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A Study on changes in Hitting-pressing forms of flat plate in Gyeongju area -Short beating, Medium beating plate, long beating plate and Stamped-roof tile- (경주지역 평기와의 타날형태 변화에 대한 검토 -단판·중판·인장 그리고 장판으로-)

  • Cha, Soon-chul
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.40
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    • pp.73-104
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    • 2007
  • Centering around ruins recognized of being relatively early stage related to flat tile and brick, excavated in Silla capital area, the study attempted elementary approach to seek the appearance time of every remain through comparing them from the excavated cases and production methods of Short beating, Medium beating plate, Long beating plate and Stamped-roof tile. Gyeongju began to use the short beating plate made of tile-less plates or tile plate and increased its quantity. That is deemed to be due to efficiency of beating plate making methods, and moreover to be limited only for use in the palace castle and offices. That is, making short beating plates is presumed to be made merely under some definite objectives. Medium beating plate has been spread to the whole country since Silla and Baekje united. Differently from Koguryo and Baekje, Silla had its unique Beating-plates making technology available for mass-production, which was spread to the whole country and resulted in disappearing of Koguryo and Baekje technology. Long beating plate was not nearly founded in Gyeongju area, but flat tile and common tile excavated in Sachunwang Temple site and Samrang Temple 3rd remains are known. In the outskirts of Gyeongju, long beating plate appeared between the latter half of 8C and the beginning of 9C. Until now, different views have raised to appearance of long beating plate of Unified Silla, which is expected to be clarified under the situation excavated by position relations. Stamped-roof title in Gyeongju is estimated as used after the datum point year 679. While in Baekje area, five stems and branches were involved, in Silla area, code or sign was shown much. The difference between two areas would be due to each other factory, and especially the marked contents werenot letters, which means it had been changed from Baekje s existing-methods. That is, it says the production environment changed owing to Silla's merging. And stamped-roof tile was temporarily used in Gyeongju but soon disappeared, which was because Silla beating plates made under cylinder-shaped tile barrel(圓筒瓦桶) and hitting-pressing of Medium beating plate had beenspread to the whole country, so the production technology of Koguryo and Baekje was naturally dismissed. In consequence, the mergence by Silla brought about unification of each nation's special technology.

A Habitat Characteristic of Population of Khingan Fir(Abies Nephrolepis) in Seoraksan National Park Using Landscape Indices (경관지수를 활용한 설악산국립공원 아고산대 분비나무개체군의 서식지 특성)

  • Lee, Ho-young;Park, Hong-chul;Lee, Na-yeon;Lee, Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.170-178
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    • 2020
  • There are few landscape ecological analyses of Khingan fir (Abies nephrolepis) and other habitats of the sub-alpine zone in South Korea. In this study, we tried to quantitatively interpret and assess the habitat characteristics by analyzing 15 landscape indices according to the differences in tree layer coverage, in the Khingan fir habitat growing naturally in the sub-alpine zone of Seoraksan National Park. It was difficult to identify the tendency of landscape ecology to increase and decrease the tree layer coverage in the study site, which was the entire Khingan fir habitat in Seoraksan National Park. However, the Khingan fir habitat was found to be generally low in coverage, and population density as the tree layer coverage of less than 50 percent accounts for 85 percent of the total habitat. Moreover, the Khingan fir habitat in the 10 to 50 percent range was fragmented into a total of 286 patches, making it relatively less connected to the habitat. The total edge length and edge density, which could determine the edge effect of the main part according to the physical form, were the highest in the habitat of 26 to 50 percent coverage, indicating a relatively high impact from outside than habitats of other coverages. The shape with the tree layer coverage of between 10 and 50 percent was more complex even with patches of the same size, and it is believed that these characteristics make it more susceptible to habitat fragmentation and external confounding. We expect that the results of this study can be useful for time series analysis of spatial expansion or reduction of the Khingan fir habitat in Seoraksan National Park and provide the reference data for the morphological change and movement of patches and the connectivity and break-off between forests.

A Modern Translation of Chinese Traditional Garden Space - Focusing on Qujiang Pool Heritage Park - (중국(中國) 전통원림(傳統園林) 공간(空間) 조영(造營) 원리의 현대적 탐구(探究) - 곡강지(曲江池) 유적공원(遺蹟公園)을 중심으로 -)

  • Wei, Tian-Tian;Kim, Jeong-Moon;Tian, Chao-Yang
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.93-107
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of Chinese traditional garden space construction principle studied by predecessors in modern park landscape, and to find more methods of traditional garden space construction inheritance and innovation through research. Tian Chaoyang's book "Fifteen Lectures on Chinese Classical Gardens and Modern Translation" mentions that Chinese traditional gardens are combining time and space, so he draws a brief pattern diagram containing the principle of the space construction. According to this principle of space construction, the researchers chose Qujiang Pool Heritage Park, which combines modern and traditional, then analyzed its spatial structure and and space elements. The results are as follows. The complex spatial structure of the park is composed of spatial boundary lines and spatial routes. The complex boundary space is composed of bridges, squares, plants, rows of buildings and other elements. The water space in the center of the park is designed in accordance with the traces of the historical water system, and its natural zigzag shoreline expands the water space. The central water space is divided into the big pool and the small pool, the Yanbo island and Bird island are created respectively. The building at the park boundary connects the park's interior and exterior. Most of the buildings in the park are located in the convex corner of the route or space. Through this research, it can be concluded that Qujiang park also applies the space construction principle combining time and space. And then, the garden elements of Qujiang park are recreating the history and culture of Qin, Han, Sui and Tang dynasties with modern methods, thus creating a park with Chinese regional characteristics. Since the Tang dynasty was the most prosperous period in Qujiang, the park was dominated by Tang culture. Through the research of this paper, we can see that the space construction principle of Qujiang Pool Heritage Park is the inheritance of the space construction principle of Chinese traditional garden. And the landscape element of Qujiang park is the landscape created by combining traditional history and culture, which is the innovative part of modern garden. Through this study, the creation of modern landscape with Chinese characteristics can provide some hints on the direction of inheritance and innovation.

Characteristics of the Main Fault Zone Developed Along Yangsan Fault : On the Outcrop of Cheonjeon-ri, Dudong-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, Korea (양산단층 주 단층대의 발달특성 : 울산광역시 울주군 두동면 천전리 일대의 노두를 중심으로)

  • Ryoo, Chung-Ryul;Cheon, Youngbeom
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.347-357
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    • 2019
  • The main fault zone of the Yangsan Fault, located in the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula, is newly found at the Cheonjin-ri, Dudong-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, Korea. About 100 wide fault zone exposed along the Guryangcheon stream strikes N-S and dips over 70° toward east. The main fault zone is composed of N-S-striking gouge and breccia layers and enclosed lenses. Striations on the subvertical fault surfaces mainly indicate dextral slip, but moderate-angle minor reverse faults showing top-tothe-west shearing transect the foliated high-angle gouge and breccia layers. These indicate that the dextral slip along the fault, which is interpreted as the main movement of the fault, was followed by reverse slip. The fault zone is composed of N-S-striking gouge layers and enclosed, fractured lenses. Locally distributed NE-SW- to E-W-striking fault gouge layers with fractured lenses show asymmetric folds, indicating progressive dextral movement. Therefore, the exposed fault zone has a high internal complexity due to the combined effects of NNE-SSW-trending dextral shearing and E-W-trending shortening by compression. In addition, around main boundary fault between the western volcanic rocks and eastern sedimentary rocks offsets the overlying Quaternary fluvial conglomerate. This is a good example that understanding of internal structures of main fault zone (or fault core), such as the Yangsan Fault, plays an important role to study the Quaternary activity and to find the active fault.

A Study on Marketing Strategy of MIM Emoticon Using Customized Bundling (맞춤 번들링을 활용한 MIM 이모티콘 마케팅 전략에 관한 연구)

  • Heo, Su-Chang;Jeon, Gyeahyung;Heo, Jae-Kang
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2019
  • This study confirms the responses of consumers when the composition of emoticon bundles can be selected by individuals in MIM service. This aims to verify that customized bundling is a valid marketing strategy in the MIM emoticon market. Currently, the emoticon bundling used in Korean MIM services is in the form of pure bundling. As a result, Consumers must purchase an entire bundle even though he/she doesn't need to use all the emoticons contained in it. Some researches(e.g. Hitt & Chen, 2005; Wu & Anandalingam, 2002) show that when consumers value only part of the products or services included in pure bundling, customized bundling is much more profitable. In their works, customized bundling is appropriate when marginal costs are near zero. Information goods, such as emoticons, meet the condition. On the other hand, customized bundling increase the choosable options, so it can pose a problem of complexity (Blecker et al., 2004). And consumers may experience information overload(Huffman & Kahn, 1998). Thus, judgement on the necessity to introduce customized bundling needs to be made through empirical analyses in the light of characteristics of the product and the reaction of consumers. Results show that when customized bundling was introduced, consumers' purchase intention and willingness to pay significantly increased. Purchase intention for customized bundles has increased by 0.44 based on the five point Likert scale than the purchase intention for existing pure bundles. The increase in purchase intention for customized bundles was statistically independent of the existing purchasing experience. In addition, the willingness to pay was increased by about 2.8% compared to the price of the existing emoticon bundles in the whole group. The group with experience in purchasing pure bundles were willing to pay 5.9% more than pure bundles. The other group without experience in purchasing pure bundles were willing to buy if they were about 5% cheaper than the existing price. Overall, introducing customized bundling into emoticon bundles can lead to positive consumers responses and be a viable marketing strategy.

Proposals on How to Research Iron Manufacture Relics (제철유적 조사연구법 시론)

  • Kim, Kwon Il
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.144-179
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    • 2010
  • Investigation into iron manufacture relics has been active since 1970s, especially accelerated in 1990s across the country. Consideration of the importance of production site relics has lately attracted attention to iron manufacture relics. Methodological studies of the investigation into iron manufacture relics, however, were less made compared with those of the investigation into tomb, dwelling, or swampy place relics. It is because the process of iron manufacture is too complicated to understand and also requires professional knowledge of metal engineering. With the recognition of these problems this research is to form an opinion about how to excavate, to rearrange and classify, and to examine iron manufacture relics, based upon the understanding of the nature of iron, iron production process, and metal engineering features of related relics like slag, iron lumps and so on. This research classifies iron manufacture relics into seven types according to the production process; mining, smelting, refining, tempering, melting, steelmaking, and the others. Then it arranges methods to survey in each stage of field study, trial digging, and excavation. It also explains how to classify and examine excavated relics, what field of natural science to be used to know the features of relics, and what efforts have been made to reconstruct a furnace and what their problems were, making the best use of examples, drawings, and photos. It comes to the conclusion, in spite of the lack of in-depth discussion on application and development of various investigation methods, that iron manufacture relics can be classified according to the production process, that natural sciences should be applied to get comprehensive understanding of relics as well as archeological knowledge, and that efforts to reconstruct a furnace should be continued from the aspect of experimental archeology.

A Study on the 3D Measurement Data Application: The Detailed Restoration Modeling of Mireuksajiseoktap (미륵사지석탑 정밀복원모형 제작을 중심으로 한 3차원 실측데이터의 활용 연구)

  • Moon, Seang Hyen
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.76-95
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    • 2011
  • After dismantled, Mireuksajiseoktap(Stone pagoda of Mireuksa Templesite) is being in the stage of restoration design. Now, different ways - producing restoration model, a 3 dimension simulation - have been requested to make more detailed and clearer restoration design prior to confirmation of its restoration design and actual restoration carry-out. This thesis proposes the way to build the detailed model for better restoration plan using extensively-used Reverse Engineering technique and Rapid Prototyping. It also introduces each stage such as a 3-dimension actual measurement, building database, a 3-dimension simulation etc., to build a desirable model. On the top of that, this thesis reveals that after dismantled, MIruksaji stone pagoda's interior and exterior were not constructed into pieces but wholeness, so that its looks can be grasped in more virtually and clearly. Secondly, this thesis makes a 3-dimension study on the 2-dimension design possible by acquiring basic materials about a 3-dimension design. Thirdly, the individual feature of each member like the change of member location can be comprehended, considering comparing analysis and joint condition of member. Lastly, in the structural perspective this thesis can be used as reference materials for structure reinforcement design by grasping destructed aspects of stone pagoda and weak points of the structure. In dismantlement-repair and restoration work of cultural properties that require delicate attention and exactness, there may be evitable errors on time and space in building reinforcement and restoration design based on a 2-dimension plan. Especially, the more complicate and bigger the subject is, the more difficult an analysis about the status quo and its delicate design are. A series of pre-review, based on the 3-dimension data according to actual measurement, can be one of the effective way to minimize the possibility that errors about time - space happen by building more delicate plan and resolving difficulties.

Present State of the Dangsan Forest at 'Jwasuyeongseongji' in Busan and the Perspectives on It's Authenticity Restoration as a Historic Remain (부산 '좌수영성지(左水營城址)'의 진정성(authenticity) 회복방안 고찰)

  • Choi, Jai Ung;Kim, Dong Yeob
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.138-161
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    • 2011
  • The 'Jwasuyeongseongji' (Site of naval wall-fortress in Suyeong) in Busan is the subject of this study. It has been desturbed mostly, and is named 'Suyeong historic site'. One of the important aspects of 'Jwasuyeongseongji' is that it was a historic place confronting with the Japanese Invasion of Chosun in 1592. This was the place where the Japanese Invasion of Chosun broke out and a number of people were slaughtered by the Japanese invaders. Now the place is converted to a playground. Although 'Jwasuyeongseongji' is the place of historic interest, the forest area is separated by paths and sidewalks. Further, there are sports facilities and relaxing people. Examples of advanced countries show that the abuse like Jwaisuyeongseongji is thoroughly prohibited. Although the Dangsan forest of jwasuyeongseongji remains in the megalopolis of Busan, it has been damaged and abused in spite of being a historic site. Nevertheless, Jwasuyeongseongji is an invaluable traditional cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to search for solutions of authenticity restoration for the remains of Dangsan forest at Jwasuyeongseongji in Busan. The Dangsan forest at Jwasuyeongseongji is a forest of Pinus thunbergii in an area of $130{\times}230m$. Jwasuyeongseongji is currently named Suyeong historic park, and is registered as monuments No. 8 by Suyeong-gu, Busan. The two Dangsan trees at Jwasuyeongseongji are registered as natural monuments No. 270 and No. 311. The complex management system needs to be designated as 'Dangsan forest of Jwasuyeongseongji in Busan', and managed as a natural monument or national historic site. Dangsan forest has a meaning of divine place. Therefore, the artificial facilities need to be removed from Dangsan forest so that the original features are restored with the spirit of Jwasuyeongseongji. Also, the administration needs to be transfered from Suyeong-gu, Busan to the Cultural Heritage Administration.

Analysis of the Manufacturing Techniques for the KwangDahoe Tying on the Sword in Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 도검 패용 광다회의 제작기법 분석)

  • Baek, Je-Sun;Chung, Kwang-Young
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.64-87
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    • 2017
  • Dahoe is a traditional braid in Joseon Dynasty. There are many Dahoe artifacts, which can give us a glimpse of the costume, culture, and life of that era. The study of Dahoe is necessary in various fields, but it is difficult because this manufacturing technique has been passed down from hand to hand. Few studies have been done so far. This research examines the manufacturing technique of KwangDahoe which is passed down by Maedeupjang (Decorative Knotting) and is generally used for knotting and/or tying objects. The main characteristic of TieKwangDahoe, made through the same method as WonDahoe, is the square hole in the middle. It was impossibile to remake the original braid because there is no confirmed number of the strand. Especially it is very difficult to do conservation and restoration on serious degradation state of the fiber. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the non-destructive manufacturing techniques method for Dahoe and assess their applicability. First, we analyzed the artifacts' manufacturing technique based on the database of the Dahoe's manufacturing technique. In order to do that, we undertook schematization, restoration, morphological analyzation of the Dahoe. And then, X-ray CT scans were performed to improve the reliability of the DB. These results of scanning were interpreted based on the manufacturing technique. The selected Tie-KwangDahoe on the sword for the study are artifacts including artistic value and symbolism in Joseon Dynasty. Based on the analysis of the manufacturing technique, we found that both artifacts were made of 20-strand braid of single cross according to the length-scale measure. It was manufactured using 8-strand on left-right side, 12-strand on front-back side by the braiding manufacturing technique method Finally, this research suggests non-destructive analysis method of Dahoe's manufacturing technique is based on the database and the analysis results. I hope this research can be useful in various professional fields of Dahoe in the future. Moreover, I hope this can be of any help in preserving Korean cultural heritage.

Nuclear Weapons and Extended Deterrence in the U.S.-ROK Alliance (핵무기와 한·미 핵 확장억제 능력)

  • Huntley, Wade L.
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.236-261
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    • 2014
  • The future role of nuclear extended deterrence in the security alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea is currently a central concern. The gradually lessening role of reliance on nuclear weapons in US security policies broadly, combined with increasing North Korean nuclear capabilities and belligerence, raise fresh questions about the sufficiency of the "nuclear umbrella" as a pillar of the US-ROK defense posture. This article addresses the current and future role of nuclear extended deterrence in Korea in this dynamic context. The article reviews the longstanding trend toward reducing the overall size of the US nuclear arsenal, and assesses developments in US-ROK outlooks toward extended deterrence in response to the Obama administration's nuclear policies and North Korea's recent smaller-scale aggressions. The analysis finds that the challenges of deterrence credibility and allied reassurance are difficult and long-term. The analysis explains how these challenges emerge less from a shrinking US numerical arsenal size than from the sufficiency of specific nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to meet emerging smaller-scale threats. The analysis also highlights the importance of broader strategic and political interaction in sustaining allied confidence in any joint security posture. The evaluation concludes that a strong US-ROK alliance relationship can be maintained while the size of the US nuclear arsenal continues to decline, in part because nuclear weapons in any deployment configuration are relatively ineffective means for deterring smaller-scale aggression. Nevertheless, continuing adjustment of the US-ROK extended deterrence posture to the evolving, complex and uncertain Korean peninsula security environment will remain an ongoing challenge. Finally, the article encourages further examination of the potential specific role ROK maritime forces might serve in enhancing deterrence of smaller-scale threats while minimizing risks of conflict escalation.