• Title, Summary, Keyword: 변위

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Displacement Analysis of an Excavation Wall using Inclinometer Instrumentation Data, Banyawol Formation, Western Daegu (경사계를 이용한 대구 서부지역 반야월층 굴착 지반의 변위 분석)

  • Ihm, Myeong-Hyeok
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2013
  • To analyze lateral displacement of excavation walls exposed during the construction of Subway Line 1 in the Daegu region, inclinometer measurement data for sites D4, D5, and Y6 are investigated from the perspective of engineering geology. The study area, in the Banyawol Formation, Hayang Group, Gyeongsang Supergroup, is in the lower part of bedrock of andesitic volcanics, calcareous shale, sandstone, hornfels, and felsite dykes that are unconformably overlain by soil. The rock mass around the D4 site is classified as RMR-V grade and the maximum lateral displacement of 101.39 mm, toward N34W, was measured at a bedding-parallel fault, at a depth of 12 m. The rock mass around the D5 site is classified as RMR-IV grade and the maximum lateral displacement of 55.17 mm, toward the south, was measured at a lithologic contact between shale and felsite, at a depth of 14 m. The rock mass around the Y6 site is classified as RMR-III grade and the maximum lateral displacement of 12.65 mm, toward S52W, was measured at an unconformity between the soil and underlying bedrocks, at a depth of 7 m. The directions of lateral displacement in the excavation walls are vector sums of the directions perpendicular to the excavation wall and horizontally parallel to the excavation wall. Lateral displacement graphs according to depth in the soil profile show curvilinear trajectories, whereas those in bedrock show straight and rapid-displacement trajectories.

초기계측치를 이용한 경암 지반내 터널의 최종변위량 예측

  • 송승곤;양형식;임성식;정소걸
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Rock Mechanics Conference
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2002
  • 터널의 초기 변형결과를 역해석에 적용하기 위하여 초기 값들과 최종변위의 상관관계를 연구하였다 Panet의 지수함수와 분수함수는 경암 터널의 내공변위 예측에 잘 맞았다. ID지점의 초기 계측변위는 선형적으로 적합시킬 수 있으나 계측 전 변형의 추정식으로는 부적합하였다. 초기 계측 결과들과 최종 변형결과는 선형적인 비례관계를 보였으며 이로써 초기 계측결과로부터 추정한 최종변형치를 이용한 역해석이 가능함을 보였다.

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A New Stereo Matching Algorithm Using Distribution of Match Values in Disparity Space (변위 공간상의 정합값 분포를 이용한 새로운 스테레오 정합 알고리즘)

  • 김재철;이경무;이상욱
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.661-664
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    • 2001
  • 본 논문에서는 영상을 특성에 따라 국부 영역으로 분류하고 변위 공간(disparity space)상에서의 특징을 분석하여 각각의 영역에 적합한 윈도우의 크기를 정하는 새로운 스테레오 정합 기법을 제안한다. 일반적으로 텍스쳐(texture)가 적은 영역이나 텍스쳐가 반복되는 영역, 그리고 깊이의 불연속선상에서는 고정된 크기의 윈도우를 사용하는 영역 기반 스테레오 기법은 잘 동작하지 않는다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 영역들의 변위 공간상에서의 정합 값 분포를 분석하여 스테레오 정합에 이용한다. 실험은 변위의 참값이 알려진 영상에 대해서 수행되었으며 기존의 방법에 비해 짧은 수행 시간 및 정확한 정합 결과를 보여 준다.

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Geometrically Non-linear Model in Flexibility Method (유연도법에서의 기하학적 비선형 모델)

  • Kwon, Min-Ho;Kim, Jin-Sup
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.63-66
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    • 2011
  • 유연도법 기반의 공식화에서는 변위영역의 형상함수를 라그랑지언(Lagrangian)보간법에 의한 곡률로부터 횡방향 변위를 유도한다. 곡률변위보간법으로 유도한 매트릭스를 사용한 기하학적 비선형 해석방법과 강성도법을 기반으로 한 비선형 기존의 유한요소 해석 프로그램의 결과를 비교하여 적용이 가능함을 확인하였고, Spacone의 이론을 확장시켜 기하학적 비선형 거동을 예측할 수 있는 유연도법의 알고리즘을 제안하였다. 예제를 통하여 실제 문제에 대한 기하학적 비선형 해석을 수행하였다.

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2축 정밀 스테이지의 구동 기초 실험

  • 송신형;황은주;민경석;최우천
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.153-153
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    • 2004
  • 반도체 공정과 같은 정밀 위치제어가 요구되는 분야에서 높은 해상도와 큰 구동 거리를 가지는 정밀 스테이지의 수요가 점차 증가하고 있다. 압전 액추에이터에 의해 구동이 되는 정밀 스테이지는 이와 같은 용도에 적합한 것으로 여겨지고 있고, 이에 대한 연구가 많이 이루어지고 있다. 본 연구에서는 압전 액추에이터로 구동하는 2축 정밀 스테이지가 연구 대상이다. 요구되는 스테이지 변위가 커서 압전 액추에이터의 변위만으로 원하는 변위를 얻을 수 없으므로, 유연힌지가 포함된 레버구조를 이용하여 최초 변위를 3 배 이상으로 확대시키는 구조로 되어있다.(중략)

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3D Modeling from 2D Stereo Image using 2-Step Hybrid Method (2단계 하이브리드 방법을 이용한 2D 스테레오 영상의 3D 모델링)

  • No, Yun-Hyang;Go, Byeong-Cheol;Byeon, Hye-Ran;Yu, Ji-Sang
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.501-510
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    • 2001
  • Generally, it is essential to estimate exact disparity for the 3D modeling from stereo images. Because existing methods calculate disparities from a whole image, they require too much cimputational time and bring about the mismatching problem. In this article, using the characteristic that the disparity vectors in stereo images are distributed not equally in a whole image but only exist about the background and obhect, we do a wavelet transformation on stereo images and estimate coarse disparity fields from the reduced lowpass field using area-based method at first-step. From these coarse disparity vectors, we generate disparity histogram and then separate object from background area using it. Afterwards, we restore only object area to the original image and estimate dense and accurate disparity by our two-step pixel-based method which does not use pixel brightness but use second gradient. We also extract feature points from the separated object area and estimate depth information by applying disparity vectors and camera parameters. Finally, we generate 3D model using both feature points and their z coordinates. By using our proposed, we can considerably reduce the computation time and estimate the precise disparity through the additional pixel-based method using LOG filter. Furthermore, our proposed foreground/background method can solve the mismatching problem of existing Delaunay triangulation and generate accurate 3D model.

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Investigation for the deformation behavior of the precast arch structure in the open-cut tunnel (개착식 터널 프리캐스트 아치 구조물의 변형 거동 연구)

  • Kim, Hak Joon;Lee, Gyu-Phil;Lim, Chul Won
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.93-113
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    • 2019
  • The behavior of the 3 hinged precast arch structure was investigated by comparing field measurements with numerical analyses performed for precast lining arch structures, which are widely used for the open-cut tunnel. According to the field measurements, the maximum vertical displacement occurred at the crown with upward displacements during the backfilling up to the crown of the arch and downward displacements at the backfill height above the crown. The final crown displacement was 19 mm upward from the original position. The horizontal displacement at the sidewall, which had a maximum horizontal displacement, occurred inward of the arch when compacting the backfill up to the crown and returned to the original position after completing the backfill construction. According to the analysis of displacement measurements, economical design is expected to be possible for precast arch structures compared to rigid concrete structures due to ground-structure interactions. Duncan model gave good results for the estimation of displacements and deformed shape of the tunnel according to the numerical analyses comparing with field measurements. The earth pressure coefficients calculated from the numerical analyses were 0.4 and 0.7 for the left and the right side of the tunnel respectively, which are agreed well with the eccentric load acting on the tunnel due to topographical condition and actual field measurements.

Application of Displacement-Vector Objective Function for Frequency-domain Elastic Full Waveform Inversion (주파수 영역 탄성파 완전파형역산을 위한 변위벡터 목적함수의 적용)

  • Kwak, Sang-Min;Pyun, Suk-Joon;Min, Dong-Joo
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.220-226
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    • 2011
  • In the elastic wave equations, both horizontal and vertical displacements are defined. Since we can measure both the horizontal and vertical displacements in field acquisition, these displacements compose a displacement vector. In this study, we propose a frequency-domain elastic waveform inversion technique taking advantage of the magnitudes of displacement vectors to define objective function. When we apply this displacement-vector objective function to the frequency-domain waveform inversion, the inversion process naturally incorporates the back-propagation algorithm. Through the inversion examples with the Marmousi model and the SEG/EAGE salt model, we could note that the RMS error of the solution obtained by our algorithm decreased more stably than that of the conventional method. Particularly, the density of the Marmousi model and the low-velocity sub-salt zone of the SEG/EAGE salt model were successfully recovered. Since the gradient direction obtained from the proposed objective function is numerically unstable, we need additional study to stabilize the gradient direction. In order to perform the waveform inversion using the displacementvector objective function, it is necessary to acquire multi-component data. Hence, more rigorous study should be continued for the multi-component land acquisition or OBC (Ocean Bottom Cable) multi-component survey.

A Back Analysis Study for the Assessment of Tunnel Lining Safety Using Numerical Analysis Model (수치해석 기법을 이용한 터널 라이닝 안전성 평가에 관한 역해석 연구)

  • 박치현;김창용;이희근
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.296-305
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    • 1999
  • In ordinary back analysis it if hardly possible to obtain the mechanical properties of tunnel lining by using commonly measured displacements of tunnel lining, because only a few displacements could be measured at the site. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new method which can evaluate the state of stresses of tunnel by using measured data. In this study, in order to assess tunnel lining stability by estimating its stresses with a few measured displacements, a formulation of back analysis method was proposed. The accuracy of results were investigated through the parametric study for several types of measurement model of two dimensional elastic lining. This new back analysis method to assess tunnel lining stresses and strains with a few numbers of measured displacements showed high accuracy and good applicability when compared to the results of numerical experiments by FEM. The method has been tested on subway tunnel and its applicability has been confirmed by comparing field and analytical data. It is verified that the stress on the tunnel lining can be obtained by only more than 3 point of input displacements without any condition of external loads.

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Application of Laser Distance Measurer to measure ground surface displacement in slopes (사면의 지표변위 측정을 위한 레이저 거리측정기의 활용)

  • Cho, Yong-Chan;Song, Young-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the method to measure effectively the ground surface displacement of slope was proposed using the Laser Distance Measurer (LDM). Applying the proposed technique is more simple and easier than the complicated and high-priced instrument to measure the ground surface displacement. LDM is an instrument that the red laser aimed at the target and then the reflected laser used for calculating the distance. The advantages of LDM are easy operating method, high measurement precision and lower in price. To check the feasibility, the proposed method applied to the real site that the ground surface displacement of slope was occurred continuously. The ground surface displacements were occurred in various points of the natural and cut slopes located at the lower part of coal mine waste heap due to the load of waste heap. To measure directly the ground surface displacement in this site, 6 measurement sections and 26 measurement points were selected. As the result of the displacement measured by the proposed technique within a certain period time, the accumulative ground surface displacement could be measured as well as the velocity of displacement could be estimated. Also, the progress direction of ground surface displacement can be confirmed and predicted through the analysis of all measured result.