• Title, Summary, Keyword: 분수의 개념

### A Comparative Study on Didactical Aspects of Fraction Concept and Algorithm Appeared in the Textbook of McLellan, MiC, and Korea (분수 개념과 알고리듬 지도 양상 비교: McLellan, MiC, 한국의 교재를 중심으로)

• Kang, Heung-Kyu
• Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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• v.15 no.4
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• pp.375-399
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• 2005
• In this article, I identified many points of commonness and differences at)feared in the fraction units of three conspicuous textbooks -McLellan, MiC and Korea. After that, 1 evaluated these results with reference to more general didactics on which each text-book is based. A background theory of Mc-Lellan's textbook was Dewey's experientialism, and that of MiC was Freudenthal's realistic mathematics education. Through this study, I have reached the fact that these three textbooks could not exhibit the phenomenological wholeness of fraction. Driven by measuring number model which is very abstractive, McLellan's text-book is disregarding the lower level context. MiC textbook, driven by real context, is ignoring higher level model which is close to rational number concept. From an excess of formulation and practice of algorithm, Korea's textbook is overlooking the real context. It is necessary that a textbook which would display the phenomenological wholeness of fraction is developed.

### First to Third Graders Have Already Established (분수 개념에 대한 초등학생들의 비형식적 지식 분석 - 1${\sim}$3학년 중심으로 -)

• Oh, Yu-Kyeong;Kim, Jin-Ho
• Communications of Mathematical Education
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• v.23 no.1
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• pp.145-174
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• 2009
• Based on the thinking that people can understand more clearly when the problem is related with their prior knowledge, the Purpose of this study was to analysis students' informal knowledge, which is constructed through their mathematical experience in the context of real-world situations. According to this purpose, the following research questions were. 1) What is the characteristics of students' informal knowledge about fraction before formal fraction instruction in school? 2) What is the difference of informal knowledge of fraction according to reasoning ability and grade. To investigate these questions, 18 children of first, second and third grade(6 children per each grade) in C elementary school were selected. Among the various concept of fraction, part-whole fraction, quotient fraction, ratio fraction and measure fraction were selected for the interview. I recorded the interview on digital camera, drew up a protocol about interview contents, and analyzed and discussed them after numbering and comment. The conclusions are as follows: First, students already constructed informal knowledge before they learned formal knowledge about fraction. Among students' informal knowledge they knew correct concepts based on formal knowledge, but they also have ideas that would lead to misconceptions. Second, the informal knowledge constructed by children were different according to grade. This is because the informal knowledge is influenced by various experience on learning and everyday life. And the students having higher reasoning ability represented higher levels of knowledge. Third, because children are using informal knowledge from everyday life to learn formal knowledge, we should use these informal knowledge to instruct more efficiently.

### 분수 학습에서 정신모델 구성을 위한 유추의 역할

• Go, Sang-Suk;Kim, Gyu-Sang
• Communications of Mathematical Education
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• v.15
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• pp.105-111
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• 2003
• 본 연구자는 아동이 분수 개념을 이해하는 정신모델 속에서 인지과정이 어떻게 나타나며, 적용되는지, 그리고 이를 바탕으로 분수 학습에 표현되는 정신모델 구성을 위한 유추의 역할을 살펴보고자 하는 것이 본 연구의 목적이다.

### Examining how elementary students understand fractions and operations (초등학생의 분수와 분수 연산에 대한 이해 양상)

• Park, HyunJae;Kim, Gooyeon
• The Mathematical Education
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• v.57 no.4
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• pp.453-475
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• 2018
• This study examines how elementary students understand fractions with operations conceptually and how they perform procedures in the division of fractions. We attempted to look into students' understanding about fractions with divisions in regard to mathematical proficiency suggested by National Research Council (2001). Mathematical proficiency is identified as an intertwined and interconnected composition of 5 strands- conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and productive disposition. We developed an instrument to identify students' understanding of fractions with multiplication and division and conducted the survey in which 149 6th-graders participated. The findings from the data analysis suggested that overall, the 6th-graders seemed not to understand fractions conceptually; in particular, their understanding is limited to a particular model of part-whole fraction. The students showed a tendency to use memorized procedure-invert and multiply in a given problem without connecting the procedure to the concept of the division of fractions. The findings also proposed that on a given problem-solving task that suggested a pathway in order for the students to apply or follow the procedures in a new situation, they performed the computation very fluently when dividing two fractions by multiplying by a reciprocal. In doing so, however, they appeared to unable to connect the procedures with the concepts of fractions with division.

### The Impact of Children's Understanding of Fractions on Problem Solving (분수의 하위개념 이해가 문제해결에 미치는 영향)

• Kim, Kyung-Mi;Whang, Woo-Hyung
• The Mathematical Education
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• v.48 no.3
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• pp.235-263
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• 2009
• The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of children's understanding of fractions in mathematics problem solving. Kieren has claimed that the concept of fractions is not a single construct, but consists of several interrelated subconstructs(i.e., part-whole, ratio, operator, quotient and measure). Later on, in the early 1980s, Behr et al. built on Kieren's conceptualization and suggested a theoretical model linking the five subconstructs of fractions to the operations of fractions, fraction equivalence and problem solving. In the present study we utilized this theoretical model as a reference to investigate children's understanding of fractions. The case study has been conducted with 6 children consisted of 4th to 5th graders to detect how they understand factions, and how their understanding influence problem solving of subconstructs, operations of fractions and equivalence. Children's understanding of fractions was categorized into "part-whole", "ratio", "operator", "quotient", "measure" and "result of operations". Most children solved the problems based on their conceptual structure of fractions. However, we could not find the particular relationships between children's understanding of fractions and fraction operations or fraction equivalence, while children's understanding of fractions significantly influences their solutions to the problems of five subconstructs of fractions. We suggested that the focus of teaching should be on the concept of fractions and the meaning of each operations of fractions rather than computational algorithm of fractions.

### The Type of Fractional Quotient and Consequential Development of Children's Quotient Subconcept of Rational Numbers (분수 몫의 형태에 따른 아동들의 분수꼴 몫 개념의 발달)

• Kim, Ah-Young
• Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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• v.22 no.1
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• pp.53-68
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• 2012
• This paper investigated the conceptual schemes four children constructed as they related division number sentences to various types of fraction: Proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers in both contextual and abstract symbolic forms. Methods followed those of the constructivist teaching experiment. Four fifth-grade students from an inner city school in the southwest United States were interviewed eight times: Pre-test clinical interview, six teaching / semi-structured interviews, and a final post-test clinical interview. Results showed that for equal sharing situations, children conceptualized division in two ways: For mixed numbers, division generated a whole number portion of quotient and a fractional portion of quotient. This provided the conceptual basis to see improper fractions as quotients. For proper fractions, they tended to see the quotient as an instance of the multiplicative structure: $a{\times}b=c$ ; $a{\div}c=\frac{1}{b}$ ; $b{\div}c=\frac{1}{a}$. Results suggest that first, facility in recall of multiplication and division fact families and understanding the multiplicative structure must be emphasized before learning fraction division. Second, to facilitate understanding of the multiplicative structure children must be fluent in representing division in the form of number sentences for equal sharing word problems. If not, their reliance on long division hampers their use of syntax and their understanding of divisor and dividend and their relation to the concepts of numerator and denominator.

### An Analysis on the Contents of Fractional Operations in CCSSM-CA and its Textbooks (CCSSM-CA와 미국 교과서에 제시된 분수의 연산 내용 분석)

• Lee, Dae Hyun
• Education of Primary School Mathematics
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• v.22 no.2
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• pp.129-147
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• 2019
• Because of the various concepts and meanings of fractions and the difficulty of learning, studies to improve the teaching methods of fraction have been carried out. Particularly, because there are various methods of teaching depending on the type of fractions or the models or methods used for problem solving in fraction operations, many researches have been implemented. In this study, I analyzed the fractional operations of CCSSM-CA and its U.S. textbooks. It was CCSSM-CA revised and presented in California and the textbooks of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Co., which reflect the content and direction of CCSSM-CA. As a result of the analysis, although the grades presented in CCSSM-CA and Korean textbooks were consistent in the addition and subtraction of fractions, there are the features of expressing fractions by the sum of fractions with the same denominator or unit fraction and the evaluation of the appropriateness of the answer. In the multiplication and division of fractions, there is a difference in the presentation according to the grades. There are the features of the comparison the results of products based on the number of factor, presenting the division including the unit fractions at first, and suggesting the solving of division problems using various ways.

### Balancedness of generalized fractional domination games (일반화된 분수 지배게임에 대한 균형성)

• Kim, Hye-Kyung;Park, Jun-Pyo
• Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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• v.20 no.1
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• pp.49-55
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• 2009
• A cooperative game often arises from domination problem on graphs and the core in a cooperative game could be the optimal solution of a linear programming of a given game. In this paper, we define a {k}-fractional domination game which is a specific type of fractional domination games and find the core of a {k}-fractional domination game. Moreover, we may investigate the balancedness of a {k}-fractional domination game using a concept of a linear programming and duality. We also conjecture the concavity for {k}-fractional dominations game which is important problem to find the elements of the core.

### A Comparative Study of Elementary School Mathematics Textbooks of Korea(2007 Curriculums) and America(Harcourt Math) -focused on the introductions and operations of fractions and decimals- (한국과 미국(Harcourt Math)의 초등수학 교과서 비교 분석: 분수와 소수의 도입과 연산을 중심으로)

• Choi, Keunbae
• Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
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• v.19 no.1
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• pp.17-37
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• 2015
• In this paper, we compared and analyzed the Korean National Mathematics textbooks of the 2007 amendment curriculum and the Harcourt Math in America focused on fractions and decimals. To summarize the results of the analysis are as follows. First, both textbooks introduce fractions to the meaning of parts-whole concept, but the Harcourt Math is stronger than that of Korean Mathematics textbooks in the concept of unit fractions as a generator of fractions. Second, the fractions can be considered trivial materials - a fraction representing 1 whole, a fraction with it's denominator is 1 - were more clearly represented in our US textbooks than those of our Korean textbooks. Third, in the introduction of the term relating to the fractions, Korea is a strong point of view of the classification of fractions than the point of view of representation in comparison with the case of the United States. Fourth, the equivalent fraction and equivalent decimal concepts were described more detail in the United States of textbooks than those of the case of Korean textbooks. Finally, the approaches of fraction and decimal concepts were introduced more mathematically in the case of the United States than those of the case of Korean textbooks.

### Preservice teachers' Key Developmental Understandings (KDUs) for fraction multiplication (예비교사의 분수 곱셈을 위한 '발달에 핵심적인 이해'에 관한 연구)

• Lee, Soo-Jin;Shin, Jae-Hong
• Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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• v.14 no.4
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• pp.477-490
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• 2011
• The concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been developed and expanded to identify essential components of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) by Ball and her colleagues (2008). This study proposes an alternative perspective to view MKT focusing on key developmental understandings (KDUs) that carry through an instructional sequence, that are foundational for learning other ideas. In this study we provide constructive components of KDUs in fraction multiplication by focusing on the constructs of 'three-level-of-units structure' and 'recursive partitioning operation'. Expecially, our participating preservice elementary teacher, Jane, demonstrated that recursive partitioning operations with her length model played a significant role as a KDU in fraction multiplication.