• Title, Summary, Keyword: 물질의 성질

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Inhibitory effects of extracts from Smilacina japonica on lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW264.7 대식세포에서 풀솜대 추출물의 nitric oxide 및 prostaglandin E2생성 저해효과)

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Seo, Jong-Taek;Kim, Yul-Ho;Kim, Ki-Deog;Yoo, Dong-Lim;Lee, Jong-Nam;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Su-Jeong;Sohn, Hwang-Bae;Kim, Hyun-Sam;Kim, Bo-Sung;Lee, Kyung-Tea;Park, Hee-Jhun
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2014
  • Smilacina japonica is a localized common rhizomatous flowering plant, This plant is often used in Korean traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for migrain, diplegia, physical impurity, blood circulation, abscess and contusion. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, validity of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of S. japonica using the ethanolic extract and its subfractions. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) on RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that hexane fraction significantly inhibited the LPS induced NO and $PGE_2$ production in the cells. The hexane fractions inhibitory activity for NO tests with $IC_{50}$ values showed in $53.3{\mu}g/ml$ and $PGE_2$ tests with $IC_{50}$ values showed at $32.5{\mu}g/ml$. Theseis result suggest a potential role of hexane fraction from S. japonica as source of anti-inflammatory agent.

Long-term Evaluation of Muscle Quality of the Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Fed with Extruded Pellet (배합사료로 장기간 사육된 넙치의 육질평가)

  • Kim, Kang-Woong;Kang, Yong-Jin;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Choi, Se-Min;Lee, Jong-Yun;MoonLee, Hae-Young;Bai, Sung-Chul C.
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the muscle quality of the olive flounder fed on extruded pellet (EP) diets compared with a raw fish moist pellet (MP) diet for olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus in a commercial scale for a year. The sensory and physical qualities and palatable compounds were compared for evaluation of muscle quality in fish. Four diets were formulated for this experiment: two experimental EP diets (EP 1 and 2), one commercial EP diet (CEP) and MP diet. Crude lipid of fish fed EP1 and EP2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of fish fed CEP, but not significantly different from that of fish fed MP (P>0.05). In the palatable compounds, the free amino acids composition were much alike in that of all the diets. Proline, glycine and alanine from fish fed diet EPs were the most abundant compound among amino acid compositions. There was little difference in the free amino acid compositions of all flounder from localities and the growing conditions between wild and cultured fishes. Taurine of fish fed EP1 was dominantly high over that of fish fed EP2, CEP and MP. In all nucleotides and their related compounds, ATP and IMP from fish fed EP diets were higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed MP. In the sensory score, overall-acceptability of fish fed EP2 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of fish fed EP1, CEP and MP. Hardness of physical properties from fish fed EP2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed CEP (P<0.01). These results strongly suggest that diets EP could be developed to replace MP diet for the grow-out stage of olive flounder without adverse effect on growth performance.

Selection and Cultural Characteristics of Whole Chicken Feather-Degrading Bacterium, Bacillus sp. SMMJ-2 (Whole Chicken Feather-Degrading Keratinolytic Protease 생산균주의 분리 및 특성)

  • Park Sung-Min;Jung Hyuck-Jun;Yu Tae-Shick
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2006
  • Feather, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is almost pure keratin, which is not easily degradable by common professes. Four strains, SMMJ-2, FL-3, NO-4 and RM-12 were isolated from soil for production of extracellular keratinolytic protease. They were identified as Bacillus sp. based on their morphological and physiological characteristics. They shown high protease activity on 5.0% skim milk agar medium and produced a substrate like mucoid on keratin agar medium. Bacillus sp. SMMJ-2 had a faster production time for producing keratinolytic protease than other strains. This strain did not completely degrade whole chicken feather for five days in basal medium but completely degraded whole chicken feather when supplied with nitrogen source for 40hours in keratinolytic producing medium ($0.7%\;K_{2}HPO_{4},\;0.2%\;KH_{2}PO_{4},\;0.1%$ fructose, 1.2% whole chicken feather, $0.01%\;Na_{2}CO_3$, pH 7.0). When supplied with chicken feather as nitrogen source, keratinolytic protease activity was 89 units/ml/min. When soybean meal was used as nitrogen source, the keratinolytic protease production reached a maximum of 106 units/ml/min after 48 hours under $30^{\circ}C$, 180 agitation. To isolate the keratinolytic protease, the culture filtrate was precipitated with $(NH_4)_{2}SO_4$ and acetone. The recovery rate of keratinolytic protease was about 96% after treatment with 50% acetone. The enzyme was stable in the range of $30{\sim}50^{\circ}C$ and pH $6.0{\sim}12.0$.

Crystallization and Magnetic Properties of Iron Doped La-Ba-Mn-O (Fe이 치환된 LaBaMnO계 산화물의 중성자 회절 및 Messbauer분광학연구)

  • Choi, Kang-Ryong;Kim, Sam-Jin;Shim, In-Bo;Kim, Chul-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2004
  • The iron doped colossal magnetoresistance materials with La-Ba-Mn-O perovskites structure have been synthesized by chemical reaction of sol-gel methods. Their crystallographic and magnetic properties have been studied with x-ray diffraction, VSM, RBS, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and magnetoresistance measurements. The crystal structure of the La$\_$0.67/Ba$\_$0.33/Mn$\_$0.99/Fe$\_$0.01/ $O_3$ at room temperature was determined to be orthorhombic of Pnma. The lattice parameters a$\_$0/ and c$\_$0/ increased gradually, but b$\_$0/ deceased with increase of iron substitution. The magnetization and coercivity deceased, also the Curie temperature decreased from 360 K as x increased from 0.00 to 0.05. Magnetoresistence measurements were carried out, and the maximum MR ($\Delta$$\rho$/$\rho$(0)) was observed at 281 K, about 9.5 % in 10 kOe. The temperature of maximum resistance (R$\_$MAX/) decreased with increasing substitution of Fe ions and a semiconductor-metal transition temperature (T$\_$SC-M/) decreased too. This phenomena show that ferromagnetic transition temperature decreased by substituting Fe for Mn ions, it decreases double exchange interaction. This result accords with magnetic structure of neutron diffraction. Mossbauer spectra of La$\_$0.67/Ba$\_$0.33/Mn$\_$0.99/Fe$\_$0.01/ $O_3$were taken at various temperatures ranging from 15 to 350 K. With lowering temperature of the sample, two magnetic phases were increased and finally it showed the two sharp sextets of spectra at 15 K. The isomer shift at all temperature range is about 0.3 mm/s relative to Fe metal, which means that both Fe ions are Fe$\^$3+/ states.Fe$\^$3+/ states.

Effect of Feeding Lactobacillus reuteri to Laying Hens on Laying Performance, Availability and Intestinal Microflora (Lactobacillus reuteri의 급여가 산란계의 생산성, 영양소 이용율 및 장내 미생물 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim S. H.;Park S. Y.;Lee S. J.;Ryu K. S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2004
  • A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the influence of feeding Lactobacillus reuteri culture (LR) on productive performance, intestinal microflora and availability in laying hens. Four hundred and eighty, Isa-Brown layers, 49 weeks of age, were fed diets supplemented with LR at the level of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, and $0.4\%$ of the diets for eight weeks. Egg production and egg weight were measured daily. Feed intake was weighed every two weeks. Egg quality was measured three times at the start, mid-term, and end of the experiment. Intestinal microflora were examined for Lactobacillus spp., E. coli and Salmonella at the end of the experiment. Overall egg production was the highest in $0.2\%$ LR (P<0.05), but that of $0.1\%$ or $0.4\%$ LR treatments did not significantly differ from that of control. Egg weight was significantly higher in LR feeding group than the control (P<0.05). Daily egg mass was significantly higher in $0.2\%$ and $0.4\%$ LR treatments compared to the control and $0.1\%$ LR (P<0.05). The number of jumbo and extra large eggs were increased in LR supplemented groups, especially in $0.1\%$ LR. Feed intake of layers fed LR supplemented diets tended to be lower than the control. However, feed conversion ratio significantly improved in LR supplemented groups (P<0.05). Availability of dry matter and crude protein improved significantly in $0.4\%$ LR treatment (P<0.05). But, those of ether extract and crude ash were not significantly different among treatments. Eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness were not significantly influenced by LR supplementation, and Haugh unit and yolk index were also similar to the control. Total number of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum and cecum fed LR supplemented diets were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in intestinal E. coli and Salmonella in all treatments. Therefore, it is concluded that dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus reuteri culture can improve the laying performance, feed efficiency and intestinal Lactobacillus.

Petrogenesis of Plutonic Rocks in the Andong Batholith (안동저반 심성암류의 암석성인)

  • 황상구;장윤득;이윤종
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.3_4
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    • pp.200-213
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    • 2002
  • The Andong granitoid batholith represents five temporally distinct episodes (phases) of igneous activity. The batholith represents a plutonic complex of five pulsatively emplaced distinct intrusive multiphases. The petrochemical data show that the plutons fall into calc-alkaline series except for the Yean pluton, and plot within the diaenostic range for I-type origin and continental arc orogenic tectonic setting. Each pluton reveals systematic compositional variations of major and trace elements with $SiO_2$ or MgO, but different variation trends for some elements and considerably different REE patterns. Thus discontinuous, inconsistent variations in the elements indicate that the five plutons can not be explained by simple fractional crystallization from the same primary magma, but were intruded and solidified from the independent magmas of chemically heterogeneous origin. In the Andong, Dosan and Pungsan plutons, high values of molar CaO/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ) combined with low $Al_2$$O_3$/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ) and $K_2$O$Na_2$O ratios suggest a magma originated by dehydration melting of a metabasaltic to metatonalitic protolith. Whereas the Imha pluton show similar values of CaO/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ), but significantly higher ratios of $Al_2$$O_3$/(MgO+$FeO^{t}$ ) and $K_2$O$Na_2$O implying to a metagreywacke protolith.

A Philological Comparative Study on HwanWoong of Samgukyusa and YanDi-ShenNong (『삼국유사(三國遺事)』의 환웅(桓雄)과 염제신농(炎帝神農)과 기록학적 비교고찰)

  • Yoon, Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.57-79
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    • 2001
  • [Go-Choseon], the first volume of Samgukyusa, is composed of two parts, the part of myth and that of history. There are very similar divinities between Hwanwoong in the myth of Dangun and YanDi-ShenNong of China: the solar divinity essential for survival of mankind and agriculture, the agriculture divinity said to have taught fanning, the medicine divinity said to have taught the characteristics of herbs and how to prevent diseases, the cultural hero who delivered civilization, and son on. During the transition from the age of myth to the age of history, the roles of gods had changed from the creation of the world to civilization and rule. The roles of Hwanwoong and YanDi-ShenNong were civilization and it was related with their divinities. Hence, regardless of a little difference, the myth of Hwanwoong and that of YanDi-ShenNong were created at the same stage of spiritual and material civilizations of Korea and China. This paper looks at the essence of [Wiseo] and the age of Hwanwoong through historical records. In my opinion, [Wiseo] is not a chinese history' book. The record, "According to [Wiseo] there had been Dangun-Wanggum 2,000 years ago" indicates the time [Wiseo] was written. 'Wi' means Wlman-choseon. Going back about 2,000 years from Wiman-choseon, the historical dates of the establishment of [Go-Choseon] almost dovetails to the age of King 'lao. So, there is a possibility that [Wiseo] is a history book of Wiman-Choseon dynasty which was written to prove the legitimacy of the dynasty by showing it succeeded to the Dangilll-Choseon dynasty. The sentences, "governed the country for 1,500 years" and "conferred Gija the position of king of Choseon" are very important records showing the age of the establishment of Dangun-Choseon. Gija came to Choseon in B.C 1122 when Yin replaced Zhou in the Choinese Continent. From the fact that Dangun had governed Choseon, we could reason out that Go-Choseon was established in B.C. 2622 that is much eariler than the era of king Yao, and that corresponds 'With the era of HuangDi(B.C 2698-2358). Hence, the era of Hwanwoong, the father-god of Dangun, might be later than B.G 3000 which conforms to the era of YanDi-ShenNong(B.C 3218-2600). Therefore, this paper contends lhat Hwanwoong and YanDi-ShenNong played the role of civilization in the same era [Go-Choseon], the first volume of Samgukusa is philologically very valuable material for research on the origin of Korean nation and its ancient history.

Characteristics of Water Distribution and Transport Depending on Soil Evolution in the Different Forest Stands (상이(相異)한 임분(林分)의 토층분화(土層分化)에 따른 수분분포(水分分布)와 이동특성(移動特性))

  • Jin, Hyun-O;Chung, Doug-Young;Son, Yowhan;Joo, Yeong-Teuk;Oh, Jong-Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.89 no.1
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    • pp.24-32
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    • 2000
  • We investigated the patterns of soil horizon evolution and its water distribution on three different forest stands covered with Larix leptolepis, Pinus koraiensis, and Qercus mongolica on the Experimental Forest of Kyunghee University, located in Kwangju, Kyunggi-Do. Compared to the properties of depths of O and A horizons evolved on the Pinus koraiensis stand, the depths of O and A horizons on the forest stands of Larix leptolepis and Qercus mongolica were shallower, indicating that the soil horizon were deeply influenced by geographical characteristics, its erosive and sedimentary distinction, vegetation cover and its population density. And the bulk densities of the sites selected were lower in the high slope gradient than that in the lower slope gradient at the same depth of soil profile. Therefore, the changes of the soil bulk densities were closely related to the soil organic matter and the vertical transport of soil particle throughout soil depths. On the other hand, the bulk density and organic matter content in soil can influence the water transport phenomena, resulting in decrease of the hydraulic conductivity as the increase in the bulk density, while the organic matter can not affect the hydraulic conductivity on the soil surface layer. For a rainfall infiltration characteristics from a lysimeter experiment established on the stand of Larix leptolepis, the bulk density and slope gradient strongly influenced the vertical transport of water, as well as the lateral movement of rainfall. Conclusively, the characteristics of water movement and distribution in the forest stand can be determined not by the geographical factor such as slope gradient but also by the bulk density and organic matter content remained in soils.

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Synthesis of Artificial Zeolite from Fly Ash for Preparing Nursery Bed Soils and the Effects on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage (석탄회(石炭灰)를 이용한 육묘(育苗) 상토용(床土用) 인공(人工) 제올라이트의 제조와 배추 생육에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Kim, Yong-Woong;Lee, Hyun-Hee;Yoon, Chung-Han;Shin, Bang-Sup;Kim, Kwang-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.95-106
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    • 1998
  • To reduce the environmental contamination and to utilize fly ash massively produced from the coal power plant every year, we synthesized the artificial zeolite using fly ash treated with alkaline, and then analyzed the mineralogical and morphological properties by X-ray, IR, and SEM. The amount of $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ adsorbed by the fly ash and the artificial zeolite were determined with reaction time, amount of adsorbate used, ion concentrations. The results obtained from the pot experiments packed with the top soil, amended with granulated artificial zeolite which was made by treatment of 4% polyvinylalcohol, showed that CEC of the artificial zeolite was $257.7cmol^+kg^{-1}$, that was almost 36 times greater than that of fly ash. The ratio of $SiO_2/Al_2O_3$ decreased but the amount of Na increased. The physico-chemical properties analyzed by X-ray, IT, and SEM represented that the artificial zeolite synthesized had a similar morphological structure to that of the natural zeolite. The structures of the artificial zeolite had a significantly enlarged surface having a lot of pores, while the fly ash looked like spherical smooth shape with having not pores on the surface. Thus, the artificial zeolite was successfully synthesized. The results of adsorption isotherms of fly ash and artificial zeolite showed that the amount of $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ adsorbed increased as the equilibrium concentration increased, while $NH_4{^+}$ was strongly adsorbed on the surface of fly ash and artificial zeolite than that of $K^+$. The most distinctive growth of Chinese cabbage was found from the top soil(NPK + soils + 20% of granulated artificial zeolite + 5% of compost). Therefore, we concluded that one of the most effective methods to effectively recycle a fly ash was to make the artificial zeolite as we did in this experiment.

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Studies on the Physical and Chemical Denatures of Cocoon Bave Sericin throughout Silk Filature Processes (제사과정 전후에서의 견사세리신의 물리화학적 성질변화에 관한 연구)

  • 남중희
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.21-48
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    • 1974
  • The studies were carried out to disclose the physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction obtained from silk cocoon shells and its characteristics of swelling and solubility. The following results were obtained. 1. The physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction. 1) In contrast to the easy water soluble sericin, the hard soluble sericin contains fewer amino acids include of polar side radical while the hard soluble amino acid sach as alanine and leucine were detected. 2) The easy soluble amino acids were found mainly on the outer part of the fibroin, but the hard soluble amino acids were located in the near parts to the fibroin. 3) The swelling and solubility of the sericin could be hardly assayed by the analysis of the amino acid composition, and could be considered to tee closely related to the compound of the sericin crystal and secondary structure. 4) The X-ray patterns of the cocoon filament were ring shape, but they disappeared by the degumming treatment. 5) The sericin of tussah silkworm (A. pernyi), showed stronger circular patterns in the meridian than the regular silkworm (Bombyx mori). 6) There was no pattern difference between Fraction A and B. 7) X-ray diffraction patterns of the Sericin 1, ll and 111 were similar except interference of 8.85A (side chain spacing). 8) The amino acids above 150 in molecular weight such as Cys. Tyr. Phe. His. and Arg. were not found quantitatively by the 60 minutes-hydrolysis (6N-HCI). 9) The X-ray Pattern of 4.6A had a tendency to disappear with hot-water, ether, and alcohol treatment. 10) The partial hydrolysis of sericin showed a cirucular interference (2A) on the meridian. 11) The sericin pellet after hydrolysis was considered to be peptides composed with specific amino acids. 12) The decomposing temperature of Sericin 111 was higher than that of Sericin I and II. 13) Thermogram of the inner portioned sericin of the cocoon shell had double endothermic peaks at 165$^{\circ}C$, and 245$^{\circ}C$, and its decomposing temperature was higher than that of other portioned sericin. 14) The infrared spectroscopic properties among sericin I, II, III and sericin extracted from each layer portion of the cocoon shell were similar. II. The characteristics of seriein swelling and solubility related with silk processing. 1) Fifteen minutes was required to dehydrate the free moisture of cocoon shells with centrifugal force controlled at 13${\times}$10$^4$ dyne/g at 3,000 R.P.M. B) It took 30 minutes for the sericin to show positive reaction with the Folin-Ciocaltue reagent at room temperature. 3) The measurable wave length of the visible radiation was 500-750m${\mu}$, and the highest absorbance was observed at the wave length of 650m${\mu}$. 4) The colorimetric analysis should be conducted at 650mu for low concentration (10$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$), and at 500m${\mu}$ for the higher concentration to obtain an exact analysis. 5) The absorbing curves of sericin and egg albumin at different wave lengths were similar, but the absorbance of the former was slightly higher than that of the latter. 6) The quantity of the sericin measured by the colorimetric analysis, turned out to be less than by the Kjeldahl method. 7) Both temperature and duration in the cocoon cooking process has much effect on the swelling and solubility of the cocoon shells, but the temperature was more influential than the duration of the treatment. 8) The factorial relation between the temperature and the duration of treatment of the cocoon cooking to check for siricin swelling and solubility showed that the treatment duration should be gradually increased to reach optimum swelling and solubility of sericin with low temperature(70$^{\circ}C$) . High temperature, however, showed more sharp increase. 9) The more increased temperature in the drying of fresh cocoons, the less the sericin swelling and solubility were obtained. 10) In a specific cooking duration, the heavier the cocoon shell is, the less the swelling and solubility were obtained. 11) It was considered that there are differences in swelling or solubility between the filaments of each cocoon layer. 12) Sericin swelling or solubility in the cocoon filament was decreased by the wax extraction.. 13) The ionic surface active agent accelerated the swelling and solubility of the sericin at the range of pH 6-7. 14) In the same conditions as above, the cation agent was absorbed into the sericin. 15) In case of the increase of Ca ang Mg in the reeling water, its pH value drifted toward the acidity. 16) A buffering action was observed between the sericin and the water hardness constituents in the reeling water. 17) The effect of calcium on the swelling and solubility of the sericin was more moderate than that of magnecium. 18) The solute of the water hardness constituents increased the electric conductivity in the reeling water.

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