• Title/Summary/Keyword: 변위

Search Result 6,231, Processing Time 0.216 seconds

Lossless Compression and Rendering of Multiple Layer Displacement Map (다층 변위 맵의 비손실 압축과 렌더링)

  • Chun, Young-Jae;Kim, Hae-Dong;Cho, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of Korea Game Society
    • /
    • v.9 no.6
    • /
    • pp.171-178
    • /
    • 2009
  • Multiple layer displacement mapping methods are able to represent more complex and general geometries which cannot be presented by single layer displacement mapping methods, and provide a realistic scene to digital contents such as 3D games and movies with relatively low costs. However, as we use more layers for details, data space is wasted more because lower layers have less displacement data than higher layers. In this paper, we suggest a lossless compression and rendering method of a multiple layer displacement map. Since we compress the map without data loss, the proposed method provides the same quality as the rendering result that uses an original multiple layer displacement map.

  • PDF

Longitudinal Deformation Profile in Tunnel using Measured Data (계측자료를 이용한 터널의 종단변형도)

  • Jang, Won-Yil;Yang, Hyung-Sik;Chung, So-Keul
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
    • /
    • v.18 no.5
    • /
    • pp.338-342
    • /
    • 2008
  • Longitudinal deformation profile(LDP) has been obtained mostly by numerical analysis. In this study, LDP was plotted by measured data from horizontal inclinometer and crown settlement. Deformation of foe ahead was determined by comparing to the maximum deformation point and deformation of after excavation was determined by regression of the measured crown settlement data. The result shows that crown deformation began as f3r as 3D ahead of the face. Crown settlement at the face was 40% of ultimate deformation, which was 10% higher than numerical results, and the deformation converged after excavation of 4D.

Estimation of Tunnel Convergence Using Statistical Analysis (통계처리를 활용한 터널 내공변위의 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 김종우
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.108-116
    • /
    • 2003
  • Measured convergence data of a tunnel were investigated by means of statistical and regression analysis, where the rock mass were mainly composed of andesite and granite. The rock mass around tunnel were classified by RMR method into five different ratings, and then convergence data which belong to individual ratings were statistically processed to find out the appropriate regression equations. Exponential equations were better coincided with measured data than logarithmic equations. As the number of rock mass rating was increased, the magnitude and standard deviation of convergence were increased. Final convergence data were also investigated to study the relevance with both maximum displacement rate and early measured convergence. Some brief results of their relevance are presented. For instance, the regression coefficient between final convergence and maximum displacement rate was turned out to be 0.87 for this studied tunnel.

A Method Estimating Displacement using Measured Strain Response of Simply Supported Girder Bridges (단순지지 거더교의 실측 변형률 응답을 이용한 변위 추정 방법)

  • Jeon, Jun-Chang;Lee, Hee-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.18-24
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study presents a simple method which can estimate displacement using measured strain response of simply supported girder bridges. The basic concept of the present method is derived from a relation between displacement and strain, and is generalized by introducing analytical tool. Static and dynamic laboratory test are conducted on simply supported plate which is designed to respond dynamically similar to actual bridges to experimentally verify the present method, and displacement and strain are measured at the midpoint of specimen. Displacement estimated by using measured strain is well agreed with measured one. This study demonstrates that the present method is suitable for estimating displacement of real simply supported bridge, in which the installation of a displacement transducer at the fixed reference point is difficult.

Lateral Displacement and Ground Rising Movement with Soil Embankment (성토에 따른 지반의 측방변위와 지표면 융기량)

  • Jeong, Ji-Cheol;Shin, Bang-Woong;Oh, Se-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.63-69
    • /
    • 2004
  • During and after the construction of embankment on soft ground, consolidation settlements and lateral displacements develop. But generally it's very difficult to predict the magnitude of lateral deformations and the correct distribution of lateral displacements with depth under the toe of embankment because the consolidation and the shear deformations of soft ground occur simultaneously. This study shows that later displacements of ground surface arise by embankment loading act on soft clay hight water contents in laboratory model testing. The results of model test are observed settlement of embankment, amount of maximum rising and displacement of ground surface with loading velocity. The formula were proposed to predict lateral movement by test series.

  • PDF

Analysis for Measuring Displacement of Tunnel Face using Horizontal Inclinometer (터널 시공 중 수평경사계를 이용한 변위 분석)

  • Jang, Won-Yil;Yang, Hyung-Sik;Chung, So-Keul
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.428-434
    • /
    • 2007
  • Displacement of tunnel face is important issues for the evaluation of tunnel safety. In this study, conventional convergence and displacement data measured from horizontal inclinometer were analyzed to investigate the trend and characteristics of tunnel deformation during construction. Trend of measured displacement agreed with general understanding of tunnel deformation prior to excavation. It shows that displacement measured from horizontal inclinometer can be used to preestimate the total deformation of tunnel.

Lateral Displacement Analysis of Concrete Electric Pole Foundation Grounds (배전용 콘크리트전주 기초지반의 횡방향변위 분석)

  • Ahn, Tae-Bong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
    • /
    • v.23 no.5
    • /
    • pp.42-49
    • /
    • 2009
  • The effects of various forces acting on concrete pole are analyzed using finite element method how the forces affect on ground displacement. The soil types, wind load location of anchor block embedded depth of pole, and distance between poles are varied to find out effects on lateral displacement. Anchor block is effective when it is located at 1/4 of embedded depth The displacement is decreases as elastic modulus increases. Concrete reinforcement for loosened ground is necessary for double poles because double poles cause large excavation. When embedded depth ratio decrease, lateral displacement increase as closer to ground surface. Large embedded depth is effective to reduce lateral displacement, and the distance between poles is not much large factor.

Suggestion on Reasonable Boundary Conditions for Modeling a Tunnel Shield by Displacement Control Method (변위 제어를 통한 터널 쉴드 모델링의 적정 경계조건 제안)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soo;Kim, Moon-Kym
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.512-515
    • /
    • 2011
  • 터널 해석은 주로 지표침하와 터널 라이닝 내 단면력 산정에 초점이 맞춰지며 이는 시공단계를 고려한 3차원 수치해석 모델을 이용해 결정할 수 있다. 수치해석 시 shield는 응력 제어, shell element로 모델링하는 방법 등으로 모사될 수 있다. 한편 변위 제어를 통한 쉴드 모사는 shield를 적절한 경계조건으로 처리함으로서, 다른 shield 모사 방법에 비해 모델링 작업을 간소화하고 해석의 효율성을 높일 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 변위 제어에 의한 shield 모사를 위한 적정 경계조건을 제안한다. 이를 위해 시공단계가 고려된 유한요소해석을 사용하여, 쉴드 및 굴착면에서의 경계조건 변화와 이에 따른 지표침하 관측 수행하였다. 제안된 shield 변위 제어로부터 얻어진 해석결과를 이론적인 해와 비교함으로서, 제시된 shield 모델링 방법의 적정성과 지반 거동 변화를 평가하고자 한다. 해석 결과는 지반 모델의 지표침하를 기준으로 관찰되었으며, 변위제어에 의한 결과와 요소에 의한 모델링 결과가 유사하게 얻어짐을 보여준다. 또한 변위제어의 쉴드 모사에서 회전 구속보다 변위 구속 조건에 지배적으로 영향을 받음을 확인하였다.

  • PDF

Evaluation of Ductility in Reinforced Concrete Members Using Material Models in Eurocode2 (유로코드 2 재료모형을 사용한 철근콘크리트 부재의 연성도 평가)

  • Choi, Seung Won
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.287-297
    • /
    • 2015
  • In concrete structural design provisons, there is a minimum allowable strain of steel to ensure a ductility of RC members and a c/d is limited for the same purpose in EC2. In general, a ductility capacity of RC members is evaluated by a displacement ductility which is a ratio of ultimate displacement to yield displacement, and it is necessary to calculate accurately a yield displacement and an ultimate displacement to evaluate a displacement ductility. But a displacement in members is affected by various member characteristics, so it is hard to calculate a displacement exactly. In this study, a displacement ductility is calculated by calculating a yield displacement and an ultimate displacement through a moment-curvature relationship. The main variables examined are concrete strength, yield strength, steel ratio, spacing of confinement, axial force ratio and concrete ultimate strain. As results, as a concrete strength is increased, a ductility displacement is increased. But as yield strength, steel ratio, spacing of confinement and axial force ratio are increased, a displacement ductility is decreased. And a displacement ductility is necessary to calculate a response modification factor (R) of columns for seismic design, so it is appeared that it is important to calculate a displacement ductility more accurately.

Development of Displacement Estimation Technique for Bridges Located under Poor Measurement Circumstances (계측이 어려운 환경에 가설된 교량의 변위 추정 기술 개발)

  • Jeon, Junchang;Lee, Heehyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
    • /
    • v.19 no.6
    • /
    • pp.755-764
    • /
    • 2016
  • In this paper, to verify the field application of a displacement estimation technique based on the relationship between displacement and strain, static and dynamic field load test are performed on three-span continuous real bridge structures. The superstructure types of the test bridges are IPC girder highway bridge and steel box girder AGT bridge. LVDTs and strain gauges are attached to them; then, the responses due to test vehicle are measured. To obtain the displacement-strain relationship of the test bridges, the bridges are modeled as grillage system with 6 DOFs for the purpose of structural analyses. Static and dynamic displacements, which are estimated using both the calculated displacement-strain relationship and the measured strain signal, agree well with the values measured by LVDT. This study demonstrates that the displacement estimation technique using the strain signal can be effectively applied to the displacement measurement of bridge structures that cross rivers/roads/railways or have high clearance.