• Title, Summary, Keyword: 분산분석(ANOVA)

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INFLUENCE OF THREE DIFFERENT PREPARATION DESIGNS ON THE MARGINAL AND INTERNAL GAPS OF CEREC3 CAD/CAM INLAYS (세 가지 다른 인레이 와동 형태가 CEREC3 CAD/CAM의 변연 및 내면 간극에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Deog-Gyu;Yi, Young-Ah;Lee, Yoon;Roh, Byoung-Duck
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal gaps in CEREC3 CAD/CAM inlays of three different preparation designs. CEREC3 Inlays of three different preparation designs (n=10) were fabricated according to Group I-conventional functional cusp capping/shoulder preparation, Group II-horizontal reduction of cusps and Group III-complete reduction of cusps/shoulder preparation. After cementation of inlays. the bucco-lingual cross section was performed through the center of tooth. Cross section images of 20 magnifications were obtained through the stereomicroscope. The gaps were measured using the Leica application suite software at each reference point. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (${\alpha}<0.05$). The marginal gaps ranged from 80.0 to $97.8{\mu}m$ for Group I, 42.0 to $194.8{\mu}m$ for Group II, 51.0 to $80.2{\mu}m$ for Group III. The internal gaps ranged from 90.5 to $304.1{\mu}m$ for Group I, 80.0 to $274.8{\mu}m$ for Group II, 79.7 to $296.7{\mu}m$ for Group III. The gaps of each group were the smallest on the margin and the largest on the horizontal wall. For the CEREC3 CAD/CAM inlays, the simplified designs (groups II and III) did not demonstrate superior results compared to the traditional cusp capping design (group I).

SLUMPING TENDENCY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTY OF FLOWABLE COMPOSITES (Flowable 복합레진의 slumping 경향과 유변학적 성질)

  • Lee, In-Bog;Min, Sun-Hong;Kim, Sun-Young;Cho, Byung-Hoon;Back, Seung-Ho
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring the slumping resistance of flowable resin composites and to evaluate the efficacy using rheological methodology. Five commercial flowable composites (Aelitefil flow:AF, Filtek flow:FF, DenFil flow:DF, Tetric flow:TF and Revolution:RV) were used. Same volume of composites in a syringe was extruded on a glass slide using a custom-made loading device. The resin composites were allowed to slump for 10 seconds at $25^{\circ}C$ and light cured. The aspect ratio (height/diameter) of cone or dome shaped specimen was measured for estimating the slumping tendency of composites. The complex viscosity of each composite was measured by a dynamic oscillatory shear test as a function of angular frequency using a rheometer. To compare the slumping tendency of composites, one way-ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test was performed for the aspect ratio at 95% confidence level. Regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the complex viscosity and the aspect ratio. The results were as follows. 1. Slumping tendency based on the aspect ratio varied among the five materials (AF

THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT TO CONDUCT DISORDER IN ADOLESCENTS (청소년의 가정환경과 도덕발달단계가 행동장애에 미치는 영향)

  • Chin, Tae-Won;Kim, Sa-Jun;Lee, Heung-Pyo;Cho, Soo-Churl
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.163-174
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    • 1997
  • This study was to know the influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder. Subjects were composed of 47 male and female patients with conduct disorder(patients group), 113 general male and female students(normal group), and 173 juvenile prisoners(JP group). The Korean Form of the Family Environment Scale(FES) was used to assess the family environment of the subjects and the Korean Defining Issues Test(DIT) was used to assess the moral development. Conduct disorder was diagnosed with the DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder. The influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder was analyzed with ANOVA and the differences among groups were verified with Scheffe test. There was no difference in the socioeconomic status and the physical abuse by the parents among the three groups. But the rates of divorce or separation of the parents were significantly highest in the JP group and higher in the patients group than in the normal group. Especially the subjects of the JP group experienced the divorce or separation of their parents during the preschool or the elementary school periods. In regard to the family environment, there was no difference among the three groups in the Subscales of Expressiveness, Independence, Intellectual-cultural orientation, Moral-religious emphasis, Organization, and Control. ‘Cohesion Subscale’ was significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. ‘Conflict Subscale’ was significantly higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. ‘Achievement orientation Subscale’ was significantly lower in the JP group than in the patients and normal groups. ‘Activerecreational orientation’ was significantly lower in the normal group than in the JP and patients groups. In gegard to the moral developmental stage, the lower moral developmental step was higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. The higher steps were significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. There was no significant correlation between the degree of ‘Moral-religious emphasis Subscale’ and the moral development. The clinical implication and limitation of present study were listed and discussed.

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Characteristics of Breeding Bird Community in Relation to Altitude and Vegetation in Jirisan National Park (지리산국립공원 해발고도와 식생에 따른 번식기 조류군집의 특성)

  • Lee, Do-Han;Kwon, Hye-Jin;Song, Ho-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.471-480
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of breeding bird community in relation to altitude and vegetation in Jirisan National Park. The survey was carried over 4 study sites by point counts method to figure out habitat environment and breeding bird community from March to August in 2006. The study results are summarized as follows: Total 32 species were recorded, and 27 species and density of 37.31 ea/ha in low altitude mixed forest, 23 species and 34.99 ea/ha in low altitude deciduous forest, 18 species and 23.95 ea/ha in high altitude mixed forest, 19 species and 20.21 ea/ha in high altitude deciduous forest, respectively. Eleven species were observed only in the low altitude sites, 4 species were observed only in the high altitude sites. Number of species and density were high in the low altitude sites, and they were high in the mixed forests. In nesting guild analysis, the low altitude sites are similarly found species number of three types but canopy nesting species in the high altitude sites are advent less. In foraging guild analysis, the species number of canopy foraging appeared most highly in all study sites. In the difference analysis of each species density. Four species which are showed the difference in the low altitude sites, owing to vegetation. Long-tailed Tit(Aegithalos caudatus) and Great tit(Parus major) are difference because of difference in volume of canopy layer, and Coal Tit(Parus ater) was difference because of coniferous forest preference quality. Four species(Hazel Grouse, Winter Wren, Pale Thrush, Yellow-throated Bunting) which are showed the difference of the density in the high altitude sites because of thick growth of the bush layer. Ten species which are showed the difference in study sites, owing to altitude. Oriental Cuckoo(Cuculus saturatus), Winter Wren(Troglodytes troglodytes), Siberian Blue Robin(Luscinia cyane), Arctic Warbler(Phylloscopus borealis), Coal Tit(Parus ater), and Yellow-throated Bunting(Emberiza elegans) appeared highly in the high altitude sites, Pale Thrush(Turdus pallidus), Long-taild Tit(Aegithalos caudatus), Varied Tit(Parus varius), and Eurasian Nuthatch(Sitta europaea) appeared highly in the low altitude sites. It seems that bush layer coverage volume and canopy layer total coverage volume do influences on the breeding bird community, because the bush layer was thick growth, and canopy layer coverage volume was difference. It would be needed the management and maintenance of bush layer coverage volume and canopy layer with multi-layer structure to increase foliage height diversity and total coverage volume for the protection and management of bird community in Jirisan National Park.

Effect of water storage on the fracture toughness of dental resin cement used for zirconia restoration (수분이 지르코니아 수복물 전용 레진시멘트의 파괴인성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Goo, Bon-Wook;Kim, Sung-Hun;Lee, Jai-Bong;Han, Jung-Suk;Yeo, In-Sung;Ha, Seung-Ryong;Kim, Hee-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the fracture toughness of currently available resin cements for zirconia restorations and evaluate the effect of water storage on fracture toughness of those resin cements. Materials and methods: Single-edge notched specimens ($3mm{\times}6mm{\times}25mm$) were prepared from three currently available dual cure resin cements for zirconia restorations (Panavia F 2.0, Clearfil SA luting and Zirconite). Each resin cement was divided into four groups: immersed in distilled water at $37^{\circ}C$ for 1 (Control group), 30, 90, or 180 days (n=5). Specimens were loaded in three point bending at a cross-head speed of 0.1 mm/s. The maximum load at specimen failure was recorded and the fracture toughness ($K_{IC}$) was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison $Scheff{\acute{e}}$ test (${\alpha}$=.05). Results: In control group, the mean $K_{IC}$ was $3.41{\pm}0.64MN{\cdot}m^{-1.5}$ for Panavia F, 2.0, $3.07{\pm}0.41MN{\cdot}m^{-1.5}$ for Zirconite, $2.58{\pm}0.30MN{\cdot}m^{-1.5}$ for Clearfil SA luting respectively, but statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between them. Although a gradual decrease of $K_{IC}$ in Panavia F 2.0 and gradual increases of KIC in Clearfil SA luting and Zirconite were observed with storage time, there were no significant differences between immersion time for each cement. Conclusion: The resin cements for zirconia restorations exhibit much higher $K_{IC}$ values than conventional resin cements. The fracture toughness of resin cement for zirconia restoration would not be affected by water storage.

A Preliminary Study on Motor Ability of Preschool Aged Children by Using Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) Short Form (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2(BOT-2) 단축형을 사용한 학령전기 아동의 운동능력에 대한 연구)

  • Hong, Ki-hoon;Kim, Do-yeon;Kang, Hye-bin;Park, Tae-yeong;Yun, Eun-jeong;Lee, Ji-yeong;Jung, Hye-rim
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2016
  • Objective : This study aimed to provide the preliminary data as a pilot study on standardizing BOT-2 by using an assessment criteria linked to Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) short form for the children with preschool years(4-6 year old) in South Korea. Methods : A total of 81 children aged 4-6 in Busan and Gimhae were participated in this study. They were evaluated by using BOT-2 SF. It provides the average values and standard deviations about the abilities of praxis along with descriptive statistical analyses, and has the verification of gender differences by using independent t-test and using ANOVA for discrepancies in the abilities of praxis. Results : There were significance difference in the total raw score between four and five (p=.000), the items on fine motor accuracy between five and six year olds (p=.014). Girls showed higher scores than boys in fine motor accuracy, fine motor integration and balance (p=.022, p=.006, p=.031). Also, mean raw scores of 4 and 5 year olds (p=.007, =.000), and the all age group's standard scores were higher than the age in American children who were the participants of BOT-2. Conclusion : This study suggested the average of each item with regard to the ability of motor praxis about the children of preschool ages and showed the dissimilarity in the ability of motor praxis between age and gender, also between the participants in this study and American children who were participants of BOT-2. The research could provide basic data for future studies to standardize BOT-2 SF for korean preschoolers.

Shear bond strength of Universal bonding systems to Ni-Cr alloy (니켈-크롬 합금에 대한 다용도 접착 시스템의 전단결합강도)

  • Song, So-Yeon;Son, Byung-Wha;Kim, Jong-Yeob;Shin, Sang-Wan;Lee, Jeong-Yol
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between Ni-Cr alloy and composite resin using universal adhesive systems coMPared to conventional method using metal primers. Materials and methods: For this study, a total of 120 cast commercial Ni-Cr alloy (Vera Bond 2V) disks were embedded in acrylic resin, and their surfaces were smoothed with silicon carbide papers and airborne-particle abrasion. Specimens of each metal were divided into 6 groups based on the combination of metal primers (Metal primer II, Alloy primer, Metal & Zirconia primer, MKZ primer) and universal adhesive systems (Single Bond Universal, All Bond Universal). All specimens were stored in distilled water at $37^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours. Shear bond strength testing was performed with a universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1 m/min. Data (MPa) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey's multiple comparison test (${\alpha}$=.05). Results: There were significant differences between Single Bond Universal, All Bond Universal, Metal Primer II and Alloy Primer, MKZ Primer, Metal & Zirconia Primer (P<.001). Conclusion: Universal Adhesive system groups indicated high shear bond strength value bonded to Ni-Cr alloy than that of conventional system groups using primers except Metal Primer II. Within the limitations of this study, improvement of universal adhesive systems which can be applied to all types of restorations is recommended especially non-precious metal alloy. More research is needed to evaluate the effect of silane inclusion or exclusion in universal adhesive systems.

An Analysis on the Curricula and Recognitions of the Home Economics Teachers who were the Participants of the First-Grade Home Economics Regular Teacher Qualification Program (중등 가정과 1급 정교사 자격 연수 프로그램 운영 실태 분석 및 연수 참여자의 인식)

  • Lim, Il-Young;Kweon, Li-Ra;Lee, Hye-Suk;Park, Mi-Jin;Ryu, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.37-56
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to provide basic resources to the first-grade Home Economics Regular Teacher Qualification Program (FGHERTQP) in order to improve its operation plans. For the study, the three methods were carried out: an analysis on the curricula of FGHERTQP over six years since 2000, a questionnaire asking their satisfaction degrees and needs on the programs which was answered by the home economics teachers who were the participants of FGHERTQP, and several statistical analyses such as a descriptive-test, a $X^2$-test, a t-test, and one way ANOVA by using SPSS Win ver 10.0. The results of the study were as follows; Firstly, FGHERTQP has been operated ten times by five training centers during resent six years. Subject matters ($1{\sim}7$), whole numbers of lectures ($11{\sim}29$), and their allotted working hours ($111{\sim}136$) vary with individual training centers and operation years. Secondly, when using 5 point likert scales, Contents and Methods of evaluation marked 3.08 which were the lowest scores, and Qualification Training in General marked 3.72 which was the highest score among five fields of Qualification Training in General, Contents, Organizations, Methods and Evaluation. The overall scores were low. Thirdly, in needs analysis on offering subject matters, the participants wanted to study the field of home economics education more than that of subject contents. Looking about the highest needs classified by domains, Food Principles & Meal Management showed the highest in Foods. And Consumer Issues in Clothing & Textiles in Textiles, Upcoming Housing Cultures in Housing, Family Relationship in Child Development & Family Relationship, Juveniles and their daily life as a consumer in Family & Consumer Resources Management. Fourthly, training centers' lectures available had a significant influence on the satisfaction degrees according to general characteristic variations of the participants. That is, as a training center offers more lectures in the field of subject education than those of subject contents, the participants showed higher satisfaction degrees (p<.05).

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Assessing Productivity of Elementary School Lunch Foodservices in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do Area (대구ㆍ경북지역 초등학교 급식소의 급식생산성 분석)

  • 박영숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.286-294
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the food service management practices and productivity in 49 elementary schools in the Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do areas. Survey questionnaires were used to obtain a variety of quantitative and qualitative information, including general food service management and productivity, on elementary school food service systems. Descriptive analysis, $\div$2-test, t-test and one-way ANOVA analysis were used as the statistical methods in this study. Eighteen elementary schools were located in urban areas, 13 in provincial areas and 18 in isolated areas. The average number of meals was 565.1, with a significant difference (p=0.001) between the areas. The average cost per a meal was 1151.0 Won, with a significant difference (p=0.001) between the areas. The productivity Index (meal/hour) was 13.5, with a significant difference (p=0.001) between the areas. There was a significant positive correlation of the productivity Index between the total number of meal, the number of employees, the total food cost, meals per employee and the employee's working period. There was a significant negative correlation between the productivity Index and the number of side dishes, the lost per meal, the labor cost per meal and the employee's job satisfaction degree index (JDI).

Comparative evaluation of marginal and internal fit of metal copings fabricated by various CAD/CAM methods (다양한 CAD/CAM 방식으로 제작한 금속하부구조물 간의 변연 및 내면 적합도 비교 연구)

  • Jeong, Seung-Jin;Cho, Hye-Won;Jung, Ji-Hye;Kim, Jeong-Mi;Kim, Yu-Lee
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the accuracy of four different metal copings fabricated by CAD/CAM technology and to evaluate clinical effectiveness. Materials and methods: Composite resin tooth of the maxillary central incisor was prepared for a metal ceramic crown and duplicated metal die was fabricated. Then scan the metal die for 12 times to obtain STL files using a confocal microscopy type oral scanner. Metal copings with a thickness of 0.5 mm and a cement space of $50{\mu}m$ were designed on a CAD program. The Co-Cr metal copings were fabricated by the following four methods: Wax pattern milling & Casting (WM), Resin pattern 3D Printing & casting (RP), Milling & Sintering (MS), Selective laser melting (SLM). Silicone replica technique was used to measure marginal and internal discrepancies. The data was statistically analyzed with One-way analysis of variance and appropriate post hoc test (Scheffe test) (${\alpha}=.05$). Results: Mean marginal discrepancy was significantly smaller in the Group WM ($27.66{\pm}9.85{\mu}m$) and Group MS ($28.88{\pm}10.13{\mu}m$) than in the Group RP ($38.09{\pm}11.14{\mu}m$). Mean cervical discrepancy was significantly smaller in the Group MS than in the Group RP. Mean axial discrepancy was significantly smaller in the Group WM and Group MS then in the Group RP and Group SLM. Mean incisal discrepancies was significantly smaller in the Group RP than in all other groups. Conclusion: The marginal and axial discrepancies of the Co-Cr coping fabricated by the Wax pattern milling and Milling/Sintering method were better than those of the other groups. The marginal, cervical and axial fit of Co-Cr copings in all groups are within a clinically acceptable range.