• Title, Summary, Keyword: 배추좀나방

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An Integrated Biological Control Using an Endoparasitoid Wasp (Cotesia plutellae) and a Microbial Insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis) against the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (배추좀나방에 대한 프루텔고치벌과 미생물농약의 통합생물방제)

  • Kim, Kyusoon;Kim, Hyun;Park, Young-Uk;Kim, Gil-Hah;Kim, Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2013
  • All tested Korean populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, are known to be resistant especially against pyrethroid insecticides by mutation in its molecular target, para-sodium channel. Moreover, P. xylostella is able to develop resistance against most commercial insecticides. This study was performed to develop an efficient control technique against P. xylostella by a combined treatment of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, and a microbial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis. To investigate any parasitism preference of C. plutellae against susceptible and resistant P. xylostella, five different populations of P. xylostella were compared in insecticide susceptibilities and parasitism by C. plutellae. These five P. xylostella populations showed a significant variation against three commercial insecticides including pyrethroid, organophosphate, neonicotinoid, and insect growth regulator. However, there were no significant differences among five P. xylostella populations in their parasitic rates by C. plutellae. Moreover, parasitized larvae of P. xylostella showed significantly higher susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. As an immunosuppressive agent, viral ankyrin genes (vankyrins) encoded in C. plutellae were transiently expressed in nonparasitized larvae. Expression of vankyrins significantly enhanced the efficacy of B. thuringiensis against the third instar larvae of P. xylostella. Thus an immunosuppression induced by C. plutellae enhanced the insecticidal efficacy of B. thuringiensis. These results suggest that a combined treatment of C. plutellae and B. thuringiensis may effectively control the insecticide-resistant populations of P. xylostella.

Penetrations of flupyrazofos against Plutella xylostella(Lepidoptera :Yponomeutidae) and Spodoptera exigua(Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) (배추좀나방과 파밤나방에 대한 flupyrazofos의 체벽 투과량)

  • Lee, Sang-Guei;Hwang, Chang-Yeon;Han, Man-Jong;Yoo, Jai-Ki;Lee, Hoi-Seon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2000
  • Tolerance mechanism to flupyrazofos was examined with Plutella xylostella (L.) and Spodoptera exigua by investigating the penetration rate of flupyrazofos into larvae body. On determining effective washing of $^{14}C$-flupyrazofos, the washing volume to recover over 98% of $^{14}C$-flupyrazofos was observed at three times (each time: 1 mL). To select a suitable solvent, the recovery rates of each solvent in 3rd instar larvae of DBM were above 98%, but the washing rates of acetone, hexane and ethyl-acetate were 85.1%, 67.2% and 68.4%, respectively. In the BAW larvae, although the recovery rates of each solvent were above 99%, the washing rates of acetone, hexane and ethyl-acetate were 83.5%, 65.9% and 71.7%, respectively. The $PT_{50}$ values of $^{14}C$-flupyrazofos were 0.731 h (44 min) in the DBM larva and 0.504 h (30 min) in the BAW larva. Radiocarbon in acetone washing (external fraction) decreased more quickly in the BAW larva than in the DBM larva, and amount of radiocarbon in larvae body increased more quickly with time in the DBM larva than in the BAW larva. In contrast, amount of radiocarbon in excreta increased more rapidly with time in the BAW larva than in the DBM larva.

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Toxicological and Electrophysiological Activities of Pyrethroids between Larvae of Diamondback Moth, plutella xylostella and Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (배추좀나방과 파밤나방의 pyrethroids약제에 대한 감수성 및 전기적 신경 반응 비교)

  • Ham, Sun-Hee;Ahn, Hee-Geun;Yang, Jeong-Oh;Yoon, Chang-Mann;Kim, Gil-Hah
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2009
  • Based on the insecticidal efficacy by insecticide treatment methods, neurophysiological responses were compared with the larvae of diamondback moth (DBM) and beet armyworm (BAW) using pyrethroids working on nervous system. By body spray method, all pyrethroids were showed lower insecticidal activity below 50% on the larvae of DBM and BAW. By leaf dipping method, DBM larvae were showed the insecticidal activity as 100% at 50 ppm deltamethrin, 80.0% at fenvalervate and 63.3% at permethrin. However, BAW larvae were showed lower insecticidal activity as similar as control in all concentration. In order to examine electrophysiological response on nervous system on DBM and BAW larvae when treated three insecticides, we investigated the voltage and reaction degree. The voltage of DBM were responded as high as $10^{-7}M$ in deltamethrin, $10^{-5}M$ in fenvalerate and $10^{-3}M$ in permethrin. However, those of BAW were showed dull responses with small variation of voltage to all three insecticides.

Effect of Electron-beam Irradiation on Development and Reproduction of Bemisia tabaci, Myzus persicae, Plutella xylostella and Tetranychus urticae (전자빔 조사가 담배가루이, 복숭아혹진딧물, 배추좀나방과 점박이응애의 발육과 생식에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Sang-Rae;Son, Bong-Ki;Yang, Jeong-Oh;Woo, Jong-Suk;Yoon, Chang-Mann;Kim, Gil-Hah
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.129-137
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    • 2010
  • Four major agricultural insect pests, Bemisia tabaci, Myzus persicae, Plutella xylostella and Tetranychus urticae, were irradiated with 30, 50, 70, or 100 Gy electron-beam. Longevity, egg hatching, emergence, and fecundity of the test insects were measured. Hatchability of B. tabaci, P. xylostella and T. urticae declined with increasing irradiation doses, and all B. tabaci and T. urticae eggs were dead at 100 Gy. When eggs of B. tabaci, P. xylostella and T. urticae were irradiated, hatch was inhibited. B. tabaci adults grown from 70 Gy irradiated eggs did not lay eggs. Fecundity of P. xylostella from the 100 Gy irradiated eggs decreased. When B. tabaci, P. xylostella, M. persicae and T. urticae nymphs/larvae were irradiated, the results were similar as those of the hatched eggs. When P. xylostella pupae were irradiated with 100 Gy, fecundity of emerged adults decreased and no eggs hatched. When B. tabaci, P. xylostella, M. persicae and T. urticae adults were irradiated with 70 and 100 Gy, fecundity decreased and egg hatch of B. tabaci was inhibited. However, the longevity of adults did not change and electron-beam irradiation of all developmental stages had no effect on the longevity of adults.

Resistance of Diamondback Moth(Plutella xylostella L.: Yponomeutidae: Lepidoptera) against Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (BT제에 대한 배추좀나방의 약제저항성)

  • 송승석
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.291-293
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    • 1991
  • Inter-regional difference in median lethal concentration of Bacillus thuringiensis diamondback moth was disclosed to be high. Pyungchang strain showed at most 41 times resistance compared to KN-IA strain of which $LC_{50}$ value was 5.5 ppm. and Oksan strain Showed 11 times resistance. The JMC strain, susceptible to pyrethroids, also showed 12 times resistance against B.T., suggesting difference in resistance mechanism between pyrethroid and B.t.

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Lavicidal and Antifeeding Activities of Oriental Medicinal Plant Extracts against Plutella xylostella( Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidae) and Spodoptera liture (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (배추좀나방과 담배거세미나방 유충에 대한 한방식물체의 살충활성 및 섭식 저해활성)

  • 권정현;안용준;권형욱;장경수;조광연
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 1994
  • The methanol extracts from 30 species of oriental medicinal plants belonging to 24 families were tested for their lhicidal and antifeeding activit~es against diamondback moth (Plutello xylostella L) and tobacco cutworn (Spodoptera litura F.) by a leaf-dipping method at a concentration of 5, 000 ppm. The methanol extract from Copti chinensis only showed a potent larvicidal activity against P xylostello. Strong antifeeding activity against P. xylostello was observed from the extmds from Platycodon grandiflorurn, Codonopsis pilosula, Asomm sieboldii, Rhus chinensis and Uthospermum erythrorhizon And a potent antifeeding activity against S. liturn was obtained from Akebia quinata and Equlsetum hyemale extracts. A significant antifeeding activity against both species was obtained from R chinensis and C. chinensis extracts.

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Decrease in Genetic Variation of Overwintering Populations of the Diamondback Moth during Seasonal Occurrence (배추좀나방의 계절적 발생과 월동집단의 유전적 분화 감소)

  • Kim, Eunseong;Park, Areum;Park, Youngjin;Kim, Jooil;Kim, Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2015
  • The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, overwinters in some protected areas in Korea. Using a sex pheromone trap, the adults were monitored since the occurrence of the overwintering populations. In Andong, P. xylostella exhibited four adult peaks in a year. Biological characters, such as cold tolerance, insecticide susceptibility, and developmental rate, were analyzed and showed a significant variation among different local overwintering populations. Population genetic variation was assessed with molecular markers, in which the initial high genetic variation among the overwintering populations decreased with the progress of seasons. These results suggests that there may be a significant migration of P. xylostella to decrease the genetic variation among the different local populations that are different in biological characters.

Activities of esterase and acetylcholinesterase on the diamond backmoth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Yponomeutidae) and beet armywarm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) and inhibitions of acetylcholinesterase with flupyrazofos (배추좀나방과 파밤나방의 효소활성 및 flupyrazofos 에 의한 AChE 활성 저해)

  • Lee, Sang-Guei;Chon, Gil-Hyong;Lee, Hoi-Seon;Hwang, Chang-Yeon;Han, Man-Jong;Park, Hyung-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2003
  • The activities of esterase and acetylcholinesterase(AChE) on the Diamond backmoth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and Beet armywarm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and inhibitions of AChE with flupyrazofos were clarified from the results of a series of experiments. These findings are described in brief as follows. The AChE activities of DBM and BAW in heads were $1.5{\sim}11.1{\mu}$mol/g/min in $1st{\sim}4th$ instar larvae of DBM and $1.7{\sim}45.2{\mu}$mol/g/min in $1st{\sim}6th$ instar larvae of BAW, respectively. Those were $25{\sim}30$ times higher in above 4th instar larvae of BAW than that of the 1st instar larvae of DBM. The activities of aliesterase in heads were $1.7{\sim}4.7$ times higher in $2nd{\sim}4th$ instar larvae of DBM and $8{\sim}55$ times higher in $3rd{\sim}6th$ instar larvae of BAW than 1st instar larvae of DBM. In abdomens, those were $3{\sim}17$ times higher in $2nd{\sim}4th$ instar larvae of DBM and $12{\sim}30$ times higher in $3rd{\sim}6th$ instar larvae of BAW than 1st instar larvae of DBM. Median AChE inhibition concentration $(I_{50})$ of flupyrazofos to the 2nd instar larvae of DBM and BAW were 92 nM and $15{\mu}M$, respectively, and those to the 4th instar larvae of DBM and BAW were $1.8{\mu}M$ and 3.1 mM, respectively. Insensitivity ratio of flupyrazofos in the 2nd instar BAW larvae showed ca. 162 times higher than that in the 2nd instar larvae of DBM, and that of the 4th instar BAW larvae showed ca. 1,720 times higher insensitivity to flupyrazofos than that of the 4th instar DBM larvae. AChE activities in the 2nd instar larvae of DBM and BAW at 32 h after applicaton of flupyrazofos decreased from 67.6% to 32.4% of the activity of the untreated control. That of the 4th instar larvae of DBM increased for 0.5 h after application flupyrazofos up to 75% of the untreated control, and after that it decreased to 34.5% of the untreated control at 32 h. In contrast, in the 4th instar larvae of BAW AChE activities increased for 8 h gradually up to 102 % of the activity of the untreated control, and then the activity decreased to 97% of the untreated control at 16 h after treatment.

In vivo Metabolism of Flupyrazofos into Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (배추좀나방과 파밤나방의 채내에서 Flupyrazofos의 대사)

  • Lee, Sang-Guei;Lee, Hoi-Seon;Hwang, Chang-Yeon;Han, Man-Jong;Park, Hyung-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2002
  • In vivo metabolism study was carried out to find out the biochemical or metabolic tolerance mechanism between Diamond backmoth (DBM), Plutella xylostella and Beet armywarm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua to flupyrazofos. They showed some differences between the DBM and BAW. About 20% of flupyrazofos applied to the 3rd instar larvae of DBM was metabolized within 1 h and about 50% of that was metabolized within 4 h. The metabolites of flupyrazofos-oxon in 3rd instar larvae of DBM were increased 10 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application. The amounts of flupyrazol were nearly same between at 1 h and 4 h. The amount of unknown and origin increased 2 and 3 times more at 1 h than 4 h after application, respectively. In the 4th instar BAW larva, about 50% of flupyrazofos was metabolized within 1 h and about 70% of that was metabolized within 4 h. As metabolites, the amounts of flupyrazofos-oxon increased 2 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application. The amounts of flupyrazol increased 4 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application. The amount of unknown and origin increased 2.5 and 2 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application, respectively. From the study, it is supposed that hydrolytic enzyme, esterase, cleave the alkyl bond of flupyrazofos and conjugates with flupyrazofos. This seems to be the main tolerance mechanism of BAW to flupyrazofos.

Insecticidal Effect of an Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana ANU1 to Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella by Different Temperature and Humidity Conditions (파밤나방과 배추좀나방에 대한 곤충병원성 곰팡이 Beauveria bassiana ANU1의 온도와 습도조건에 따른 살충효과)

  • Lee, Jung-Bok;Park, Youngjin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2015
  • Entomopathogenic fungi have been studied to develop for biological control agents as an alternative to chemical control agents in insect pest management. Two Lepidopteran insects, Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella, are serious insect pests infested various crops, but not effectively controlled by commercial chemical pesticides due to its high insecticide resistance. A fungal isolate was isolated from S. exigua larvae collected from green onion field in Andong, Korea. To identify the fungal isolate, 18srRNA sequence for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and ${\beta}$-tubulin regions were sequenced. The ITS and ${\beta}$-tubulin sequence were highly matched to Beauveria bassiana and morphological characteristics also was fit to known B. bassiana. Finally, isolated fungus has identified as B. bassiana and named B. bassiana ANU1. The result of bioassay, median lethal concentrations were $2.7{\times}10^3$ and $0.9{\times}10^3conidia/ml$ and medial lethal times were 65.6 and 60.8 h to S. exigua and P. xylostella, respectively. B. bassiana ANU1 showed high pathogenicity to two insect pests from $20^{\circ}C$ to $30^{\circ}C$ at 50% relative humidity (RH) and more than 40% RH at $25^{\circ}C$ with $10^7conidia/ml$ of concentration.