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Geological Structure and Deformation History in the Gwangju area, Gyeonggi-do, Korea (경기도 광주시 일대의 지질구조와 변형사)

  • Lee Hee-Kwon;Kim Man-Kwang
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2005
  • Gyeonggi metamorphic complex in the Gwangju area include banded biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss. Detailed structural analysis suggests that structural elements in the study area were formed by at least five phase of deformations. Penetrative compositional foliations(S1) formed in the banded gneiss during the first metamorphism and deformation (D1). After intrusion of plutonic rocks, the second deformation (D2) produced S2 foliations in the banded gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss during the second metamorphism. D3 structures are represented by isoclinal folds (F3) whose axial surfaces are parallel to S3 foliations. The N-S oriented shortening (D4) was accommodated by closed upright F4 fold with about 100m of axial surface separation. F4 fold is refolded by regional F5 folding resulting in different orientation and fold style of F4 fold according to the position of F5 fold. The F4 fold with tight interlimb angle is subparallel to the axial surface (north-south) of F5 fold in the core of the F5 fold. In contrast the F4 fold trends northeast in the western limb and northwest in the eastern limb of F5 fold. The interlimb angle is larger in the limbs than that in the core of F5 fold. The trace of foliations is constrained by mainly F4 and F5 folds. Joint fanning around fold is developed in the limbs of F5 fold and bc joints are dominant in the hinge area of F5 fold. A strike-slip fault had developed in tile central part of the study area after F5 folding. The orientation of joint and foliation is rotated anticlockwise about $15^{\circ}$ by the landslide occurred during the Quaternary.

A Review on Ultimate Lateral Capacity Prediction of Rigid Drilled Shafts Installed in Sand (사질토에 설치된 강성현장타설말뚝의 극한수평지지력 예측에 관한 재고)

  • Cho Nam Jun;Kulhawy F.H
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2005
  • An understanding of soil-structure interaction is the key to rational and economical design for laterally loaded drilled shafts. It is very difficult to formulate the ultimate lateral capacity into a general equation because of the inherent soil nonlincarity, nonhomogeneity, and complexity enhanced by the three dimensional and asymmetric nature of the problem though extensive research works on the behavior of deep foundations subjected to lateral loads have been conducted for several decades. This study reviews the four most well known methods (i.e., Reese, Broms, Hansen, and Davidson) among many design methods according to the specific site conditions, the drilled shaft geometric characteristics (D/B ratios), and the loading conditions. And the hyperbolic lateral capacities (H$_h$) interpreted by the hyperbolic transformation of the load-displacement curves obtained from model tests carried out as a part of this research have been compared with the ultimate lateral capacities (Hu) predicted by the four methods. The H$_u$ / H$_h$ ratios from Reese's and Hansen's methods are 0.966 and 1.015, respectively, which shows both the two methods yield results very close to the test results. Whereas the H$_u$ predicted by Davidson's method is larger than H$_h$ by about $30\%$, the C.0.V. of the predicted lateral capacities by Davidson is the smallest among the four. Broms' method, the simplest among the few methods, gives H$_u$ / H$_h$ : 0.896, which estimates the ultimate lateral capacity smaller than the others because some other resisting sources against lateral loading are neglected in this method. But it results in one of the most reliable methods with the smallest S.D. in predicting the ultimate lateral capacity. Conclusively, none of the four can be superior to the others in a sense of the accuracy of predicting the ultimate lateral capacity. Also, regardless of how sophisticated or complicated the calculating procedures are, the reliability in the lateral capacity predictions seems to be a different issue.

Impact Resistance Reliability of Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In Solder Joints (Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In 조성 솔더 접합부의 내 충격 신뢰성 평가)

  • Yu, A-Mi;Lee, Chang-Woo;Kim, Jeong-Han;Kim, Mok-Soon;Lee, Jong-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.226-226
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    • 2008
  • 지난 10여년 동안 Sn-3.0Ag-0.5(wt%)Cu 합금은 대표 무연솔더 조성으로 다양한 전자제품의 실장 및 접합에 적용되어 왔으며, 그 신뢰성 역시 충분히 검증된 바 있다. 그러나 최근 Ag 가격의 급격한 상승과 솔더 접합부의 내 충격 신뢰성을 보다 향상시키고자 하는 업계의 동향은 Ag의 함량이 낮은 무연솔더 조성의 적용 확대를 유도하고 있다. 이에 따라 본 연구자들은 저 Ag 함유 무연슬더로 Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In 조성을 제안한 바 있는데, 이는 Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu 조성 이상의 solderability를 가지면서도 그 금속원료 가격이 약 20% 가량 저렴한 특징을 가진다. 또한 열 싸이클링 (cycling) 테스트를 통한 슬더 조인트의 신뢰성을 평가한 결과, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu에 크게 뒤떨어지지 않는 양호한 특성이 관찰되었다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 열 싸이클링 테스트와 더불어 최근 그 중요성이 지속적으로 커지고 있는 내 충격 신뢰성 평가 시험을 실시하여 개발된 4원계 무연솔더 조성의 기계적 특성을 기존 무연솔더 조성과 비교, 분석해 보았다. 각 솔더 조성은 솔더 볼 형태로 제조되어 CSP(Chip Scale Package) 상에 범핑 (bumping)되었으며, CSP를 PCB(Printed Circuit Board) 상에 실장하는 공정에서도 Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu 및 Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In의 두 종류의 솔더 페이스트가 사용되었다. 본 연구에서의 내 충격 신뢰성 시험에는 자체 제작한 rod drop 시험기를 사용하였는데, 고정된 CSP 실장 board의 후면 부위를 일정한 높이에서 추를 반복적으로 자유 낙하시켜 급격한 충격을 주는 방식으로 실험을 실시하였다. 이 때 추의 무게는 30g, 낙하 높이는 10cm 였으며, 추의 낙하 시 측정된 board 의 휨 변위량은 약 0.7mm로 측정되었다. 사용된 CSP와 PCB 는 모두 daisy chain 방식으로 연결되어 있기 때문에 저항측정기를 사용한 간단한 실시간 저항 측정 방법으로 시험 이력에 따른 파단부의 발생 시점과 대략의 위치를 손쉽게 확인할 수 있었다. 솔더 조인트의 파단 기준 저항값으로 $1000\Omega$을 설정하였으며. 각 조건 당 5 개 이상의 샘플에 대해 평가를 실시한 후 그 평균값을 조사하였다. 시험 결과 제안된 Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In 조성은 대표적인 저 Ag 함유 조성인 Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu에 비해서는 떨어지는 내 충격 신뢰성을 나타내었지만, 우수한 연성에 기인하여 Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu 조성에 비해서는 약 2 배 이상 우수한 신뢰성이 관찰되었다. 또한 CSP의 실장 시 Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu보다 Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In 조성 솔더 페이스트를 적용한 경우에서 보다 우수한 내 충격 신뢰성을 나타내어 기본적으로 개발된 Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In 솔더 페이스트가 Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu 조성의 기존 솔더 페이스트 보다 내 충격 신뢰성이 우수함을 검증할 수 있었다. 각 조성의 솔더 조인트를 $150^{\circ}C$ 에서 500시간 aging한 후 실시한 내 충격 신뢰성 평가에서는 모든 조성에서 그 신뢰성이 급감하는 경항을 나타내었으나, Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In가 Sn-l.0Ag-0.5Cu보다도 그 상대적인 신뢰성이 우수한 것으로 관찰되었다. 이와 같이 aging 후 실시하는 충격시험은 가장 실제적인 상황과 유사한 조건이므로 상기의 실험 결과는 매우 고무적이었으며, 이에 대한 보다 면밀한 분석이 요청되었다. 마지막으로 파면 및 미세조직 관찰을 통하여 각 조성에서의 충격 파단 특성을 비교, 분석해 보았다.

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Behavior Analysis of Fill Slope by Vehicle Collision on Guardrail (가드레일에 차량 충돌 시 성토사면의 거동분석)

  • Park, Hyunseob;Ahn, Kwangkuk
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2014
  • Recently, the number of road construction is increasing by industrial development. According to this industrial tendency, the number of traffic accidents are consistently increasing due to increasing number of vehicle on the road. This is mainly because traffic accidents are occurred by various parameter such as negligence of driver, vehicle defects, state of unstable road, natural environment etc. Lane department of vehicles from guardrail is occurring frequently. This type of accident is caused by vehicle performance improvement and shape of vehicle, weak guardrail installation and maintenance. Guardrail has the purpose on prevention such as prevention of traffic accident and prevention of deviating out of road, minimizing damage of driver and vehicle by collision as well as entry into the road through guardrail. Stability evaluation test of guardrail verifies the behavior of guardrail through the crash of truck. At this time, the crash condition has 100 km/h of velocity and $15^{\circ}$ of impact angle. In the case of ground condition, filling slope condition has relatively high bearing capacity of infinite ground towards the test. Guardrail is generally installed on road of shoulder in fill slope in korea. It is possible for stability problem to deteriorate ground bearing capacity in Guardrail in fill slope. The existed study towards stability of guardrail has been carried out in the infinite ground. However, the study on the behavior of fill slope with guardrail is not performed by vehicle collision. Therefore, In this study, the numerical analysis using LS-DYNA was executed for verification on behavior of fill slope with guardrail through vehicle collision. This numerical analysis was carried out with change of embedded depth on installed guardrail post in shoulder of fill slope by vehicle collision and 8 tonf truck crash providing at NCAN (National Crash Analysis Center). As the result, displacement and stress on fill slope are decreased in accordance with the increase of embedded depth of guardrail post. Ground bearing capacity is deteriorated at depth of 450 mm form shoulder of road on fill slope.

Experiment of Flexural Behavior of Composite Beam with Steel Fiber Reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete Deck and Inverted-T Steel Girder (강섬유로 보강된 초고성능 콘크리트 바닥판과 역T형 강거더 합성보의 휨거동 실험)

  • Yoo, Sung-Won;Ahn, Young-Sun;Cha, Yeong-Dal;Joh, Chang-Bin
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.761-769
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    • 2014
  • Ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) has been developed to overcome the low strengths and brittleness of conventional concrete. Considering that UHPC, owing to its composition and the use of steel fibers, develops a compressive strength of 180 MPa as well as high stiffness, the top flange of the steel girder may be superfluous in the composite beam combining a slab made of UHPC and the steel girder. In such composite beam, the steel girder takes the form of an inverted-T shaped structure without top flange in which the studs needed for the composition of the steel girder with the UHPC slab are disposed in the web of the steel girder. This study investigates experimentally and analytically the flexural behavior of this new type of composite beam to propose details like stud spacing and slab thickness for further design recommendations. To that goal, eight composite beams with varying stud spacing and slab thickness were fabricated and tested. The test results indicated that stud spacing running from 100 mm to 2 to 3 times the slab thickness can be recommended. In view of the relative characteristic slip limit of Eurocode-4, the results showed that the composite beam developed ductile behavior. Moreover, except for the members with thin slab and large stud spacing, most of the specimens exhibited results different to those predicted by AASHTO LRFD and Eurocode-4 because of the high performance developed by UHPC.

Measurement of Two-Dimensional Velocity Distribution of Spatio-Temporal Image Velocimeter using Cross-Correlation Analysis (상호상관법을 이용한 시공간 영상유속계의 2차원 유속분포 측정)

  • Yu, Kwonkyu;Kim, Seojun;Kim, Dongsu
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.537-546
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    • 2014
  • Surface image velocimetry was introduced as an efficient and sage alternative to conventional river flow measurement methods during floods. The conventional surface image velocimetry uses a pair of images to estimate velocity fields using cross-correlation analysis. This method is appropriate to analyzing images taken with a short time interval. It, however, has some drawbacks; it takes a while to analyze images for the verage velocity of long time intervals and is prone to include errors or uncertainties due to flow characteristics and/or image taking conditions. Methods using spatio-temporal images, called STIV, were developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional surface image velocimetry. The grayscale-gradient tensor method, one of various STIVs, has shown to be effectively reducing the analysis time and is fairly insusceptible to any measurement noise. It, unfortunately, can only be applied to the main flow direction. This means that it can not measure any two-dimensional flow field, e.g. flow in the vicinity of river structures and flow around river bends. The present study aimed to develop a new method of analyzing spatio-temporal images in two-dimension using cross-correlation analysis. Unlike the conventional STIV, the developed method can be used to measure two-dimensional flow substantially. The method also has very high spatial resolution and reduces the analysis time. A verification test using artificial images with lid-driven cavity flow showed that the maximum error of the method is less than 10 % and the average error is less than 5 %. This means that the developed scheme seems to be fairly accurate, even for two-dimensional flow.

Experimental Validation of Isogeometric Optimal Design (아이소-지오메트릭 형상 최적설계의 실험적 검증)

  • Choi, Myung-Jin;Yoon, Min-Ho;Cho, Seonho
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.345-352
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, the CAD data for the optimal shape design obtained by isogeometric shape optimization is directly used to fabricate the specimen by using 3D printer for the experimental validation. In a conventional finite element method, the geometric approximation inherent in the mesh leads to the accuracy issue in response analysis and design sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, in the finite element based shape optimization, subsequent communication with CAD description is required in the design optimization process, which results in the loss of optimal design information during the communication. Isogeometric analysis method employs the same NURBS basis functions and control points used in CAD systems, which enables to use exact geometrical properties like normal vector and curvature information in the response analysis and design sensitivity analysis procedure. Also, it vastly simplify the design modification of complex geometries without communicating with the CAD description of geometry during design optimization process. Therefore, the information of optimal design and material volume is exactly reflected to fabricate the specimen for experimental validation. Through the design optimization examples of elasticity problem, it is experimentally shown that the optimal design has higher stiffness than the initial design. Also, the experimental results match very well with the numerical results. Using a non-contact optical 3D deformation measuring system for strain distribution, it is shown that the stress concentration is significantly alleviated in the optimal design compared with the initial design.

A study on the effect of tunnelling to adjacent single piles and pile groups considering the transverse distance of pile tips from the tunnel (말뚝의 횡방향 이격거리를 고려한 터널굴착이 인접 단독말뚝 및 군말뚝에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Jeon, Young-Jin;Kim, Sung-Hee;Lee, Cheol-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.637-652
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    • 2015
  • In the present work, a number of three-dimensional (3D) parametric numerical analyses have been carried out to study the influence of tunnelling on the behaviour of adjacent piles considering the transverse distance of the pile tip from the tunnel. Single piles and $5{\times}5$ piles inside a group with a spacing of 2.5d were considered, where d is the pile diameter. In the numerical modelling, several key issues, such as the tunnelling-induced pile settlements, the interface shear stresses, the relative shear displacements, the axial pile forces, the apparent factors of safety and zone of influence have been rigorously analysed. It has been found that when the piles are inside the influence zone, the pile head settlements are increased up to about 111% compared to those computed from the Greenfield condition. Larger pile settlements and smaller axial pile forces are induced on the piles inside the pile groups than those computed from the single piles since the piles responded as a block with the surrounding ground. Also tensile pile forces are induced associated with the upward resisting skin friction at the upper part of pile and the downward acting skin friction at the lower part of pile. On the contrary, when the piles were outside the influence zone, tunnelling-induced compressive pile forces developed. Based on computed load and displacement relation of the pile, the apparent factor of safety of the piles was reduced up to about 45%. Therefore the serviceability of the piles may be substantially reduced. The pile behaviour, when considering the single piles and the pile groups with regards to the influence zone, has been analysed by considering the key features in great details.

Evaluation of Manufactured Device for Radiation therapy in Head and Neck Cancer (두경부암 환자의 방사선 치료시 자체 제작한 고정용구 (Shoulder Retractor)에 대한 유용성 평가)

  • Kim, Tae Jun;Jin, Sun Sik;Kim, Dong Hyun;Kim, Dong Wook;Chung, Weon Kuu;Kim, Kyoung Tae
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : We compared the set-up accuracy and right-left Shoulder position variation of the manufactured device and other commercial shoulder-retractors in the head and neck radiation treatment. Materials and Methods : Six patients consist of three groups which were used three different Shoulder retractors. We measured position corrections of left and right Shoulder and the couch after the image guidance by using on board imager (OBI) for six head and neck patients who has the extended target to the neck node lower region. Results : The position variation correction of left (right) Shoulder after image guidance were $1.07{\pm}3.99mm$ ($-4.35{\pm}2.09mm$), $-0.37{\pm}5.91mm$ ($1.26{\pm}5.28mm$), $-0.63{\pm}2.44mm$ ($0.25{\pm}1.61mm$) for group A, B and C. The vertical, lateral, longitudinal position and angular corrections of the couch after image guidance were $-2.06{\pm}2.68$, $-1.11{\pm}8.15$, $0.34{\pm}3.78mm$, and $0.51{\pm}0.77$ degree for group A, $-1.18{\pm}1.82$, $-0.94{\pm}2.13$, $-0.67{\pm}1.98mm$, and $0.91{\pm}1.04$ degree for group B and $0.12{\pm}2.18$, $-0.79{\pm}2.64$, $0.79{\pm}2.64$, and $0.00{\pm}0.49$ degree for group C. Conclusion : In this preliminary study, we found the positioning accuracy of the manufactured Shoulder retractor is comparable to other commercial Shoulder retractors. We expect that the reproducibility and accuracy of the patient set-up could be improved by using the home made Shoulder retractor in the head and neck radiation treatment.

Experimental Performance Evaluation of Steel Mesh as Maintenance and Reinforcement Materials (Steel Mesh Cement Mortar의 보수⋅보강 성능 평가)

  • Kim, Yeon-Sang;Choi, Seung-Jai;Kim, Jang-Ho Jay
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2014
  • Due to the cost burden of new construction, the necessity of repair and retrofitting of aged structures is sharply increasing as the domain of repair and retrofitting construction is expanding. Because of the necessity, new technologies for repair and retrofitting are continuously studied in Korea and foreign countries. Steel adhesive method, fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) surface adhesive method, and external prestressing method are used to perform the repair and retrofitting works in Korea. In order to consider a repair method using steel mesh reinforced cement mortar (SMCM), 3-point flexural member test was conducted considering repair area and layer number of SMCM. Five types of specimens including ordinary reinforced concrete (RC) specimen with dimensions of $1400{\times}500{\times}200$ (mm) were cast for testing the deflection measurement, a LVDT was installed at the top center of the specimens. Also, a steel strain gauge and a concrete strain gauge were placed at the center of the specimens. A steel strain gauge was also installed on the shear reinforcement. The 3 point flexural member test results showed that the maximum load of SMCM reinforced specimen was higher than that of basic RC specimen in all of the load-displacement curves. Also, the results showed that, when the whole lower part of the basic RC specimen was reinforced, the maximum load and strain were 1.18 and 1.37 times higher than that of the basic RC specimen, respectively. Each specimen showed a slightly different failure behavior where the difference of the results was caused by the difference in the adhesive level between SMCM and RC. Particularly, in SM-B1 specimen, SMCM spalled off during the experiment. This failure behavior showed that the adhesive performance for RC must be improved in order to utilize SMCM as repair and retrofitting material.