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Seeding Rate and Planting Date Effects on Forage Performance and Quality of Winter Rye (호밀의 사초특성, 수량 및 품질에 미치는 파종량 및 파종기의 영향)

  • Park, H.S.;Kim, D.A.;Kim, J.D.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was carried out to determine seeding rate and planting date effects on the forage performance and quality of winter rye(Secale cereale L.) at Suweon in 1997 and 1998. The experiment was arranged in a spilt plot design with three replications. Main plots consisted of three seeding rates; 100, 150, and 200kg/ha. Sub-plots consisted of four planting dates; 5 September, 20 September, 5 October and 20 October. The first heading date of rye was not strongly influenced by planting dates. On a day basis, a 1:15 ratio was existed between heading and planting dates of rye, as a 1-day delay in spring heading date for each 15-day delay in fall planting date. Dry matter content of rye for a seeding rate of 200kg/ha was the lowest of 13.6%, and that for the planting dates was decreased to 15.2, 14.2, 14.3, and 13.8% with delayed seeding (P<0.05). There was an interaction between seeding rate and planting date in dry matter content of rye(P<0.01). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) percentage of rye for the seeding rates was not significant and that for the planting dates was decreased to 32.1, 31.6, 31.6, and 29.3%, as the planting was delayed(P<0.05). There was an interaction between seeding rate and planting date for ADF. Effect of seeding rate and planting date on neutral detergent fiber(NDF) of rye was similar to the observations made on ADF. Crude protein content of rye for the seeding rates was not significant, but that for the planting dates was increased to 17.3, 17.7, 18.2, and 18.9%, as the planting was delayed(P<0.05). In vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) of rye for the seeding rates was not significant, but that for the planting dates was increased to 77.5, 80.6, 80.9, and 80.9%, as the planting was delayed(P<0.05). Dry matter yield of rye for a seeding rate of 100 kg/ha was the highest of 9,059 kg/ha, and that for a seeding rate of 200 kg/ha was the lowest of 7,647 kg/ha(P<0.01). In this experiment, the highest forage yield(8,945 kg/ha) was obtained when planting was completed by early October(5 October), with yield decreased as planting was delayed until 20 October (7,249 kg/ha)(P<0.01). This trend was also observed for the crude protein(CP) and in vitro digestible dry matter(IVDDM) yields of rye. A significant interaction between seeding rate and planting date for the dry matter yield was occurred(P<0.01). Based on the results of this experiment, it appears that the forage dry matter yield of rye could be enhanced by sowing from 20 September to 5 October under upland condition in the middle plain area of Korea. The seeding rates from 100 to 150 kg/ha and that of 200 kg/ha would be suitable for the early-fall and late fall sowing, respectively.

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Effects of Activation Regimens of Recipient Cytoplasm, Culture Condition of Donor Embryos and Size of Blastomeres on Development of Reconstituted Bovine Embryos (수핵 난자의 활성화 방법과 공핵 수정란의 배양체계 및 할구의 크기가 소 핵이식 수정란의 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 심보웅;조성근;이효종;박충생;최상용
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.425-435
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    • 1998
  • To improve the efficiency of nuclear transplantation in bovine, in this study the development in vitro of nuclear transferred (NT) embryos was compared by different activation regimens of the enucleated oocytes. The effect of developmental stage and culture system of donor nuclei on fusion and development in vitro of NT embryos were also evaluated. Oocytes were collected from Hanwoo ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse and matured in Ham's F-10 supplemented with hormones. After 20~22 h maturation, the oocytes were vortexed to be free from cumulus cells and subsequently their nucleus and the first polar body were removed. Enucleated oocytes were divided into 3 groups for activation; the oocytes of group I were activated with ionomycin for 5 min and subsequently incubated in 6-dimetylarninopurine (DMAP) for 4 h, Those of group II were treated with DMAP for 4 h at 39 h after onset of in vitro maturation (IVM) and those of group III were kept in room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$) for 3 h at 39 h after onset of IVM. After in vitro fertilization (IVF) the embryos for muclear donor were cultured either by group culture (20 embryos /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) or individually (1 embryo /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) for 4 day and 5 day. At day 4 and 5 after IVF, blastomeres were separated in calcium-magnesium free medium, and then classified into small (day 5: $\leq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4: $\leq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) and large (day 5 : $\geq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4 ; $\geq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). The separated blastomeres were replaced into enucleated and activated recipient cytoplasm. The blastomere-oocyte complexes were fused by electrically. The NT embryos were cultured in TCM-199 containing 10% FCS in 39$^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 7 day. The results obtained were summarized as follows; There were no differences in fusion and development to blastocyst between groups as group I (68%, 10%), group II (75%, 14%) and group III (73%, 9%), respectively. However, the cell number in blastocyst of NT embryos in group III were significantly fewer than in the other groups (P<0.05). No differences in fusion and development to blastocyst were found between individual or group cultured and between small or large blastomeres of day 4 and day 5 donor embryos. From these results, it was concluded that the combination of ionomycin and DMAP, or treatment of DMAP at 39 h after onset of IVM were useful for the efficient of production of NT bovine embryos, and the individual cultured embryos could be simply used as donor nuclei for NT bovine embryo.

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Low Dose Cisplatin as a Radiation Sensitizer in Management of Locally Advanced Scluamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix : Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Early Response (국소 진행된 자궁경부암의 방사선치료와 저용량 cisplatin 항암요법 동시치료시 급성독성 밀 초기반응 평가)

  • Kim Hunjung;Cho Young Kap;Kim Chulsu;Kim Woo Chul;Lee Sukho;Loh J K
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : To evaluate possible acute toxicity and early response of concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin as a radiosensitizer in patients with locally advanced uterine cervical carcinomas. Materials and Method : From December 1996 to January 1999, 38 previously untreated Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (from stage IIB to stage IIIB) were treated at Inha University Hospital. All patients underwent standard pretreatment staging Procedures after the initial evaluation by gynecologists and radiation oncologists. Sixteen Patients with huge cervical mass (>4 cm) were submitted to the group treated with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin while the remainder was treated with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to whole pelvis (midline block after 3000 cGy), 900$\~$1000 cGy boost to involved parametrium, and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3000$\~$3500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the group treated with low dose cisplatin concurrently, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given from the 1st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was measured according to expanded common toxicity criteria of the NCI (C) Clinical Trials. Early response data were analyzed at minimum 4 weeks' follow-up after completion of the treatment protocol. Results: Hematolgic toxici쇼 was more prominent in patients treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin. Six of 16 patients (37.5$\~$) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and one of 22 patients (4.5$\~$) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced grade 3 leukopenia. In Fisher's exact test, there was statistically significant difference between two groups regarding leukopenia (P=0.030). There was no apparent difference in the frequency of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity between two groups (P=0.066). Three of 16 patients (18.7$\~$) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and two of 22 patients (9.1$\~$) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced more than 5 kg weight loss during the treatment. There was no statistically significant difference on weight loss between two groups (P=0.63). Two patients on each group were not evaluable for the early response because of incomplete treatment. The complete response rate at four weeks' follow-up was 80$\~$(16/20) for the radiation therapy alone group and 78$\~$ (11/14) for the radiation therapy and cisplatin group. There was no statistically significant difference in early response between two treatment groups (P=0.126). Conclusion : This study led to the conclusion that the hematologic toxicity from the treatment with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin seems to be more prominent than that from the treatment of radiation therapy alone. There was no grade 4 hematologic toxicity or mortality in both groups. The hematologic toxicity in both treatment groups seems to be well managable modically. Since the risk factors were not balanced between two treatment groups, the direct comparison of early response of both groups was not possible. However, preliminary results regarding early response for patients with bulky cervical tumor mass treated with radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin was encouraging. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the survival data. A phase III study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of concurrent daily low dose cisplatin with radiation therapy in bulky cervical cancer.

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Radiosynthesis of $[^{11}C]6-OH-BTA-1$ in Different Media and Confirmation of Reaction By-products. ($[^{11}C]6-OH-BTA-1$ 조제 시 생성되는 부산물 규명과 반응용매에 따른 표지 효율 비교)

  • Lee, Hak-Jeong;Jeong, Jae-Min;Lee, Yun-Sang;Kim, Hyung-Woo;Lee, Eun-Kyoung;Lee, Dong-Soo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: $[^{11}C]6-OH-BTA-1$ ([N-methyl-$^{11}C$]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, 1), a -amyloid imaging agent for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in PET, can be labeled with higher yield by a simple loop method. During the synthesis of $[^{11}C]1$, we found the formation of by-products in various solvents, e.g., methylethylketone (MEK), cyclohexanone (CHO), diethylketone (DEK), and dimethylformamide (DMF). Materials and Methods: In Automated radiosynthesis module, 1 mg of 4-aminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (4) in 100 l of each solvent was reacted with $[^{11}C]methyl$ triflate in HPLC loop at room temperature (RT). The reaction mixture was separated by semi-preparative HPLC. Aliquots eluted at 14.4, 16.3 and 17.6 min were collected and analyzed by analytical HPLC and LC/MS spectrometer. Results: The labeling efficiencies of $[^{11}C]1$ were $86.0{\pm}5.5%$, $59.7{\pm}2.4%$, $29.9{\pm}1.8%$, and $7.6{\pm}0.5%$ in MEK, CHO, DEK and DMF, respectively. The LC/MS spectra of three products eluted at 14.4, 16.3 and 17.6 mins showed m/z peaks at 257.3 (M+1), 257.3 (M+1) and 271.3 (M+1), respectively, indicating their structures as 1, 2-(4'-aminophenyl)-6-methoxybenzothiazole (2) and by-product (3), respectively. Ratios of labeling efficiencies for the three products $([^{11}C]1:[^{11}C]2:[^{11}C]3)$ were $86.0{\pm}5.5%:5.0{\pm}3.4%:1.5{\pm}1.3%$ in MEK, $59.7{\pm}2.4%:4.7{\pm}3.2%:1.3{\pm}0.5%$ in CHO, $9.9{\pm}1.8%:2.0{\pm}0.7%:0.3{\pm}0.1%$ in DEK and $7.6{\pm}0.5%:0.0%:0.0%$ in DMF, respectively. Conclusion: The labeling efficiency of $[^{11}C]1$ was the highest when MEK was used as a reaction solvent. As results of mass spectrometry, 1 and 2 were conformed. 3 was presumed.

A Comparative Study of Subset Construction Methods in OSEM Algorithms using Simulated Projection Data of Compton Camera (모사된 컴프턴 카메라 투사데이터의 재구성을 위한 OSEM 알고리즘의 부분집합 구성법 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Mee;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Mi-No;Lee, Ju-Hahn;Kim, Joong-Hyun;Kim, Chan-Hyeong;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Soo-Jin
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.234-240
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: In this study we propose a block-iterative method for reconstructing Compton scattered data. This study shows that the well-known expectation maximization (EM) approach along with its accelerated version based on the ordered subsets principle can be applied to the problem of image reconstruction for Compton camera. This study also compares several methods of constructing subsets for optimal performance of our algorithms. Materials and Methods: Three reconstruction algorithms were implemented; simple backprojection (SBP), EM, and ordered subset EM (OSEM). For OSEM, the projection data were grouped into subsets in a predefined order. Three different schemes for choosing nonoverlapping subsets were considered; scatter angle-based subsets, detector position-based subsets, and both scatter angle- and detector position-based subsets. EM and OSEM with 16 subsets were performed with 64 and 4 iterations, respectively. The performance of each algorithm was evaluated in terms of computation time and normalized mean-squared error. Results: Both EM and OSEM clearly outperformed SBP in all aspects of accuracy. The OSEM with 16 subsets and 4 iterations, which is equivalent to the standard EM with 64 iterations, was approximately 14 times faster in computation time than the standard EM. In OSEM, all of the three schemes for choosing subsets yielded similar results in computation time as well as normalized mean-squared error. Conclusion: Our results show that the OSEM algorithm, which have proven useful in emission tomography, can also be applied to the problem of image reconstruction for Compton camera. With properly chosen subset construction methods and moderate numbers of subsets, our OSEM algorithm significantly improves the computational efficiency while keeping the original quality of the standard EM reconstruction. The OSEM algorithm with scatter angle- and detector position-based subsets is most available.

Imaging of Lung Metastasis Tumor Mouse Model using $[^{18}F]FDG$ Small Animal PET and CT ($[^{18}F]FDG$ 소동물 PET과 CT를 이용한 폐 전이 종양 마우스 모델의 영상화)

  • Kim, June-Youp;Woo, Sang-Keun;Lee, Tae-Sup;Kim, Kyeong-Min;Kang, Joo-Hyun;Woo, Kwang-Sun;Chung, Wee-Sup;Jung, Jae-Ho;Cheon, Gi-Jeong;Choi, Chang-Woon;Lim, Sang-Moo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to image metastaic lung melanoma model with optimal pre-conditions for animal handling by using $[^{18}F]FDG$ small animal PET and clinical CT. Materials and Methods: The pre-conditions for lung region tumor imaging were 16-22 h fasting and warming temperature at $30^{\circ}C$. Small animal PET image was obtained at 60 min postinjection of 7.4 MBq $[^{18}F]FDG$ and compared pattern of $[^{18}F]FDG$ uptake and glucose standard uptake value (SUVG) of lung region between Ketamine/Xylazine (Ke/Xy) and Isoflurane (Iso) anesthetized group in normal mice. Metastasis tumor mouse model to lung was established by intravenous injection of B16-F10 cells in C57BL/6 mice. In lung metastasis tumor model, $[^{18}F]FDG$ image was obtained and fused with anatomical clinical CT image. Results: Average blood glucose concentration in normal mice were $128.0{\pm}23.87$ and $86.0{\pm}21.65\;mg/dL$ in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. Ke/Xy group showed 1.5 fold higher blood glucose concentration than Iso group. Lung to Background ratio (L/B) in SUVG image was $8.6{\pm}0.48$ and $12.1{\pm}0.63$ in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. In tumor detection in lung region, $[^{18}F]FDG$ image of Iso group was better than that of Ke/Xy group, because of high L/B ratio. Metastatic tumor location in $[^{18}F]FDG$ small animal PET image was confirmed by fusion image using clinical CT. Conclusion: Tumor imaging in small animal lung region with $[^{18}F]FDG$ small animal PET should be considered pre-conditions which fasting, warming and an anesthesia during $[^{18}F]FDG$ uptake. Fused imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of metastatic tumor in lung region.

Effect of Cryoprotectants on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Chicken Breast Surimi Manufactured by pH Adjustment during Freezing Storage (냉동변성 방지제가 pH 조절법으로 제조한 닭가슴살 수리미의 냉동저장 중 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jin, Sang-Keun;Kim, Il-Suk;Kim, Su-Jung;Jeong, Ki-Jong;Lee, Jae-Ryong;Choi, Yeung-Joon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.267-276
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of cryoprotectants (sugar, sorbitol, polyphosphate) on the physico-chemical characteristics of chicken breast surimi manufactured by pH adjustment (pH 11.0) during freezing storage. The final surimi was divided into experimental units to which the following treatments were randomly assigned: C (Alaska pollack surimi: two washings, 4% sugar +5% sorbitol ${\pounds}'$ 0.3% polyphosphate additive): T1 (chicken breast surimi: pH 11.0 adjusted, 0.3% polyphosphate additive): T2 (chicken breast surimi pH 11.0 adjusted, 5% sorbitol +0.3% polyphosphate additive); T3 (chicken breast surimi: pH 11.0 adjusted, 4% sugar +5% sorbitol +0.3% polyphosphate additive). The crude protein content of the control was higher than all treated samples, however the moisture, crude fat and crude ash of T3 were higher than the control (p<0.05). The pH, WHC and collagen content of the control were higher than all of the treated samples, and these values decreased with storage time for all treatments and the control (p<0.05). The cholesterol content of the control was lower than all treated samples, but the myofibrillar protein contents of all treated samples were higher than the control (p<0.05). The cooking loss of T2 was lower than the control and the other two treatments (p<0.05). The $L^*,\;a^*\;and\;b^*$ values of all treated samples were higher than those of the control during freezing storage (p<0.05). The W value of T3 at 1.5 and 3 months of freezing storage was higher than the control and T1 (p<0.05). The myoglobin and met-Mb contents of the control were similar to all treated samples, and the met-Mb content of the control and all treated samples increased with storage time (p<0.05). Immediately after freezing, the hardness of the control was higher than all treated samples, however it was lower after 1.5 and 3 months of frozen storage (p<0.05). The cohesiveness and gumminess of the control were higher than all treated samples immediately after freezing, however the values for T3 were higher than those of the control and the other two treatments during frozen storage for 1.5 and 3 months (p<0.05).

A Comparison of Dietary Behaviors According to Gender and Obesity Status of Middle School Students in Jeonju (전주지역 중학생의 성별 및 비만판정에 따른 식행동 비교 연구)

  • Sung, Sun-Hwa;Yu, Ok-Kyeong;Son, Hee-Sook;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.995-1009
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary habits, behaviors, and food consumption frequency according to gender and obesity level among middle school students in the Jeonju area. Subjects for the questionnaire were 450 middle school students (male 255, female 195) and were classified as either obese students (n=150 or non-obese students (n=299) by the obesity assessment method. The results were analyzed with SAS program (Version 9.1), and were as follows. 1. Dietary behaviors were significantly different in the rate of 'Skipping breakfast (p<0.05)', 'Duration of meal time (min) (p<0.05)' and 'Unbalanced diet (p<0.01)' between males and females. Dietary habits and behaviors also differed significantly for the rate of ‘Taste preferences (p<0.05)’, and 'Unbalanced diet (p<0.01)' between obese students and non-obese students. 2. Food consumption frequency per week was as follows. First, males were significantly higher than females in 'Instant noodle (p<0.05)', 'Milk (p<0.01)', and 'Soda pop (p<0.01)'; on the other hand females were significantly higher than males in 'Chocolate, Candy (p<0.01)'. Second, non-obese students were significantly higher than obese students in 'Instant noodle (p<0.05)', 'Hamburger, Pizza (p<0.05)', and 'Chocolate, Candy (p<001)'. Especially, non-obese male students were higher in 'Instant noodle (p<0.05)' and 'Hamburger, Pizza (p<0.05)'; non-obese female students were higher in 'Chocolate, Candy (p<0.01)'. In conclusion, an action program is needed to encourage healthful dietary behaviors, increased physical activity, and forming good lifelong habits.

Study on Intestinal Viability and Optimum Feeding Method of Lactobacillus in Broiler Chickens (육계에 대한 유산균의 장내 생존성 및 적정 급여방법에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Kang, Geun-Ho;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Lee, Sang-Jin;Lee, Won-Jun;Kim, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.807-818
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to prove the optimum feeding method of Lactobacillus in broiler chickens by investigating the intestinal viability of ingested Lactobacillus and the effect of feeding levels and frequency of Lactobacillus on growth performance in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, A total of one hundred, 5 weeks old male broiler chickens(Abor Acre) were fed Lactobacillus reuteri avibro2 expressed green fluorescent protein(GFP) at 104cfu/g diet to investigate the retention time of ingested Lactobacillus in the intestine for 1 day. The percentage of Lactobacillus expressed GFP in intestinal contents was 26% at 1 day after fed Lactobacillus expressed GFP. The percentage of Lactobacillus expressed GFP in intestinal contents was decreased in length of time. In experiment 2, A total of four hundred eighty, 1-d-old male broiler chicks(Abor Acre) were randomly divided into 4 groups with 4 replicates of 30 birds each to prove the optimum feeding level of Lactobacillus. The treatments were control(free antibiotics), Lactobacillus reuteri avibro2 5.0×10cfu/mL, 5.0×103cfu/mL, and 5.0×105cfu/mL. The final body weight and body wight gain of Lactobacillus reuteri avibro2 5.0×103cfu/mL were the highest in all groups(P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was not significantly difference among the groups. The number of intestinal lactic acid bacteria in Lactobacillus treated groups tended to be improved or significantly increased as compared to that of control(P<0.05). Protein and fat digestibility in Lactobacillus 5.0×103cfu/mL and 5.0×105cfu/mL treated groups were significantly improved(P<0.05). No significant differences were observed on the availability of dry matter and crude ash in Lactobacillus treatments compared to those of control. In experiment 3, A total of six hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks(Abor Acre) were randomly divided into 4 groups with 4 replicates of 30 birds each and were fed Lactobacillus reuteri avibro2 at intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 5 day for five weeks. Feeding level of Lactobacillus was 5.0×103cfu/mL The final body weight and body wight gain of Lactobacillus reuteri avibro2 5.0×103cfu/mL were the highest in all groups(P<0.05). The final body weight and body weight gain were significantly increased, when Lactobacillus was fed at intervals of 1 days, or 2 days. There were no significant differences in feed intake and feed conversion ratio among the all groups. The number of intestinal lactic acid bacteria in Lactobacillus treated groups tended to be improved or significantly increased as compared to that of control(P<0.05). No significant differences were observed on the number of coliform bacteria and Salmonella of ileum and cecum. Consequently, supplemental Lactobacillus influenced positive effects on the growth performance, nutrient availability and intestinal microflora. The optimum feeding level of Lactobacillus was 5.0×103cfu/mL, and the constant feeding of Lactobacillus was effective.

Development of Porcine Pericardial Heterograft for Clinical Application (Microscopic Analysis of Various Fixation Methods) (돼지의 심낭, 판막을 이용한 이종이식 보철편의 개발(고정 방법에 따른 조직학적 분석))

  • Kim, Kwan-Chang;Choi, Chang-Hyu;Lee, Chang-Ha;Lee, Chul;Oh, Sam-Sae;Park, Seong-Sik;Kim, Woong-Han;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Kim, Yong-Jiin
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.295-304
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    • 2008
  • Background: Various experimental trials for the development of bioprosthetic devices are actively underway, secondary to the limited supply of autologous and homograft tissue to treat cardiac diseases. In this study, porcine bioprostheses that were treated with glutaraldehyde (GA), ethanol, or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for mechanical and physical imperfections before implantation, Material and Method: 1) Porcine pericardium, aortic valve, and pulmonary valve were examined using light microscopy and JEM-100CX II transmission electron microscopy, then compared with human pericardium and commercially produced heterografts. 2) Sections from six treated groups (GA-Ethanol, Ethanol-GA, SDS only, SDS-GA, Ethanol-SDS-GA and SDS-Ethanol-GA) were observed using the same methods. Result: 1) Porcine pericardium was composed of a serosal layer, fibrosa, and epicardial connective tissue. Treatment with GA, ethanol, or SDS had little influence on the collagen skeleton of porcine pericardium, except in the case of SDS pre-treatment. There was no alteration in the collagen skeleton of the porcine pericardium compared to commercially produced heterografts. 2) Porcine aortic valve was composed of lamina fibrosa, lamina spongiosa, and lamina ventricularis. Treatment with GA, ethanol, or SDS had little influence on these three layers and the collagen skeleton of porcine aortic valve, except in the case of SDS pre-treatment. There were no alterations in the three layers or the collagen. skeleton of porcine aortic valve compared to commercially produced heterografts. Conclusion: There was little physical and mechanical damage incurred in porcine bioprosthesis structures during various glutaraldehyde fixation processes combined with anti-calcification or decellularization treatments. However, SDS treatment preceding GA fixation changed the collagen fibers into a slightly condensed form, which degraded during transmission electron micrograph. The optimal methods and conditions for sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) treatment need to be modified.