays and the rat aortic ring-sprouting assay. PAHWE inhibited cell growth, mobility, and vessel formation in response to VEGF in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, it reduced VEGF-induced intracellular signaling events, such as the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9. These results indicate that PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties might lead to the development of potential drugs for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases such as cancer.