• Title, Summary, Keyword: 미세 움직임

Search Result 21, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

Image warping using an adaptive partial matching method (적응적 부분 정합 방법을 이용한 영상 비틀림 방법)

  • 임동근;호요성
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
    • /
    • v.22 no.12
    • /
    • pp.2783-2797
    • /
    • 1997
  • This paper proposes a new motion estimation algorithm that employs matching in a variable search area. Instead of uisg a fixed search range for coarse motion estimation, we examine a varying search range, which is determined adaptively by the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of the frame difference. The hexagonal matching method is one of the refined methods in image warping. It produces improved image quality, but it requires a large amount of computataions. The proposed adaptive partial matching method reduces computational complexity below about 50% of the hexagonal matching method, while maintaining the image quality comparable. The performance of two motion compensation methods, which combine the affine or bilinear transformation with the proposed motion estimation algorithm, is evaluated based on the following criteria:computtational complexity, number of coding bits, and reconstructed image quality. The quality of reconstructed images by the proposed method is substantially improved relative to the conventional BMA method, and is comparable to the full hexagonal matching method;in addition, computational complexity and the number of coding bits are reduced significantly.

  • PDF

Empathy Evaluation Method Using Micro-movement (인체 미동을 이용한 공감도 평가 방법)

  • Hwang, Sung Teac;Park, SangIn;Won, Myoung Ju;Whang, Mincheol
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.67-74
    • /
    • 2017
  • The goal of this study is to present quantification method for empathy. The micro-movement technology (non-contact sensing method) was used to identify empathy level. Participants were first divided into two groups: Empathized and not empathized. Then, the upper body data of participants were collected utilizing web-cam when participants carried expression tasks. The data were analyzed and categorized into 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 3 Hz, 5 Hz, 15 Hz. The average movement, variation, and synchronization of the movement were then compared. The results showed a low average movement and variation in a group who empathized. Also, the participants, who empathized, synchronized their movement during the task. This indicates that the people concentrates with each other when empathy has been established and show different levels of movement. These findings suggest the possibility of empathy quantification using non-contact sensing method.

How to Improve Image Quality for the Chest PA and the Simple Abdomen X-ray Examinations (흉, 복부 단순 X-ray 검사 시 영상의 질 향상 방법)

  • Cho, Pyong Kon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.7 no.3
    • /
    • pp.165-173
    • /
    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to examine how much the movement at X-ray examinations like breathing or the positioning affects the image during chest or abdomen X-ray examination so as to create an image containing information as much as possible. The study method adopted is doing the X-ray in each of the states including breathing (inspiration & expiration) and movement in the standing chest PA X-ray and simple abdomen X-ray among the kinds of examination selected the most in hospitals and then evaluating them by applying the standards of image evaluation for each region. According to the study result, about the standing chest PA X-ray, the images taken at inspiration contain more information than those taken at expiration or having subtle movement during the examination. About the simple abdomen X-ray, the images taken at expiration contain more information than those taken at inspiration or movement. The above study results imply that regarding general X-ray examination, information we can find from the images may differ significantly according to the region examined, examination purpose, or movement during the examination like breathing.

A New Face Tracking Method Using Block Difference Image and Kalman Filter in Moving Picture (동영상에서 칼만 예측기와 블록 차영상을 이용한 얼굴영역 검출기법)

  • Jang, Hee-Jun;Ko, Hye-Sun;Choi, Young-Woo;Han, Young-Joon;Hahn, Hern-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
    • /
    • v.15 no.2
    • /
    • pp.163-172
    • /
    • 2005
  • When tracking a human face in the moving pictures with complex background under irregular lighting conditions, the detected face can be larger including background or smaller including only a part of the face. Even background can be detected as a face area. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new face tracking method using a block difference image and a Kalman estimator. The block difference image allows us to detect even a small motion of a human and the face area is selected using the skin color inside the detected motion area. If the pixels with skin color inside the detected motion area, the boundary of the area is represented by a code sequence using the 8-neighbor window and the head area is detected analysing this code. The pixels in the head area is segmented by colors and the region most similar with the skin color is considered as a face area. The detected face area is represented by a rectangle including the area and its four vertices are used as the states of the Kalman estimator to trace the motion of the face area. It is proved by the experiments that the proposed method increases the accuracy of face detection and reduces the fare detection time significantly.

Assessment of the Posture Function by Head Movement (상체움직임에 따른 자세기능의 평가)

  • Kim, Jeong-Lae;Hwang, Kyu-Sung;Nam, Youg-Seok
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
    • /
    • v.14 no.5
    • /
    • pp.131-135
    • /
    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to show the detection of the head movement within relatively the posture function. An analysis of the posture function was inquired a displacement that the ranges of stance direction showed generally a variation across all condition through the head movement. CNS condition (C_RL-MIN-AVG) was verified slightly greater variation at $0.226{\pm}0.04$ units. Somatosensory condition (So_$RL-_{MIN-AVG}$) was verified slightly greater variation at $0.939{\pm}0.46$ units. Vestibular condition (Ve_$RL-_{MIN-AVG}$) was verified slightly greater variation at $4.009{\pm}1.05$ units. Vision condition (Vi_$RL-_{MIN-AVG}$) was verified greater variation at $8.336{\pm}4.05$ units. When the movement head of vision characteristic function was presented a diminutive variance. On the CNS characteristic condition of the movement head function was presented a diminutive variance.

Electro chemical characteristics of $(MnX)O_2$ electrode prepared by thermal decomposition method (열분해법으로 제조된 $(MnX)O_2$ 전극의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sik;Lee, Hae-Yon;Huh, Jeoung-Sub;Kim, Jong-Ryung;Lee, Dong-Yoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.348-351
    • /
    • 2003
  • 산소 과전압이 낮은 $MnO_2$를 촉매로 사용하여 반도체 산화물계의 산소선택성 전극을 제조하고 산화물 coating층의 미세구조와 전기화학적 특성을 분석하였다. Ti 기판에 열분해 법을 이용하여 $MnO_2$ 피막을 형성하였고, 또한 PVDF : $MnO_2$의 함량비를 1 : 1에서 1 : 40까지 정량적으로 변화시키고 DMF의 함량을 각각의 고정된 PVDF : $MnO_2$의 함량비에서 변화시켜 Pb전극에 1.5 mm/sec의 속도로 5회 dipping하여 $MnO_2$ 피막층을 형성 하였다. $450^{\circ}C$에서 1시간 열분해하여 약 $1\;{\mu}m$$MnO_2$ 피막층이 형성되었으나 Ti 기판과의 접착력이 약하여 피막자체에 대한 전기화학적 특성을 관찰할 수 없었다. PVDF : DMF = 4 : 96인 경우 pb 전극의 피막층이 얇기 때문에 박리현상이 일어났으며 이는 산화물 용제의 낮은 점도 때문인 것으로 판단된다. 또한 PVDF : DMF = 10 : 90의 경우는 5회 dipping 하여 약 $150\;{\mu}m$의 피막층을 형성하였다. PVDF : $MnO_2$의 함량비가 1:1에서 1:6 까지는 DMF의 함량에 무관하게 전극 특성이 나타나지 않았지만 $MnO_2$의 양이 상대적으로 증가하면 cycle이 증가하더라도 거의 일정한 전류 값을 갖고 $MnO_2$와 PVDF의 비가 20:1 이상의 조성에서는 균일한 CV 특성을 나타냈다. 이는 $MnO_2$가 효과적으로 촉매 작용을 한 것으로 판단되며 anodic polarization에 의한 산소 발생 과전압도 약 1.4V 정도로 감소되었다.동등한 MSIL 코드를 생성하도록 시스템을 컴파일러 기법을 이용하여 모듈별로 구성하였다.적용하였다.n rate compared with conventional face recognition algorithms. 아니라 실내에서도 발생하고 있었다. 정량한 8개 화합물 각각과 총 휘발성 유기화합물의 스피어만 상관계수는 벤젠을 제외하고는 모두 유의하였다. 이중 톨루엔과 크실렌은 총 휘발성 유기화합물과 좋은 상관성 (톨루엔 0.76, 크실렌, 0.87)을 나타내었다. 이 연구는 톨루엔과 크실렌이 총 휘발성 유기화합물의 좋은 지표를 사용될 있고, 톨루엔, 에틸벤젠, 크실렌 등 많은 휘발성 유기화합물의 발생원은 실외뿐 아니라 실내에도 있음을 나타내고 있다.>10)의 $[^{18}F]F_2$를 얻었다. 결론: $^{18}O(p,n)^{18}F$ 핵반응을 이용하여 친전자성 방사성동위원소 $[^{18}F]F_2$를 생산하였다. 표적 챔버는 알루미늄으로 제작하였으며 본 연구에서 연구된 $[^{18}F]F_2$가스는 친핵성 치환반응으로 방사성동위원소를 도입하기 어려운 다양한 방사성의 약품개발에 유용하게 이용될 수 있을 것이다.었으나 움직임 보정 후 영상을 이용하여 비교한 경우, 결합능 변화가 선조체 영역에서 국한되어 나타나며 그 유의성이 움직임 보정 전에 비하여 낮음을 알 수 있었다. 결론: 뇌활성화 과제 수행시에 동반되는 피험자의 머리 움직임에 의하여 도파민 유리가 과대평가되었으며 이는 이 연구에서 제안한 영상정합을 이용한 움직임 보정기법에 의해서 개선되었다. 답이 없는 문제, 문제 만들기, 일반화가 가능한 문제 등으로 보고, 수학적 창의성 중 특히 확산적 사고에 초점을 맞추어 개방형 문제가 확산적 사고의 요소인 유창성, 독창성, 유연성 등에 각각 어떤 영향을 미치는지 20주의 프로그램을 개발, 진행하여 그 효과를 검증하고자

  • PDF

Comparison of Acting Style Between 2D Hand-drawn Animation and 3D Computer Animation : Focused on Expression of Emotion by Using Close-up (2D 핸드 드로운 애니메이션과 3D 컴퓨터 애니메이션에서의 액팅(acting) 스타일 비교 -클로즈-업을 이용한 감정표현을 중심으로-)

  • Moon, Jaecheol;Kim, Yumi
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
    • /
    • /
    • pp.147-165
    • /
    • 2014
  • Around the turn of 21st century, there has been a major technological shift in the animation industry. With development of reality-based computer graphics, major American animation studios replaced hand-drawn method with the new 3D computer graphics. Traditional animation was known for its simplified shapes such as circles and triangle that makes characters' movements distinctive from non-animated feature films. Computer-generated animation has largely replaced it, but is under continuous criticism that automated movements and reality-like graphics devaluate the aesthetics of animation. Although hand-drawn animation is still produced, 3D computer graphics have taken commercial lead and there has been many changes to acting of animated characters, which calls for detailed investigation. Firstly, the changes in acting of 3D characters can be traced from looking at human-like rigging method that mimics humanistic moving mechanism. Also, if hair and clothing was part of hand-drawn characters' acting, it has now been hidden inside mathematical simulation of 3D graphics, leaving only the body to be used in acting. Secondly, looking at "Stretch and Squash" method, which represents the distinctive movements of animation, through the lens of media, a paradox arises. Hand-drawn animation are produced frame-by-frame, and a subtle change would make animated frames shiver. This slight shivering acts as an aesthetic distinction of animated feature films, but can also require exaggerated movements to hide the shivering. On the contrary, acting of 3D animation make use of calculated movements that may seem exaggerated compared to human acting, but seem much more moderate and static compared to hand-drawn acting. Moreover, 3D computer graphics add the third dimension that allows more intuitive movements - maybe animators no longer need fine drawing skills; what they now need is directing skills to animate characters in 3D space intuitively. On the assumption that technological advancement and change of artistic expressionism are inseparable, this paper compares acting of 3D animation studio Pixar and classical drawing studio Disney to investigate character acting style and movements.

A Study on the Application of 3D Virtual Human in the prior stage of Design Works - With the emphasis on the determining design layout of a forklift truck (디자인 초기단계에서의 3차원 가상인간(Virtual Human) 활용에 관한 연구 - 지게차 레이아웃 결정 단계를 중심으로)

  • 김관명
    • Archives of design research
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.294-303
    • /
    • 1999
  • With the breakthrough development of computing environment, the design phases have been changed a lot nowadays. In the case of prior phases of transportation design such as cars and forklift-trucks design, designers have depended on surveys and 2D line drawings for fixing a product layout and extracting ergonomic data. In this method, designers don't meet only the problem of reliability of measuring data but also, the problems of unknown situation of operators' fatigue and comfort in work situation. In these methods, it has much less creditability to have a 2D human model to check the real world motion due to the limitation of the 3 Dimension. Even though with a 2D human model, perfect layout is determined, it is still difficult to measure about comfort and fatigue for a user because it measuring an analysing method is static. The development of computer hardware and software have not only changed the flow in the social-wide range but also immerged design into Virtual Environment. In conventional design method, visualization and data transferring have been the main issues but, in virtual environment, determining of design layout and analysing ergonomic data with sophisticated feeling about comfort and fatigue are possible by using 3D virtual human. In this study, the general characteristics of virtual environment was discussed and the possibility of digital process of design was treated. For these studies, layout design for forklift-trucks was tested. Eventually, the merits of each design phase applied virtual environment are discussed.

  • PDF

Association between the C.O.G and E.O.G for Dynamic Postural Control of the Left Turn Motion on the Balance Beam (평균대 좌측 턴 동작시 동적 자세 조절에 미치는 C.O.G와 E.O.G 관계)

  • So, Jae-Moo;Kim, Yoon-Ji;Kim, Jae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.49-58
    • /
    • 2009
  • This study aims to analyze the association between the center of mass(C.O.G) and ocular movement(E.O.G) according to the success and failure in the left turn motion on the balance beam, targeting three female gymnasts. When successful, the left-right C.O.G was moved to the left, which was a rotational direction until such time as the body rotated $180^{\circ}$, whereas there appeared to be a greater movement during failure; thus, it was shown to affect the maintenance of dynamic postural control. In case of the subsequent left-right turning motion of E.O.G, this matches the previous theory that the eyeball moves against the direction of rotation of the body. However, there was a difference at the time of movement, and a clear difference emerged in the success and failure in this study. Also, in the E.O.G in the up-down direction, a movement during failure showed a pattern of down direction in most cases; thus, it is deemed to affect the failure. Therefore, the kinetic postural control and E.O.G are supposed to affect the success and failure in a landing, which is the most importantly evaluated movement on the balance beam, in mutual association.

A Study of Improving Combustion Stability with Sonic Wave Radiation (음파를 이용한 연소 안정성 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Min, Sun-ki
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.21 no.8
    • /
    • pp.401-406
    • /
    • 2020
  • NOx (nitrogen oxide) in the exhaust gas engines causes severe air pollution. NOx is produced under high-temperature combustion conditions. EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) is normally used to reduce the combustion temperature and NOx production. As the EGR ratio increases, the NOx level becomes low. On the other hand, an excessively high EGR ratio makes the combustion unstable resulting in other air pollution problems, such as unburned hydrocarbon and higher CO levels. In this study, the improvement of fuel droplets moving by the radiation of sonic waves was studied for the stable combustion using analytic and experimental methods. For the analytical study, the effects of the radiation of a sonic wave on the fuel droplet velocity were studied using Fluent software. The results showed that the small droplet velocity increased more under high-frequency sonic wave conditions, and the large droplet velocity increased more under low-frequency sonic wave conditions. For the experimental study, the combustion chamber was made to measure the combustion pressure under the sonic wave effect. The measured pressure was used to calculate the heat release rate in the combustion chamber. With the heat release rate data, the heat release rate increased during the initial combustion process under low-frequency sonic wave conditions.