• Title, Summary, Keyword: 복합하중

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Dynamic-stability Evaluation of Unsaturated Road Embankments with Different Water Contents (함수비에 따른 불포화 도로성토의 동적 안정성 평가)

  • Lee, Chung-Won;Higo, Yosuke;Oka, Fusao
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.5-21
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    • 2014
  • It has been pointed out that the collapses of unsaturated road embankments caused by earthquake are attributed to high water content caused by the seepage of the underground water and/or the rainfall infiltration. Hence, it is important to study influences of water content on the dynamic stability and deformation mode of unsaturated road embankments for development of a proper design scheme including an effective reinforcement to prevent severe damage. This study demonstrates dynamic centrifugal model tests with different water contents to investigate the effect of water content on deformation and failure behaviors of unsaturated road embankments. Based on the measurement of displacement, the pore water pressure and the acceleration during dynamic loading, dynamic behavior of the unsaturated road embankments with about optimum water content and the higher water content than the optimum one have been examined. In addition, an image analysis has revealed the displacement field and the distributions of strains in the road embankment, by which deformation mode of the road embankment with higher water content has been clarified. It has been confirmed that in the case of higher water content the settlement of the crown is large mainly owing to the volume compression underneath the crown, while the small confining pressure at the toe and near the slope surface induces large shear deformation with volume expansion.

Properties and Prediction Model for Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC): (II) Evaluation of Restrained Shrinkage Characteristics and Prediction of Degree of Restraint (초고성능 섬유보강 콘크리트(UHPFRC)의 재료 특성 및 예측모델: (II) 구속 수축 특성 평가 및 구속도 예측)

  • Yoo, Doo-Yeol;Park, Jung-Jun;Kim, Sung-Wook;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.32 no.5A
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    • pp.317-325
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    • 2012
  • In this study, to evaluate the shrinkage behavior of ultra high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) under restrained condition, restrained shrinkage test was performed according to ring-test mostly used at home and abroad. Ring-test was performed with the various thicknesses and radii of inner steel ring to give different degree of restraint. Free shrinkage and tensile tests were carried out simultaneously to estimate the degree of restraint, stress relaxation, and shrinkage cracking potential. Test results indicated that the average steel strain and residual tensile stress were reduced as the thicker inner steel ring was used, whereas degree of restraint was increased. The steel strain, residual tensile stress and degree of restraint were hardly affected by the size of radius of inner ring. In the case of all ring specimens, shrinkage crack did not occur because the residual tensile stress was lower than the tensile strength. About 39~65% of the elastic shrinkage stress was relaxed by the sustained interface pressure, and the maximum relaxed stress was increased as the thicker inner ring was applied. Finally, the degree of restraint with age was predicted by performing non-linear regression analysis, and it was in good agreement with the test results.

Effect of the marginal position of prosthesis on stress distribution of teeth with abfraction lesion using finite element analysis (보철물 변연의 위치가 abfraction된 치아의 응력 분포에 미치는 영향에 대한 유한요소법적 분석)

  • Kim, Myeong-Hyeon;Lee, Cheong-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress concentration and distribution whether restoring the cavity or not while restoring with metal ceramic crown on tooth with abfraction lesion using finite element analysis. Materials and methods: Maxillary first premolar was selected and made a total of 10 finite element model. Model 1 was natural tooth; Model 2 was tooth with metal ceramic crown restoration which margin was positioned above 2 mm from CEJ; Model 3 was tooth with metal ceramic crown restoration which margin was positioned on CEJ; Model 4 was natural tooth which has abfraction lesion; Model 5 and 6 had abfraction lesion and the other condition was same as model 2 and 3, respectively; Model 7 was natural tooth which had abfraction lesion restored with composite resin; Model 8 and 9 was tooth with metal ceramic crown after restoring on abfraction lesion with composite resin; Model 10 was restored tooth on abfraction lesion with composite resin and metal ceramic crown restoration which margin is positioned on lower border of abfraction lesion. Load A and Load B was also designed. Von Mises value was evaluated on each point. Results: Under load A or load B, on tooth with abfraction lesion, stress was concentrated on the apex of lesion. Under load A or load B, on tooth that abfraction lesion was restored with composite resin, the stress value was reduced on the apex. Conclusion: In case of abfraction lesion was restored with composite resin, the stress was concentrated on the apical border of restored cavity regardless of marginal position. It was favorable to place crown margin on the enamel for restoring with metal ceramic crown.

Life Assessment of Gas Turbine Blade Based on Actual Operation Condition (실 운전조건을 고려한 가스터빈 블레이드 수명평가)

  • Choi, Woo Sung;Song, Gee Wook;Chang, Sung Yong;Kim, Beom Soo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.1185-1191
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    • 2014
  • Gas turbine blades that have complex geometry of the cooling holes and cooling passages are usually subjected to cyclic and sustained thermal loads due to changes in the operating characteristic in combined power plants; these results in non-uniform temperature and stress distributions according to time to gas turbine blades. Those operation conditions cause creep or thermo-mechanical fatigue damage and reduce the lifetime of gas turbine blades. Thus, an accurate analysis of the stresses caused by various loading conditions is required to ensure the integrity and to ensure an accurate life assessment of the components of a gas turbine. It is well known that computational analysis such as cross-linking process including CFD, heat transfer and stress analysis is used as an alternative to demonstration test. In this paper, temperatures and stresses of gas turbine blade were calculated with fluid-structural analysis integrating fluid-thermal-solid analysis methodologies by considering actual operation conditions. Based on analysis results, additionally, the total lifetime was obtained using creep and thermo-mechanical damage model.

Shear Strength of Interface between Natural Aggregate Concrete and Recycled Aggregate Concrete (천연골재 콘크리트와 순환골재 콘크리트 접합면의 전단강도)

  • Moon, Hoon;Choi, Ik-Je;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Chung, Chul-Woo;Kim, Young-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2020
  • Concrete recycling is becoming mandatory rather selective due to depletion of constructional materials and increase of concrete waste. Studies on recycling concrete are conducted in various point of view for long time. However, standard or guideline of many countries for the application of recycled aggregate concrete(RAC) has restrictions such as low replacement rate of coarse aggregate and no fine aggregate allowed due to inferior material properties of recycled aggregate. This study intends to figure out the feasibility of casting natural aggregate concrete(NAC) and RAC separately in a structural member. In making RAC, replacement rate of coarse aggregate was 50, 100% in RAC and treatment of interface of two concretes is introduced. RAC treatment of recycled aggregate or inclusion of additives was not done as it can increase embodied energy of concrete work. Double-shear test with uniformly distributed loading was adopted to evaluate shear strength at the interface of two concretes. After curing it was hard to distinguish interface of two concretes. Experimental result revealed that specimen with higher replacement rate showed higher shear-to-compressive strength ratio, which is possibly attributed to coarse aggregate size and roughness of sheared section. Further study on the effect of various parameters is required and subsequent research activity is on-going.

Analysis of Response Characteristics According to Permanent Displacement in Seismic Slope (지진시 비탈면의 영구변위 발생에 따른 응답특성 분석)

  • Ahn, Jae-Kwang;Park, Sangki;Kim, Wooseok;Son, Su-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.135-145
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    • 2019
  • The slope collapse can be classified into internal and external factors. Internal factors are engineering factors inherent in the formation of slopes such as soil depth, slope angle, shear strength of soil, and external factors are external loading such as earthquakes. The external factor for earthquake can be expressed by various values such as peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), Arias coefficient (I), natural period (Tp), and spectral acceleration (SaT=1.0). Specially, PGA is the most typical value that defines the magnitude of the ground motion of an earthquake. However, it is not enough to consider the displacement in the slope which depends on the duration of the earthquake even if the vibration has the same peak ground acceleration. In this study, numerical analysis of two-dimensional plane strain conditions was performed on engineered block, and slope responses due to seismic motion of scaling PGA to 0.2 g various event scenarios was analyzed. As a result, the response of slope is different depending on the presence or absence of sliding block; it is shown that slope response depend on the seismic wave triggering sliding block than the input motion factors.

Effects of Wood Particles and Steel Wire Compositions on Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Boards (목재(木材)파아티클과 철선(鐵線) 복합체(複合體)가 보오드의 물리적(物理的) 및 기계적(機械的) 성질(性質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Heon;Lee, Pill-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.3-44
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    • 1986
  • In order to obtain the basic physical and mechanical properties of steel wire reinforced particleboard, particleboards were formed with large particles through 2.11 mm (12 meshes) and retained on 1.27mm (20 meshes) sieves and small particles through 1.27mm (20 meshes) and retained on 0.42mm (60 meshes) sieves from the plywood mill wastes of meranti (Shorea spp.) in the form of pallmanchips, applying urea-formaldehyde resin as an adhesive on the particle surface in 10 percent on the oven dried weight of particles, and arranging steel wires of 1mm in diameter 5,10,15,20, and 25mm in longitudinal and transverse direction with crossing in the mid of the board depth in single layer boards, 10mm in longitudinal or transverse direction without crossing in two layers and 10mm in longitudinal and transverse directions with and without crossing in three steel wire layers boards. The stepwise 9-minutes-multi-pressing schedule in 5 minutes at 35 kgf/$cm^2$, 2.5 minutes at 25 kgf/$cm^2$. and 1.5 minutes at 15 kgf/$cm^2$ was applied for $300{\times}200{\times}13$mm board at the temperature of 160$^{\circ}C$ in a hot press. Specific gravity, thickness swelling, bending properties of modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity(MOE), work to proportional limit, and work to ultimate load, internal bond (IB), and screw holding power(SHP) of the reinforced boards were analyzed on the wire openings and wire layers. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1) In specific gravity, particleboards with large particles and small particles had higher value with more steel wire placements and more steel layers composition, 2) Particleboards with large particles in accordance with more steel wire liners composition gave very poor thickness swelling. 3) The mechanical properties of particleboards formed with large or small particles were reinforced with more steel wire layers. Therefore, bending strength was improved in modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and work to ultimate load. Especiallv, particleboards with two or three steel wire layers showed the tension lamination effect when the steels in lower steel wire layer were oriented parallel to the board length. 4) The modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and work to ultimate load in bending varied with opening area, distance of lengthwise wires multipled by distance of transverse wires. Particleboards formed with large particles resulted in higher value in modulus of rupture with 1.5-3 $cm^2$ opening area, 1-2cm distance between transverse wires, and 1.5-2.5cm distance between lengthwise wires. Particle boards formed with small particles showed higher value with 0.5-1.5$cm^2$ or 3.75-6.25 $cm^2$ opening area, 0.5 or 2.5cm distance between transverse wires. 5) In modulus of elasticity, particleboards formed with large particles with one steel wire layer suggested higher value with 5-3$cm^2$ opening area, 1-2.5cm distance between transverse wires and also 1-2.5 cm distance between lengthwise wires. Particleboards formed with small particles showed higher value with 0.75-1.25$cm^2$ or 3-6.25$cm^2$ opening area and 0.5 or 2.5cm distance between transverse wires. 6) Particleboards formed with large particles gaved higher value in work to ultimate load with 1-3$cm^2$ opening area. Particleboards formed with small particles showed increasing tendancy with decreasing opening area. 7) In internal bond and screw holding power, particleboards formed with large particles had increasing value in two and three steel wire layers compositions, but particleboards formed with small particles showed no difference. Particleboards formed with large particles containing one steel wire layer showed no difference in internal bond and screw holding power, and particleboards formed with small panicles containing one steel wire layer resulted in increasing value in internal bond and decreasing value in screw holding power in accordance with increase in opening area.

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THE EFFECT OF IRRADIATION MODES ON POLYMERIZATION AND MICROLEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE RESIN (광조사 방식이 복합레진의 중합과 누출에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Jin;Park, Jeong-Won;Park, Sung-Ho;Park, Ju-Myong;Kwon, Tae-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Kyo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.158-174
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    • 2002
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light irradiation modes on polymerization shrinkage, degree of cure and microleakage of a composite resin. VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco Dental Products, Schaumburg, IL, USA) and Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr, Danbury, CT, USA) were used for curing Filtek$^{TM}$ Z-250 (3M Dental Products, St. Paul., MN, USA) composite resin using following irradiation modes: VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco) 200mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ (V2), 400mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ (V4), 600mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ (V6), Pulse-delay (200 mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ 3 seconds, 5 minutes wait, 600mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ 30seconds, VPD) and Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr) C-mode (OC), R-mode (OR). Linear polymerization shrinkage of the composite specimens were measured using Linometer (R&B, Daejeon, Korea) for 90 seconds for V2, V4, V6, OC, OR groups and for up to 363 seconds for VPD group (n=10, each). Degree of conversion was measured using FTIR spectrometer (IFS 120 HR, Bruker Karlsruhe, Germany) at the bottom surface of 2 mm thick composite specimens V2, Y4, V6, OC groups were measured separately at five irradiation times (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 seconds) and OR, VPD groups were measured in the above mentioned irradiation modes (n=5 each). Microhardness was measured using Digital microhardness tester (FM7, Future-Tech Co., Tokyo, Japan) at the top and bottom surfaces of 2mm thick composite specimens after exposure to the same irradiation modes as the test of degree of conversion(n=3, each). For the microleakage test, class V cavities were prepared on the distal surface of the ninety extracted human third molars. The cavities were restored with one of the following irradiation modes : V2/60 seconds, V4/40 seconds, V6/30 seconds, VPD , OC and OR. Microleakage was assessed by dye penetration along enamel and dentin margins of cavities. Mean polymerization shrinkage, mean degree of conversion and mean microhardness values for all groups at each time were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test, and using chi-square test far microleakage values. The results were as follows : . Polymerization shrinkage was increased with higher light intensity in groups using VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco) : the highest with 600mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$, followed by Pulse-delay, 400mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ and 200mW/$\textrm{cm}^2$ groups, The degree of polymerization shrinkage was higher with Continuous mode than with Ramp mode in groups using Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr). . Degree of conversion and microhardness values were higher with higher light intensity. The final degree of conversion was in the range of 44.7 to 54.98% and the final microhardness value in the range of 34.10 to 56.30. . Microleakage was greater in dentin margin than in enamel margin. Higher light intensity showed more microleakage in dentin margin in groups using VIP$^{TM}$ (Bisco). The microleakage was the lowest with Continuous mode in enamel margin and with Ramp mode in dentin margin when Optilux 501$^{TM}$ (Demetron/Kerr) was used.

THE EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT COMPOSITE CURING ON MARGINAL ADAPTATION (복합레진의 간헐적 광중합 방법이 변연적합도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Yong-Hwan;Park, Sung-Ho
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.248-259
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this research was to study the effect of intermittent polymerization on marginal adaptation by comparing the marginal adaptation of intermittently polymerized composite to that of continuously polymerized composite. The materials used for this study were Pyramid (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, U.S.A.) and Heliomolar (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) . The experiment was carried out in class II MOD cavities prepared in 48 extracted human maxillary premolars. The samples were divided into 4 groups by light curing method: group 1- continuous curing (60s light on with no light off), group 2-intermittent curing (cycles of 3s with 2s light on & 1s light off for 90s); group 3- intermittent curing (cycles of 2s with 1s light on & 1s light off for 120s); group 4- intermittent curing (cycles of 3s with 1s light on & 2s light off for 180s). Consequently the total amount of light energy radiated was same in all the groups. Each specimen went through thermo-mechanical loading (TML) which consisted of mechanical loading (720,000 cycles, 5.0 kg) with a speed of 120 rpm for 100hours and thermocycling (6000 thermocycles of alternating water of $50^{\circ}C$ and $55^{\circ}C$). The continuous margin (CM) (%) of the total margin and regional margins, occlusal enamel (OE), vertical enamel (VE), and cervical enamel (CE) was measured before and after TML under a $\times200$ digital light microscope. Three-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was performed at 95% level of confidence to test the effect of 3 variables on CM (%) of the total margin: light curing conditions, composite materials and effect of TML. In each group, One-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was additionally performed to compare CM (%) of regions (OE, VE CE). The results indicated that all the three variables were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Before TML, in groups using Pyramid, groups 3 and 4 showed higher CM (%) than groups 1 and 2, and in groups using Heliomolar. groups 3 and 4 showed higher CM (%) than group 1 (p < 0.05). After TML, in both Pyramid and Heliomo)ar groups, group 3 showed higher CM (%) than group 1 (p < 0.05) CM (%) of the regions are significantly different in each group (p < 0.05). Before TML, no statistical difference was found between groups within the VE and CE region. In the OE region, group 4 of Pyramid showed higher CM (%) than group 2, and groups 2 and 4 of Heliomolar showed higher CM (%) than group 1 (p < 0.05). After TML, no statistical difference was found among groups within the VE and CE region. In the OE region, group 3 of Pyramid showed higher CM (%) than groups 1 and 2, and groups 2,3 and 4 of Heliomolar showed higher CM (%) than group 1 (p < 0.05). It was concluded that intermittent polymerization may be effective in reducing marginal gap formation.

The Effect of Temporary Cement Cleaning Methods on the Retentive Strength of Cementation Type Implant Prostheses (임시 시멘트 제거방법이 시멘트 유지형 임플란트 보철물의 유지력에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Hwang-Kyu;Song, Young-Gyun;Shin, Soo-Yeon
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.125-140
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    • 2011
  • The remnant of temporary cement on the intaglio surface of cast restoration may have a negative effect on the retentive strength of permanent cement. This study was to evaluate the effect of temporary cement cleaning methods on the retentive strength of cementation type implant prostheses. Prefabricated implant abutments - height 5.5mm, diameter 4.5mm, 6 degree axial wall taper with chamfer margins were used. Forty copings-abutment specimens were divided into four groups(each n=10) according to the cleaning methods for temporary cement(Temp-$Bond^{(R)}$) as follows : no temporary cementation(the control group), orange solvent, ultrasonic cleaning, air borne-particle abrasion. After the application of temporary cement and the separation, the cleaning procedure was performed according to the protocol of each group. The specimens were cemented with $Premier^{(R)}$ Implant $Cement^{TM}$. After the permanent cementation, the specimens were subjected to thermocycling and pulled out from the specimens with a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min. After the retentive strength test, all the specimens were cleaned using ultrasonic cleaning, abraded with air borne-particles, and steam-cleaned. Likewise, the specimens were temporarily cemented(Temp-$Bond^{(R)}$ NE), cleaned according to the protocol of each group, cemented with $Premier^{(R)}$ Implant $Cement^{TM}$ and subjected to thermocycling and measurement of their retentive strength. The mean of group with orange solvent were significantly lower than those of other groups(p<0.05). There was no significance between group with ultrasonic cleaning and group with air borne-particle abrasion. Group with ultrasonic cleaning and group with air-particle abrasion were no significance at control group. There was no significance between group cemented with Temp-$Bond^{(R)}$ and group cemented with Temp-$Bond^{(R)}$ NE. Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that the temporary cement cleaning method with only orange solvent may have a negative effect on the retentive strength of permanent cement. Ultrasonic cleaning and air borne-particle abrasion methods are recommended for the temporary cement cleaning method on cementation type implant prostheses.