• Title, Summary, Keyword: 불연속면의 방향성분

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Visual Interpretation about the Underground Information using Borehole Camera (휴대용 시추공 카메라를 이용한 지하정보의 가시화 기법)

  • Matsui Kikuo;Jeong Yun-Young
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.28-38
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    • 2005
  • According to the recent development of measurement system utilizing one or a set of boreholes, visualization of the explored underground became to be a major issue. It induced even the introduction of monitoring apparatuses on the borehole wall with multi-function tool, but the usage of these was often limited by where is unfavorable rock condition and a few of engineers can approach. And so, a portable type of borehole camera with only the essential function has been investigated and a few of commercial models about this is recently being applied into the field condition. This paper was based on the monitoring results obtained using a commercial model by Dr. Nakagawa. Discontinuities in rock mass were the topic for the visualization, and it was studied how can visualize their three dimensional distribution and what a numerical formulation is needed and how to understand the visualization result. The numerical formulation was based on the geometric correlation between the dip direction / dip of discontinuous plane and the trend / plunge of borehole, a set of the equation of a plane was induced. As field application of this into two places, it is found that the above visualization methodology will be especially an useful geotechlical tool for analyzing the local distribution of discontinuities.

The Prediction of Ground Condition ahead of the Tunnel Face using 3-Dimensional Numerical Analysis (3차원 수치해석을 이용한 터널막장 전방 지반 상태의 예측)

  • You Kwang-Ho;Song Han-Chan;Kim Ki-Sun;Lee Dae-Hyuck;Park Yeon-Jun
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.440-449
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    • 2004
  • Rock mass includes natural discontinuities such as joints and faults during its formation. Discontinuities are also referred as planes of weakness because of their weak mechanical characteristics. In the design of underground structures, it is necessary to consider the properties of discontinuities to insure the stability. During the excavation of a tunnel, these discontinuities have to be identified as early as possible so that proper change in excavation method or support design can be made accordingly. The excavation of the tunnel in a stable rock mass causes a 3-dimensional arching effect around the excavation face. It was revealed by previous studies that the existence of a weak zone or a fault zone ahead of tunnel foe induces a typical displacement tendency of convergence. For better understanding of the meaning of influence/trend lines of various displacement components, three-dimensional numerical analyses were conducted while varying deformation moduli, thicknesses and orientations of discontinuities. Numerical results showed that the changes in influence/trend lines of various displacement components were very similar to those by measurements. The discrepancies from the expected values were dependent on the physical properties, thicknesses and orientations of discontinuities.

A Study of Roughness Measurement of Rock Discontinuities Using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (콘포컬 레이저 현미경을 이용한 불연속면의 거칠기 측정 연구)

  • Byung Gon Chae;Jae Yong Song;Gyo Cheol Jeong
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.405-419
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    • 2002
  • Fracture roughness of rock specimens is observed by a new confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM; Olympus OLS1100). The wave length of laser is 488 nm, and the laser scanning is managed by a light polarization method using two galvano-meter scanner mirrors. The function of laser reflection auto-focusing enables us to measure line data fast and precisely. The system improves resolution in the light axis (namely z) direction because of the confocal optics. Using the CLSM, it is Possible to measure a specimen of the size up to $10{\;}{\times}{\;}10{\;}cm$ which is fixed on a specially designed stage. A sampling is managed in a spacing $2.5{\;}\mu\textrm{m}$ along x and y directions. The highest measurement resolution of z direction is $10{\;}\mu\textrm{m}$, which is more accurate than other methods. Core specimens of coarse and fine grained granite are provided. Fractures are artificially maneuvered by a Brazilian test method. Measurements are performed along three scan lines on each fracture surface. The measured data are represented as 2-D and 3-D digital images showing detailed features of roughness. Line profiles of the coarse granites represent more frequent change of undulation than those of the fine granite. Spectral analyses by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are performed to characterize the roughness data quantitatively and to identify influential frequency of roughness. The FFT results suggest that a specimen loaded by large and low frequency energy tends to have high values of undulation change and large wave length of fracture roughness.

Moho Discontinuity Studies Beneath the Broadband Stations Using Receiver Functions in South Korea (수신함수를 이용한 남한의 광대역 관측망 하부의 Moho 불연속면 연구)

  • Kim, So-Gu;Lee, Seong-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.139-155
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    • 2001
  • We investigate the vertical velocity models beneath the newly installed broadband seismic network of KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) by using receiver function inversion technique. The seismic phases are primarily P-to-S conversions and reverberations generated at the two highest impedance interfaces like the Moho (crust-mantle boundary) and the sediment-basement contact. We obtained the teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, which were derived from teleseismic records of Seoul (SEO), Inchon (INCN), Tejeon (TEJ) , Sosan (SOS/SES), Kangnung (KAN), Ulchin (ULC/ULJ), Taegu (TAG), Pusan (PUS), and Ullung-do (ULL) stations. For Kwangju (KWA/KWJ) and Chunchon (CHU) stations, the Moho conversion Ps arrivals and waveforms of radial receiver functions are azimuthally inconsistent and unclear. From the receiver function inversion result, we found that crustal thickness is 29 km at INCN, SEO, and SOS (SES) stations, 28 km at KAN station in the Kyonggi Massif, 32 km at TEJ station in Okchon Folded Belt, 34 km at TAG, 33 km at PUS station in the Kyongsang Basin, 32 km at KWJ station (readjusted station by prior KWA station) included in the Youngdong-Kwangju Depression Zone, 28 km at ULC station in the eastern margin of the Ryongnam Massif, and 17 km at ULL station in the Ullung Island of the East Sea, respectively. The Moho configuration of INCN, SOS, KWJ, and KAN stations show a laminated smooth transition zone with a 3-5 km thick. The upper crusts(${\sim}5km$) of KAN, ULC, and PUS stations show complex structures with a high velocity. The unusually thick crusts are found at the TAG and PUS stations in the Kyongsang Basin compared to the thin (29-32 km) crust of the western part (INCN, SEO, SOS, TEJ, and KWA stations) The crustal thickness beneath Ullung Island (ULL station) shows the suboceanic crust with about 17 km thickness and complex with a high velocity layer of the upper crust, and the amplitudes of Incoming Ps waves from the western direction are relatively large compared to those from othor directions.

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Program Development to Evaluate Permeability Tensor of Fractured Media Using Borehole Televiewer and BIPS Images and an Assessment of Feasibility of the Program on Field Sites (시추공 텔리뷰어 및 BIPS의 영상자료 해석을 통한 파쇄매질의 투수율텐서 계산 프로그램 개발 및 현장 적용성 평가)

  • 구민호;이동우;원경식
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.187-206
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    • 1999
  • A computer program to numerically predict the permeability tensor of fractured rocks is developed using information on discontinuities which Borehole Televiewer and Borehole Image Processing System (BIPS) provide. It uses orientation and thickness of a large number of discontinuities as input data, and calculates relative values of the 9 elements consisting of the permeability tensor by the formulation based on the EPM model, which regards a fractured rock as a homogeneous, anisotropic porous medium. In order to assess feasibility of the program on field sites, the numerically calculated tensor was obtained using BIPS logs and compared to the results of pumping test conducted in the boreholes of the study area. The degree of horizontal anisotropy and the direction of maximum horizontal permeability are 2.8 and $N77^{\circ}CE$, respectively, determined from the pumping test data, while 3.0 and $N63^{\circ}CE$ from the numerical analysis by the developed program. Disagreement between two analyses, especially for the principal direction of anisotropy, seems to be caused by problems in analyzing the pumping test data, in applicability of the EPM model and the cubic law, and in simplified relationship between the crack size and aperture. Aside from these problems, consideration of hydraulic parameters characterizing roughness of cracks and infilling materials seems to be required to improve feasibility of the proposed program. Three-dimensional assessment of its feasibility on field sites can be accomplished by conducting a series of cross-hole packer tests consisting of an injecting well and a monitoring well at close distance.

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