• Title, Summary, Keyword: 비정규직

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비정규직 문제와 노동계급 계급균열: 비정규직 문제를 둘러싼 정규직·비정규직 의식 비교

  • Jo, Don-Mun
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.169-200
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    • 2008
  • 노동계급은 다양한 형태의 내적 이질성을 지니고 있으며, 신자유주의 경제정책과 구조조정 과정에서 고용형태에 따른 이질성은 계급균열로 발달하며 노동계급 내적 이질성 논의의 핵심을 구성하게 되었다. 국내의 선행 연구들도 정규직과 비정규직 사이의 물질적 존재조건의 양극화 추세와 사회적 관계의 위계적 배제적 성격을 확인해 주고 있다. 하지만 정규직과 비정규직 사이의 계급균열이 극복되고 노동계급의 내적 통합과 계급형성 과정을 이룰 수 있는지에 대한 논의로 발전하지는 못했다. 본 연구는 계급균열의 극복과 노동계급 통합의 가능성을 검토하기 위해 계급균열의 핵심인 비정규직 노동자 문제를 둘러싼 정규직 비정규직의 의식 수준의 비교연구를 실시한다. 본 연구는 민주노총 공공운수연맹 노동조합원들에 대한 설문조사와 심층면접 연구를 통해 계급균열의 존재를 확인하고 그 원인과 의미를 분석하였다. 첫째, 정규직과 비정규직 노동자들은 비정규직 문제에 대한 인식을 공유하고 있지만 구체적 해결책에 대해서는 입장 차이를 보임으로써 고용형태에 따른 계급균열은 존재하며, 경제위기 이후에도 해소되지 않고 고착화되고 있음을 확인시켜 주었다. 둘째, 고용형태에 따른 계급내적 균열이 비정규직 문제 인식과 추상적 원칙 수준에서는 유의미한 의식 차이를 보이지 않지만 비정규직 문제 해결을 위한 구체적 해결책에 대해 유의미한 입장 차이를 보이는 것은 정규직과 비정규직 사이의 물질적 이해관계의 차이 때문이다. 정규직 노동자들은 비정규직 노동자들의 고용안정성과 노동조건의 개선을 허용하더라도 자신들의 이해관계가 위협받지 않는 수준에서 이루어져야 한다고 보는 것이다. 셋째, 정규직 노동자들이 추상적 원칙 수준에서는 비정규직 노동자들과 동질성을 보이지만 구체적 대안에서 차별성을 보이는 것은 정규직 노동자들의 의식의 양면성을 표현하는 것이며, 물질적 이해관계에 기초한 개인적 수준의 합리성과 계급적 원칙에 기초한 계급적 수준의 합리성이 갈등하고 있는 것이다. 넷째, 정규직 노동자들의 주관성 속에서 개인적 합리성과 계급적 합리성이 갈등하는 정도는 노동조합 가입 여부 및 소속 노동조합의 정체성, 즉 이익집단 정체성 혹은 계급조직 정체성에 의해 결정된다. 여기에 계급조직 정체성을 지닌 민주노조들이 노동계급 계급균열을 극복하고 계급형성을 이루는데 기여할 수 있다는 실천적 함의가 있다.

Comparative analysis of status of safety accidents and importance-performance analysis (IPA) about precautions of safety accidents by employment type of industry foodservices in Jeonbuk area (전북지역 산업체급식소 조리종사자의 고용형태에 따른 안전사고 실태 및 안전사고 예방관리에 대한 중요도와 수행도 분석)

  • So, Hee;Rho, Jeong Ok
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.402-414
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the status of safety accidents and importance-performance analysis (IPA) between regular and non-regular employees in industry foodservices. Methods: The participants were regular employees (n = 119) and non-regular employees (n = 163) in industry foodservices in the Jeonbuk area. Demographic characteristics, status of safety accidents, safety education, and importance and performance status were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Approximately 66.4% of regular employees and 53.4% of non-regular employees experienced safety accidents (p < 0.05). Types of safety accidents of regular and non-regular employees were mostly burns, and causes were mostly from their own negligence. Approximately 98.3% of regular employees and 95.1% of non-regular employees experienced safety education. Approximately 88.9% of regular employees and 96.8% of non-regular employees received safety education from dietitians. Approximately 41.9% of regular employees and 50.0% of non-regular employees had difficulty applying the contents of safety education due to lack of time during work. As a result of IPA, regular and non-regular employees were aware of the importance of the following and performed them well: 'Clean the floor of the work place', 'Arrange in the work area', 'Wear safety shoes', 'Check for heater cord', and 'Safety cooking when using oil'. On the other hand, they were not aware of the importance of the following and performed them insufficiently: 'Check for the MSDS', 'Aware of chemical signs', 'Wear protection gloves etc.', 'Do stretching exercise', and 'Using ancillary tools'. Conclusion: Therefore, it is necessary to improve the consciousness of dietitians for effective application of safety education contents, development of contents, especially MSDS, and related things.

The work performance and the factor contributing to the work performance of nutrition teacher & school dieticians (영양교사 (정규직)와 학교영양사 (비정규직)의 직무수행도 및 직무수행에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Han, Jang-Il
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.558-570
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate the work performances and the factors contributing to the work performance of nutrition teachers and school dieticians according to employment status in Daejeon and Chungcheongnamdo. Methods: A survey was conducted among 415 school dieticians from selected elementary, middle, and high schools in the area. This survey was used for analysis of the general characteristics and the status of working and foodservice environments. The frequency of occurrence was measured using the ${\chi}^2$-test while analysis of differences in work performance of 57 variables grouped according to 12 categories by mean ${\pm}$ SD was performed using student t-test. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of occupational (working and foodservice) environment on work performances. Results: All 14 environmental factors including general characteristics were different between nutrition teachers and school dieticians. In 12 of 57 variables there were significant differences in work performance between the two groups. When compared using average work performance, 5 domains showed significant difference in work performance between the two groups. These 5 domains were other works (T = 6.050), dietary habit guide (T = 4.789), menu (nutrition) management (T = 3.524), foodservice administration and evaluation (T = 2.757), and production and service management (T = 2.588). Overall, the work performances of nutrition teachers were comparably higher than those of school dietitians. A correlation analysis between occupational (working or foodservice) environments and work performances of the two groups showed that the work performances of nutrition teachers were influenced by the number of employees, number of students, meal frequency a day, annual salary, age, foodservice years of school, and school type. Conclusion: Meanwhile, the work performances of school dieticians were influenced by the number of students, number of employees, meal frequency a day, work hour, education level, age, school type, and service years as a dietitian.

A Study on Job Factors of Non-Regular Radiotechnologists (비정규직 방사선사의 직무적 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, joo-ho;Lim, cheong-hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.155-156
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    • 2015
  • 본 연구는 의료기관에서 근무하는 방사선사를 고용형태를 중심으로 구분하여, 정규직과 비정규직 간의 인식차이, 이직의도, 직무스트레스, 심리적 상태의 관계를 알아보고자 실시하였다. 연구 대상은 수도권역과 지방권역으로 9개 의료기관에서 종사하는 방사선사 308명으로 하였다. 2012년 7월 18일에서 9월 15일까지 수집된 설문지를 통계적으로 분석하여 다음과 같은 연구 결과를 얻었다. 정규직과 비정규직 방사선사의 인식차이에서 정규직은 성별, 월 급여, 지역권에서 유의한 차이가 있었다. 이직의도는 정규직에서 학력, 월 급여, 지역권에서 그리고 비정규직은 성별에서만 유의한 차이가 있었다. 직무스트레스는 정규직에서 학력, 월 급여, 지역권에서와 비정규직은 성별, 나이, 결혼, 총 직장 근무연수에서 유의한 차이가 있었다. 심리적 상태에서 정규직은 성별에서와 비정규직은 성별, 결혼에서 유의한 차이가 있었다. 정규직, 비정규직 간의 직무적 요인에 대한 상관관계에서 인식차이는 이직의도와 심리적 상태에서, 이직의도는 인식차이와 직무스트레스 및 심리적 상태에서, 직무스트레스는 이직의도와 심리적 상태에서, 심리적 상태는 인식차이, 이직의도 및 직무스트레스에서 유의하였다. 고용형태에 따른 요인별 직무스트레스에서는 직무요구 요인, 직무자율성 요인, 관계갈등 요인, 직무불안정 요인에서 유의한 차이가 있었다.

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A Study on the Relationship of the Deregulation to Non-standard Workers and the Job Satisfaction in Japan (일본의 비정규직에 대한 규제완화와 직업생활 만족도에 관한 연구)

  • Hur, Donghan
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.667-692
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    • 2009
  • The deregulation on non-standard workers is inclined to make companies increase the employment of the non-standard workers because of cost-saving effect. As non-standard work rises, so involuntary choice of it does. This trend has resulted in the decline of the non-standard workers' job satisfaction. The internalization of firm-specific skills is strong in Japanese companies. Therefore, even though cost-saving effect is high, the companies cannot assign all the jobs to non-standard workers. Hence, the companies are likely to divide the jobs into standard worker's and non-standard workers' ones. The standard workers' jobs, which focus on high firm-specific skills, has reduced, while the non-standard workers' jobs, which can be outsourced from outside the companies, has increased. As a result, the productivity of standard workers has improved, and their wage levels have increased. Since the deregulation on non-standard workers, their job satisfaction has deteriorated. On the contrary, the job satisfaction of standard workers has increased.

Trade Union and Employment: The Korean Experience (노동조합의 고용효과 분석)

  • Kim, Inkyung
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.95-136
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    • 2013
  • Using Workplace Panel Survey of 2005, 2007 and 2009 waves, this study estimates the effects of trade unions on employment and the proportion of irregular workers, short-term and part-time workers, and agent temporary and outsourced workers. While the estimation result shows that the percentage of hired workers increases under union presence, these results seem to be contaminated with bias because the differences between unionized firms before union establishment and non-unionized firms are not completely controlled even after adjusting for observed characteristics. Meanwhile, unionized firms and non-unionized firms with grievance procedures employ higher proportion of irregular workers. The proportion of short-term and part-time workers increases only when they are entitled to join trade unions. These imply that the rise in the percentage of irregular workers due to unions and grievance procedures is attributed to the increase in the percentage of agent temporary and outsourced workers. Also, when short-term and part-time workers are allowed to join the union, the firm replaces agent temporary and outsourced workers with short-term and part-time workers, so that the proportion of irregular workers do not change.

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사내하청 노동자 조직화에 있어서의 작업장 요인과 지역사회 요인: 광양만권 철강산업지역의 사례

  • Kim, Jik-Su
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.209-242
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구는 현대하이스코 순천공장과 포스코 광양제철소에서의 비정규직 조직화 비교를 통해 사내하청 노동조합의 조직화에 영향을 미치는 작업장 요인과 지역사회 요인들을 살펴보고자 하였다. 기존의 비정규직 노동자 조직화를 비롯한 노동운동, 노동조합 관련 연구들은 대부분 '생산의 정치'의 영역에서 비롯된 '작업장' 요인들에 초점을 맞추고 있다. 그러나 비정규직 노동자 조직화에 대한 보다 분석을 보다 발전시키기 위해서는 작업장뿐만 아니라 '스케일의 정치'가 작동하는 공간인 '지역사회' 또한 분석의 단위로 통합되어야 한다. 따라서 본 연구는 작업장에서의 정규직 및 비정규직 노동자들에 대한 관리통제와 실천뿐만 아니라, 지역사회의 다양한 요인들이 비정규직 노동자들의 조직화 시도에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지를 검토하고자 한다. 두 사례에서 사내하청 노동자들은 철강산업이라는 산업부문과 사내하청 고용형태에 속한다는 공통점 외에도 낮은 수준의 임금과 노동조건하에서 강한 불만을 지니고 있었으며, 원청 및 사내하청 업체의 강한 통제하에 놓여 있었다는 공통점을 지닌다. 그럼에도 포스코의 경우와 달리 현대하이스코 비정규직 노동자들은 격렬한 대중투쟁과 지역사회의 지원 속에서 성공적인 조직화를 이룰 수 있었다. 사내하청 노동조합 결성 과정 또한 상이하였다. 현대하이스코의 경우 누적된 사내하청노동자들의 불만이 계약해지를 계기로 일순간 터져 나오면서 작업장 점거농성을 비롯한 대중투쟁과 결합하였다. 나아가 현대하이스코 비정규직지회는 지역사회운동과의 연대를 통해 작업장의 문제를 전체 비정규직 노동문제로 확대해 나갔다. 반면, 포스코의 경우 초기 조직화의 범위가 제한적이었고 대중투쟁 또한 강하게 나타나지 않았으며 지역사회의 관심과 지원 또한 약하게 나타났다. 이상과 같이 두 사례를 비교 검토함으로써 비정규직의 조직화에 있어 비정규직 자체 동원기제와 정규직의 지원은 여전히 중요하게 작용하지만, 이것이 확보되지 않을 경우 지역사회를 비롯한 외부의 지원이 일정하게 작용함을 살펴볼 수 있었다. 그러나 이 역시 지역사회구조 및 지역사회운동의 성격에 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났다.

Persistence of Employment Types (취업형태의 지속성에 관한 연구)

  • Ryoo, Keecheol
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.207-230
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    • 2001
  • This paper uses the Korean Labor Panel data to investigate changes in the employment types of male workers following their job changes with the classification of workers into three categories: regular wage workers, non-regular wage workers, and self-employed workers. It also estimates a competing-risks hazard model to analyze the determinants of employment types of workers. The results show that the type of employment of a worker at an immediate previous job has a critical importance in determining his employment type at a new job and that the types of employment at jobs other than the immediate previous job also play some role in determining the type of employment at a new job, although their impact declines as the number of intervening jobs increases. A job loser, who worked as a non-regular worker at his immediate previous job, for example, is considerably less likely to find a regular job, but more likely to get reemployed at another non-regular job than one who worked as a regular worker at his immediate previous job. Similarly, a worker who quit self-employment is much less likely to find a regular job but more likely to restart his own business than one who worked as a regular worker at his immediate previous job. These findings suggest that it is not easy at all for a worker who worked as either a non-regular worker or self-employed worker to become a regular worker, although it might be premature to assert that non-regular jobs or self-employed jobs are dead-end jobs. Another interesting finding of this analysis is that a high unemployment rate lowers a probability of reemployment at either regular jobs or self-employed jobs, but raises a non-regular job reemployment probability, which strongly implies that as labor market conditions become adverse to workers the proportion of non-regular employment can rise rapidly.

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A View on In-house Subcontract Workers in Hyundai Motor Company (현대자동차 비정규직 문제를 바라보는 시각과 해결을 위한 제언)

  • Park, Tae-ju
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.105-137
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes to examine the relationship between the two trade unions of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) - those of the regular workers and of the in-house subcontract workers - around the issue of converting irregular workers to regular ones, which has been a social issue for a long time, and, furthermore, to find a desirable solution. The politics of the in-house subcontracting rotate around three axes: the conflictive collusion between the company and the regular workers'union regarding the internal labor market; the exclusion and resistance between the company and the subcontract workers'union; and the solidaristic conflict relationship between the two unions. After the final decree by the supreme court in 2012 the conflict and collusion/solidarity relationship of the three social actors have been amplified in scale - the continuous limping of the special bargaining between the company and the unions, the intensified conflict between the company and the subcontract workers'union, and the crisis of the collusion between the branches of the two unions are all evidence of this. A clue to the solution to the issues of in-house subcontracting in HMC can be found through reestablishment of the relationship among the three actors. In order to solve the in-house subcontracting issues in HMC, phased and lawful switching from irregular to regular positions, improvement of working conditions for the irregular workers, integration of the two unions (realization of 'one company one union'), and negotiated flexibility in the internal labor market will be required. Also to be considered are installation of a special committee for the issue, and utilization of external consultants. The result would be the possibility for the corporate labor market of HMC to be composed of regular workers, legal contract workers and directly-employed contract workers, which could be realized through bilateral relations of 'the labor and management conflict partnership'.

The effect of Korean Employment Protection Legislation on Eliminating Discrimination on Non-Regular workers (비정규직 보호법의 차별 시정 효과)

  • Ko, Hyejin
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.125-161
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    • 2018
  • This article aims to investigate the impact of Korean employment protection legislation that has implemented since 2007 on eliminating discrimination on non-regular worker's wage and social security. It is used the panel Tobit model reflecting the variation of implementation time according to the size of establishments. Although the employment protection laws for non-regular workers have implemented, the wage gap and discrimination in social security for non-regular workers have continued. Of course, the discrepancies on wage and social security were founded not only between regular and non-regular workers but also within non-regular workers. For reducing the discriminations, this study proposes to restrict the reason for justifying discrimination, and the introduction of a new approach to accessing the discrimination and complimentary credit system. Besides, this study suggests to actively review the strengthening of regulations on the use of non-regular workers.